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SCHOOUIAflTERS' FRIENDi &C^ '-••' ••'•* ''* *• •* 

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■ * . • * * » 

No. 112 BROADWAY. 





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Nbw Yobk, SAxnHDAT, f^BKir«BT 7, 18*6. 

Bringing thtir IdoU to Prole$tai%t Miiiioruiriet, 

This scene is described with much force 
/ by some of the speclarora ; and cxtrncis 
) tnm similar accouDlB will be found below. 
> To an JDtelligpnt mind, and especially to 
< > sensitive Chrisiian heart, the spectacle) so 
1 well represeoled by a skillful artist, is re- 
I plele with interest ng and affecting con- 
( ndera ons. How can a human being, a 
j member of tbkt race which was created "in 
j the image of God," a brother of our own 
[ bmily, have been sunk so low in Imowl- 
I ledge, jadgment and taste, so like to ■' the 

brutes which perish," to "the hone and the J 
muk, which have no understanding," >o fiir 
below "the OS wh ch hnoweth hJsownerj" 
aa to adopt a block of wood as an object of ' 
adoration instead of our common Father ( 
and Creator, bene&clor and proprietor, the < 
Lord God Almighty, the source and centre ', 
of all love and perfection 1 

Yet the melancholy fact is before us ; 
and here is presented to our view sad evi- 
dence of the truth, that, although in all j 
ages "the heavens declare the glory of i 






God,*' and all are without eiouse who say 
there is no God, *'yet the human race have 
generally chosen "not to re ain God in 
their knowledge," and have been *' given 
over to a reprobate mind, chong'ng the truth 
of God into a lie, and worshipping and 
serving the creature more than the Creator." 

We have before spoken at some length 
of the obligations under which the Protes- 
tant missionaries of modern days have laid 
us all, by the accurate and well-timed in- 
formation they have collected and furnished 
us with, in different departments of knowl. 
edge. We owe them still more, however, 
for the important moral lessons they have 
taught us, by displaying to our view the 
effects of heathenism, and the triumphs of 
Gospel truth faithfully preached and ex- 
hibited in practice. Their labors and sac- 
rifices have in this way produced great 
good upon many of those whom they nave 
left behind, scarcely less perhaps than those 
conferred on the objects of tlieir benevol- 

The contrast between the nooral state of 
the Sandwich, Friendly and other Islands in 
the Pacific, and the sublime or beautiful 
scenery, the benignant climate und the lux- 
uriant vegetation, was of a melancholy 
,nature. Many superficial persons have 
imagined idolatry to be harmless, and not 
a few writers haye praised some of its fea- 
tures, as humane and refining. The nearer 
and more accurate views, which our mis- 
sionaries have enabled us to take of it, 
in its various forms, have discountenanced 
such groundless representations, and given 
UB reason to contemplate false religions 
with horror, and their unhappy victims with 
the deepest compassion. 

Idolatry is a religion of forms, and there- 
fore, from its very nature, embraces the 
spirit of persecution. History teaches us 
that it has ever been so, and the cause is 
easily explained : for it demands conjor- 
miti/t ana that can be secured by com- 
pulsion. Nebuchadnezzar endeavored to 
convert the prophet Daniel by means of a 
fiery furnace and a den of lions, and all 
sorts of punishments and tortures have been 
resorted to by other zealots. A religion of 
the mind and heart, on the contrary, aims 
at unity of opinion and feeling ; and this 
can be gained only by convincing the judg- 
ment and influencing the afifections. This 
no force can accomplish ; and no man who 
acta on the principles of Christianity will 
ever resort to compulsion in his efforts to 
propagate it. The Sandwich Islanders, 
having gradually lost much confidence in 

their idols, from an intercourse with for- 
eigners of about forty years' duration, al- 
though in other respects tney generally 
derived much evil and little good from their 
visitors, overthrew the system of superstition 
before the first missionaries landed on their 
shores. This was not accomplished, how* 
ever, without a violent struggle ; and the 
heathen party continued for several years 
to resist the propagation of Christianity. 
By degrees, however, rulers, people, and 
even priests, yielded to truth and conscience, 
and a reformation took place which may 
well be regarded with wonder, gratitude 
and encouragement. 

Idolatry is also cruel. Its priests require 
sacrifices of various kinds, under the pre- 
tence of propitiating their divinities, but 
really for the purpose of gaining power or 
honor for themselves. In some of the 
Islands, oppression, cruelty and murder, 
especially infanticide, prevailed in a shock- 
ing degree. A priest, at some of their 
ceremonies, had only to point at any person 
present, to have him despatched in an in- 
stant, his heart torn out and laid at his feet. 

The Areoi Society was a strange and 
detestable association, formed on the nK)st 
immoral principles, and for the perpetration 
of the greatest crimes. It had existed from 
time immemorial, embraced a large portion 
of the people, and exerted a most baneful 
influence. It seems indeed wonderful that 
any remains of decency could have sub- 
sisted in a nation where so degrading and 
subversive an institution had a footing. In 
some of its principal features the Areoi 
may be compared with customs known 
among many of the tribes of Western 
Africa, and in some other parts of the world, 
as well as with the Bacchanals of the Ro- 
mans. Strange as it may seem, however, 
even that proflifi^ate institution soon began 
to succumb beiore the influence of the 
Gospel, and was finally annihilated. 

The following is a description of one of 
the numerous tmd interesting scenes which 
occurred during the early days of Christi- 
anity in the Islands. 

" In one of the visits which Mr. Nott 
made to the residence of Taaroarii, for the 
purpose of preaching to his p)€Ople, he was 
followed by Patii, the priest of the temple 
of Papetoai, the district in which the mis- 
sionaries resided. This individual appear- 
ed to listen most aUentively to what was 
said ; and, afler the conclusi<m of the ser- 
vice, he and Mr. Nott proceeded together 
along the beach towards the settlement 
As they waiked, Patii disclosed the feel- 




iiig8 of his mind to Mr. Nott, and assured him -^ 
that aa the morrow, at a certain hour, he 
would hring up the idols under his care, and 
publicif burn them. 

This declaration was astounding, it was 
too decisire and important in its nature, and 
promised results almost too momentous, to be 
true- Mr. Nott, replied: ** I fear you are 
jesting with me, and stating what you thfnk 
we wish, rather than what you intend. I can 
scarcely allow myself to believe what you 

" Don't be unbelieving," replied Palii ; 
<' watt till to-morrow and you shall see." 

The religion o Jesus Christ was the topic 
of conversation until they reached the settle- 
ment The arrival of the evening of the fol- 
lowing day was awaited with an unusual agi* 
uiioQ and excitement of feeli ig. The pub- 
lic adherents of Christianity were few (less 
than fifty ) and surrounded by jealous and 
cruel idolaters, who already began to wonder 
whereonto this thing might grow. Patii, how- 
ever, wasfaithfnl to his word. He, with his 
firiends, had collected a quantity of fuel near 
the sea-beach ; and, in the afternoon, the 
wood was split, and piled on a point of land 
in the western part of Papetoai, near the 
large national marae, or temple, in which he 
had officiated. The report of his intention 
had spread among he people of the district, 
and multiiudes assembled to witness this 
daring act of impiety, or the sudden venge- 
aaee which they thought would fall upon the 
sacrilegious criminal. The missionaries and 
their friends also attended. 

**A short time before sunset, Patii appear- 
ed« and ordered his attendants to apply fire 
Co the pile. This being done, he hastened to 
the sacred depository of his gods, brought 
them out, not as he had been on some occa- 
sions accustomed to do, that they might re- 
ceive the blind homage of the waiting popu- 
lace, but to convince the deluded multitude 
of the impotency and the variety oS the ob- 
jects of their adoration aud their dread. When 
he approached the burning pile he laid them 
down on the groimd. They were small, 
carved wooden images, and imitations of the 
human figure, or shapeless logs of wood, 
cov^ed with finely braided and curiously 
wrought cinet, of cocoa nut fibres, and orna- 
mented with red feathers. 

Patii tore off the saored cloth in which they 
were envelc^ed, to be safe from the gaze of 

vulgar eyes, stripped them of their ornament) 
which he cast into the fire ; and then, one b 
one, threw the idols themselves into th 
crackling flames, sometimes pronouncing tfa 
name and pedigree of the idol, and expressin 
his own regret at having worshipped it, i 
others, calling upon the spectators to wimef 
their inability even to help themselves. Thv 
were the idols which Patii who was 
powerful priest in Eimeo, had worshipper 
publicly destroyed. The flames became e: 
tinct, and the sun cast his last beams, as li 
sank behind the western wave, upon the & 
piriog embers of that fire, which had ahead 
mingled with the earth over which it ha 
been kindled, the ashes of some of the on( 
obeyed and dreaded gods of Eimea Patii wi 
not on this occasion prompted by a spirit * 
daring bravado, but by jhe conviction of trul 
deeply impressed upon his heart, and a d 
sire to undeceive his deluded countrymer 
probably considering that, as his conduct as 
mstruction had heretofore done much to e: 
tend and propagate the influence of idolatr 
so his thus publicly abandoning it, and exp* 
sing himself to all the consequences of the 
dreaded ire, would most effectual ly weakc 
their confidence in the gods and lead them 
desire instruction concerning that Being wh 
he was convinced, was the only living an 
true God, 


Prussia. — Berlin, — It is said that a susp 
cious Catholic association, called the ** Ordi 
of Roses," has been discovered in Beriin.- 
This confederacy seems to be organized as 
lodge of various' degrees and sections. It 
headed by a Popish priest .and it is suppo8< 
that the society was organized for the spret 
of Popery amongst the lower orders. The s 
fair was discovered by a Protestant servant gii 

Tho Weser Grazette stales ttiat, in the ev 
ning of the 26ih ult., an estafette arrived ; 
Posen, with accounts that an insurrecti< 
had taken place in the small townof Samtc 
during which an attack was made upon t1 
magazine, in which the arms of the Lsm 
wehr are deposited. It is also rumored th 
a mine had been discovered at Posen, whir 
had very nearly reached the powder magazin 

A Berlin letter of the 9th, after alluding 
the revelation to the King by a private soldi 
of some conspiracy, and stating that he hi 
been largely rewarded by his Majesty, adc 
that at Posen, amongst toe persons recent 
arrested are Count B., one of the most wei 
thy landholders of the province, and all li 
stewards and agents. 

It is stated that the provincial Statss 
Prussia will certainly be transformed into 
St^^fs Greneral. 

^»^W»— — WH* 





The copper region commences at Choco* 
late River, a little east of Copper Harbor, in 
Lake Superior, and extends along the south- 
em shores of that lake some three hundred 
and fifty miles to the British line, pursuing 
a north-westerly direction. The width is 
from one to twenty-five miles, according to 
the course of the ranj^es of trap rock, the uni- 
form concomitant of the ore. This region 
abounds in evidence of ancient volcanic ac- 
tion, particularly in the frequent appearance 
among the ore of native copper. The ore 
appears in veins on the surface of the earth, 
and in rocks on hill sides. These veins vary 
in width from six inches to sixteen feet — 
Some of them descend into the earth perpen- 
dicularly, others at various degrees of inclina- 
tion, and some of them, after performing a 
curvature under the earth, re-appear or '* crop 
out " again. 

The ores yield, on an average, about twen- 
ty-five per cent of pure copper — the purest in 
the world. The mines of^ Cornwall, in En- 
gland, yield only from eight to nine per cent; 
those of Bohemia about fifteen. The only 
mines in the world — except those of Cuba 
and Jamaica, of which we are ignorant — that 
rival in richness the mines of Lake Superior, 
are those of Russia. The latter also are the 
only ones worked with equal facility, 
being like the Superior mines, near the sur^ 
face, and yielding, from the very commence- 
ment of operation, ample supplies of metal. 
The mines of Cornwall and Hungary are 
worked to a depth of twenty-five hundred 
feet and were excavated at an expense of 
three hundred thousand to half a million of 
dollars, before anything was realized. No 
shaft on Lake Superior has as yet been sunk 
to a greater depth than one hundred feet It 
is remarkable that a copper vein never fails 
unless it crops out elsewhere. Interruptions, 
faults may occur, but continued digging will 
strike the ore again. 

The cost of getting ore to the surface is 
about four dollars per ton, one hand being able 
to get out about half a ton per dny. The 
cost of smelting or washing, so far, is about 
half that price — say altogether six dollars per 
ton. If the pre yield twenty-five per cent of 
metal, it is worth, at sixteen cents per pound, 
eighty dollars ; thus leaving a large margin 
for profit, after the expenses of working the 
mines are paid. 

Such operations have, of course, attracted 
operators, who have proceeded with equal 
celerity and silence to explore and appropri- 
ate the localities affording the best mdica- 
tions of metal. Our Government, so far, has 
adopted the policy of leasing, at first in tracts 
of nine miles square, now of one only. The 
leases continue for nine years, at a rent of 
six per cent of the ore for the first three 
years, and ten per cent for the residue of the 
period, the tenant giving security for the due 
payment ot the government share, and re- 
newing the bond every three years. 

Operations were commenced by two com- 
panies in 1 — 4. In -^- twelve more com- 
panies have began working. 

The amount of money required tc prose- 
cute these undertakings rendered it expedient 
to form associations for the purpose. To ob- 
tain acts of incorporation, however, would 
involve too much trouble and delay. The 
plaii has therefore been adopted oi vesting 
the title of property held by the several com- 
panies in separate sets of trustees, according 
to articles of agreement which specify their 
duties and prohibit the contracting of debts, 
so that a stockholder incurs no risk whatever 
of incurring liabilities that may affect his in- 
dividual property. 

The locations of these companies are ge- 
nerally in the neighborhood of Copper Harbor, 
on Eewena Point ; those selections have been 
made not only for the apparent superiority in 
the quantity of ore, but from the convenience 
to navigation, so that supplies of provisions 
and hands can be easily procured, and the ore 
or metal may be chiefly' transmitted to market 

The two companies which commenced in 
1844, are now ready wKh oxes for smelling 
or washing. The Lake Superior company 
1 100 tons on hand. The Pittsburgh and JBob- 
ton some one hundred tons, having been ex- 
tensively engaged in preparations. 

In addition to these Companies in actual 
operation, about thirty others have been 
formed, which will averaee about twenty -five 
hundred shares, at ten dollars a share. 

The total of all these stocks is about two 
millions and a half. It does not seem to be 
extravagant to estimate that all these asso- 
ciations when at work, will bring into market 
a sufficient quantity of copper to amount to 
three hundred thousand dollars per annum 
beyond, their expenses. Ten or twelve hun- 
dred tons would be enough to pay expenses 
and produce that sum, and thus make the 
stock good for twelve per cent on its esti- 
mate value. Our importations of copper are 
now made from abroad and largely exceed 
this quantity. 

There are, however, unquestionably, ex- 
pectations entertained by the several compa- 
nies of supplying much larger quantities than 
this. And, from the enierprize, skill and 
energy of our people, we think that will be 
the case. The universal use of the metal in 
civilized countries, and the great extension of 
the demand that would ensue from a slight 
reduction of price, give ample assurance of 
an adequate and profitable market. 

We understand that it requires but a small 
sum — some three or lour thousand dollars — 
to commence these operations in mining pro- 
fitably ; although, perhaps, much larger sums 
might be advantajp^eously employed. The 
companies already formed, however not being 
under the necessity of making great outlays, 
nor of waiting long for returns, will not be 
compelled to force large quantities of stock 
on the market, will be able to realize for 
themselves the fruit of that sagacity and ener- 


Kf that hare given them the lead in this uq- 

We almost forgot to state that the Lake 
Superior Company at Eagle river, the New- 
York and Lake Sapenor Company, at Dead 
River, and the Gotonagon, on the Elm river, 
have foood in their ores a large proportion of 
silver, a quantity so great as to yield on its 
separation from the copper an additional pro- 
fit greater than that of the copper itself. — 
Boston Post. 

For th$ American Pmmy Magazine, 

Andeni Ruins found there. The Antique 
Gardens. Cathedral of St. Front, prO' 
ha^ly the oldest one extant. Ruins of an 
immense Amphitheatre. 

Aboot 68 miles E. N. E. of Bordeaux 
stands the ancient and pleasant town of Peri- 
gneox. It has long been known as containing 
antiqaities dating back to a period long an« 
terior to its possession by its present inhabit- 

Some of the roost splendid specimens of 
scnlpture and architecture have there been 
discovered of which any age can boast. How 
or whence they came to be there, as they are, 
none can precisely tell. They appear to be 
of Roman origin, though the intermingling of 
the gothic would seem to indicate that they 
were the productions of an age at least later 
tlum that which saw Rome in its splendor. 

Probably the old town was built soon after 
the time of the invasion of Gaul by the Ro- 
mans, and not completed, until perhaps some 
centuries afterwards. 

In the year 1S15, one of the wealthy citi- 
zens of the place caused a portion of the 
best of the ruins to be uncovered, and over 
the spot to be laid out a large and beautiful 
garden, with every piece of exhumed sculp- 
ture and statuary arranged in precisely the 
same order as it was when dug up ; thus giv- 
ing the whole a very antique, and, withal, a 
very imposing appearance. There were the 
rich porphyry and marble vases, and baths 
and fotmtains, and there the delicately 
wrought pieces of sculpture, all looking likie 
so many costly ornaments in the garden of 
soineH>nentai monarch. 

This niagnificent garden, with all its an- 
tique furniture, he has generously bequeathed 
to the town. The corporation, peserving the 
same good taste, have laid the old ramparts 
into public promenades, so that the whole 
upper part of the place wears now the ap> 
pearance at once of an ancient Roman, and 
modem French town. 

Every step which the curious observer here 
takes, presents him with some new objects 
by which to recall the past. — The cathedral 
of St. Front, undoubtedly one of the oldest 
of the kind in France, if not in all Christen- 
dom, still looks down there in its antiquated 
grandeur upon the multitudes who throng it, 
^ Ibrcibly reminding one of s4me venerable pa- 

triarcb, yet gathering around him in his age 
his children of other generations- Full fif- 
teen centuries have already elapsed since its 
first foundation stone was laid. During the 
sixth century, owing to the assaults of time, 
and of' human barbarity, it had become so far 
dilapidated as to require to be refitted ; but 
since that period, it has retained nearly the 

same appearance which it now presents. 

Within it, the Roman, the Gaul, the Goth, 
the people of manjr tribes, have successively 
bowed and worshipped. At one time, the 
bigoted Inquisitionist, with mummeries, and 
compulsory services scarcely less degrading 
than the disgusting origies of Juggernaut, en- 
tered and held it in possession. At another, 
the more reasonable and sincere Catholic 
made it the sanctuary of his pious devotions ; 
and, during the later religious wars, we find 
it constituting one of the grand strong-holds 
of the Calvinists.— And still it stands, for the 
occupancy, perhaps, of many yet unborn. 

Everything within and around its old walls 
wears an air ol uniqueness. There is none 
of that showy elegance about it, which is 
seen in some of our modem churches; nor 
would we wish to see it thus— shall we call 
it — deformed ? For we love to view these an- 
dent structures just as they were centuries 
ago.. They have a majesty' and sacredness 
about them, for which no modem improve- 
ments can compensate. 

There also is the amphitheatre, stupendous, 
though in ruins. We might, indeed, as we 
pze there iipon that broad arena, almost be 
led to imagine, that we yet saw the sturdy 
gladiator meeting in deadly struggle the in- 
furiated beast of prey. We might think that 
we still were watching those thousands of 
spectators gazing in breathless solicitude, at 
he rises in almost superhuman might, and 
lays triumphantly his gory antagonist at his 
feet, and were listening to their glad acclaim 
as he is thence led amid his compeers crowned 
with his well won laurel wireath. But the 
illusion vanishes. All is mute. Before us is 
nought, save the now dilapidated tiers, and 
crumbling walls and columns. Yet even 
they are not destitute of awe-inspiring gran- 

The grand amphitheatre of Antoninus at 
Rheims, and that at Verona, two of the no- 
blest specimens of Roman architecture now 
extant, except the colosseum at Rome, great 
as they are, would hardly stand comparison 
with this stupendous structure at Pengueux. 
From appearance 20,000 spectators, at the 
least estimate, could well luive been accom- 

One would almost be led to suppose that it 
must have been intended as a nvaJ to that of 
the metropolis itself; and doubtless it was. — 
For the ruins here everywhere bespeak a 

f profusion of wealth in their construction no 
ess great than that expended on the same in 

Why it is that Perigueux^ (or Vesuma, as 
it was then called,) has thus passed tirom the 





lilt of cities, and become as one of the cities 
of liie old world, we leave the^ philosopher 
and antiquarian to decide. That it has gone, 
leaving scarcely other than its ornamental 
ruins to tell the history of its former magnifi- 
cence» is as unaccountable as it is true. 

Whoever now treads over these mouldering, 
fated remnants of antiquity, with anything of 
an observing eye, cannot assuredly fail to re- 
turn awe-struck, both with their grandeur and 
extent : and we wonder that it has not been 
more often visited by the curious of other 
lands. They can travel to Rome and Athens 
by the thousand ; but few are found as foreign 
throngers at the retired, though not unknown 
and imattractive town of Perigueuz. 



SdteUd /or the American Pennf MhgOMint, 




Estraci from a Sermon preached before the 
Legislature of Connecticut^ at the General 
Election^ May, 1791, by the late President 

'<Inour own coimtry, the present period, 
though not a period of the most absolute 
declension, will yet furnish a ruler sufficient 
allurements to a lukewarm temper and limit- 
ed administration. A bold and steady course 
of virtuous measures will usually produce 
opposition and obloauy, and,'in a degree, the 
loss of suffrage^ and the loss of reputation. 
Cabals will undermine, jealousy misconstruei 
rivalry misrepresent, and enmity blacken. 
Thus threatened, alarmed, and wearied, hu- 
man frailty will be too easily induced to seek 
the midway, inoffensive course of magis- 
tracy : a course, often leading to political 
safety, but oftener conducting away from 
duty and righteousness. 

"But however frequently timidity and 
indifference may mark the public or private 
conduct of those who act in public otnces, it 
is not because they are not furnished by 
Providence, with motives to strenuous virtue, 
sufficiently numerous, and sufficiently im- 

" In addition to those already suggested in 
this discourse, the remembrance of what has 
been done, to establish virtue and piety in 
this land, and of the blessings which they 
have produced, presents to the mind one of 
the most powerful and interesting. Superior 
to danger, triumphant over persecution, and 
glowing with piety, our generous ancestors, 
that they might leave to their children, this 
best of all legacies, braved every hazard, and 
overcame every difficulty. Heaven, as if to 
try, to refine, and to beautify their virtues, to 
band down to their descendants a glorious 
example of meek and matchless fortitude, 
and to give the world an illustrious pattern 
of Christianity, *' enduring to the end," led 
tbem to seek a refuge in a aistant and savage 

wilderness, summoned the tempest to meet 
them on the ocean, and spread want and 
disease before them on the land. Chasten- 
ed, but not forsaken, cast down, but not de- 
stroyed, thev submitted, yet they endured ; 
they suffered, yet they overcame. Religion 
was their constant, their angelic guest, a 
cheering inmate of every dwelling, a divine 
Paraclete of every heart. This heavenly 
stranger, since the aposlacy of man, and the 
closure of paradise, had travelled down the 
gloomy process of time, and wandered over 
this inhospitable globe, shut out from the 
greatest part of human society, and, in most 
regions, but the guest of a night. Even in 
Judea, her proper dwelling place, she was 
oflen alarmed by violence, and often thrust 
out by corruption and idolatry ; and when 
the Redeemer of men made that land his 
earthly residence, though, like him, she 
went about doins good, yet, like him also, 
she was shunned and persecuted, and ** had 
not where to lay her head." In the company 
of his apostles, indeed, with the wisdom, 
strength, and loveliness which she had de- 
rived from his precepts, miracles, and ex- 
ample, she gained a noble, but transient tri- 
umph, and saw, with ecstacy, her ** still 
small voice," vanquish for a season, the 
sophistry of philosophers, the power of em- 
perors, and the furious persecution of igno- 
rance and idolatry. But her transports were 
soon to terminate. In the midst of her 
friends, in the temple where her sacred mys- 
teries were celebrated, arose a new and most 
terrible enemy, and with a deadly wound 
pierced bee to the heart. 



From the Cultivator, — It has been said 
manure is the raw material of the far- 
mer, from which he manufactures his agri- 
cultural products. Much, but not too much 
-has been said in modern days, upon the 
modes of increasing the raw material. Per- 
mit me to call the attention of cultivators ; 
more particularly to its application. A good 
manufacturer is careful not only ii^ procu- 
ring stock, but more especially in working 
up this stock to good advantage. With loo 
many farmers it seems to be the aim to 
make and apply manure, not stopping to 
enquire how it -can best be applied. Green 
and rotted, composted and clear, it is too of- 
ten applied indiscriminately to all kinds of 
soil, when and where convenience and 
custom may direct There can be na 
question that long manure is best adapted 
to hoed crops, and well rotted compost for a 
top dressing. But the principle, to which I 
would invite particular attention, is that 
given by the Creator to Adam, and le^ble 









in all nature's works, yiz : that seed pro. 
daces seed after his kind ; in other words, 
that like produces like. Look upon the state- 
ly trees of the forest. How have they attained 
their great dimensions,? Who has been 
their cultivator, and what the mode of the 
cultivator? He who does all things well 
is their culturist, and their food the deoayed 
leaves and branches that are annually de- 
posited at their roots. Man has been slow 
in learning the simple principle from the 
Great Teacher. It is but recently that the 
vine dressers of France have discovered 
that the prunings form the best manure for 
the ground. It has long been observed that 
hog manure is exceedingly well adapted to 
a crop of com. Does not the fact that hogs 
are generally fatted on corn, furnish the 
reason for its adaptation 1 An experiment 
of a good farmer in this vicinity, bears di- 
rectly upon the principle. Cutting the top 
of com for fodder, he places the bottom 
stalks between the rows, and upon these 
stalks he turns back furrows ; without fur- 
ther manuring or ploughing, he plants his 
corn, and his crops are above the average of 
those in the neighborhood. A similar ex- 
periment with potatoes has proved that the 
tops well covered at the time of digging, 
will furnish sufficient manure to ensure an 
equally good crop the succeeding year.— 
Onions, it is well known, succeed best when 
sowed on the same ground year aAer year. 
Is not the rationale found in the &ct that 
the tops are alwa3rs on the ground ? Rye, 
has been known to grow on the same 

Sound for a course of years, without being 
m'mbhed, with no other manure than 
the stubble ploughed in. Chip manure is 
universally recommended for promoting the 
growth of young fruit trees. The where- 
lore is found in the same principle we lay 
down, that like produces like, feature has 
famished all seeds with nutriment in them- 
selves the best adapted for the future plant. 
Who can doubt but the pulp of the apple 
was designed as food for the seed as well as 
to gratify man's appetite 1 The blade of 
wheat and the sprout of the patatoe feed 
solely upon the parent stock. 

The principle we have thus briefly ilius- 
trated and endeavored to prove, has impor- 
tant practical inferences. If the principle 
is true, lo top dressing can be better adapt- 
ed to grass than the after marth lefl to de- 
cay on the ground. The manure from 
stock fed on hay should also be applied to 
grass lands, while that derived from grain 
should be applied to farinaceous crops. It 
is not necessary to carry these inferences 

further. They will suggest themselves to 
all readers of reflection. 

Extract of a letter fr§m Lee, Ms. 


A Queer Boot'Jack, — A late London Maga* 
zine, giving an account of the hunting adven- 
tures of the late Migor Rogers of the Ceylon 
Rifles—says that he killed, in the course of 
his life, by his own hand, twelve hundred 
elephants ! Of course he had met with many 
singular adventures and hair-breadth escapes. 
One of these adventures is thus related :— 

** He had just had capital sport with a 
herd of these animals — his four guns had all 
been discharged —when an unseen elephant 
made a charge at him from thesktrts of the 
Jungle. There was no help for it except to 
run, and for one hundred yards, Maj. Rogers 
kept .just ahead, feeling at every step the ani- 
mal's trunk trying to insinuate itself round 
his loins, A turn round a tree gave him a 
momentary advantage, which he made the 
most of by springing up into the branches 
(he was as nimble as a cat, and as strong as 
a lion.) One foot higher ! and he wonid 
have been out of the elephant's reach ; but 
before he had time to draw up his le^s, the 
elephant had got him properly clenched in 
the coils of his proboscis. Still, Rogers pull- 
ed against him, thinking it better for him to 
have his leg wrenched from the socket than 
fall back bodily in the animal's power. The 
struggle, however, did not last long, for, to 
the delight of the pursued and the chagrin of 
the pursuer, the Welli^ton boot that the 
former wore slipped ofi; extracted the leg, 
and saved the life of poor Rogers. (Save %ls 
from such a boot'jack.) The dilemma, how- 
ever, did not end here ; for the elephant, 
finding itself balked of its prey, after destroy- 
ing the boot took up his quarters beneath 
the branches, and kept his expected victim 
in the tree for twentyfour hours, when the 
tapped^ or country postman^ happening to pass 
by, Rogers gave him notice or bis position, 
and on this being narrated to the nearest vil- 
lage, the elephant was frightened by tom- 
toms and yellings. Had this occurred in a 
deserted part of the Jungle, poor Rogers 
would inevitably have been starved to death 
in the tree!" 

Arrival Extraordinary, — The brig Indus- 
try, 25 days from St. Croix, brought a tame 
Lion for the New York Zoological Institute. 
This ** little innocent" was re-shipped on 
board of the steamer for New York, ou Satur- 
day evening. During his passage, his Lion- 
ship becoming weary of confinement, made a 
rush, while receiving water, aad escaped 
from his cage into the hold, where he frolick- 
ed about, much to the discomfort of the crew, 
who were not at all inclined to dispute pos- 
session with him. After a sight of goat's 
flesh, he was lured back to his old quarters. 

New Haven Courier, 



The dog; ia not only tae companioD of 
'. ihe idle man, ihe hunter and aportsnian, the 
' playmnle of children, and the inseparable 
[ friend of old age, but he is often obedient 
I to the yoke, patient and contented under 
I heavy and daily toil. It ia true, there is a 
\ gnat difference in the qnaliiiea and dis- 
ritioDa of different rarieties of the species, 
\ though perhaps less than we might im- 
la, if we had made sufficient experi- 
Its to afford UB ground to form accurate 
I opinions. 

Id the northern and most inhospitable 
[ puts of our continent, Ihe large native dog 
I is the only member of the animal creation 
I which does not desert man, or turn hia 
I enemy. The white bear ia kindled lo fe- 
Dciiy by the rigors of the olimate, and the 
) wolf becomes far more savage and leiiible 
1 than in other parts of the world. But the 

> dog, although 80 near of kin to the latter, 
I steps forwird with characteristic benevo- 
, lence, and not only cheers him, as elsewhere, 
' with his unbougbt and halfhuman friend- 

> ship, but bows his neck to the yoke, and step- 
) inio Ihe harness which in Lapland 
, would be altatched t^ (he reindeer, e:icccds 
l him in docility, and aoinetimes almost rivals 
] him in speed, as he drags him on his sledge 
' over ragioQi no less cheerless and desolate. 

To whitemen, Ihe Esquimau and the 
Newfoundland dogs have often rendered 
important services, when venturing into our 
Boreal regions, on exploring or hunting ex* 
pediiioos, or, with ihe word of God in their 
hands, and its spirit glowing in their heart, 
ihey have braved the rigors of the north for 
the benefit of those families of our race, 
who dwell in the double cold and darkness 
of a long natural and moral winter. 

With loaded sledges Esquimaux some- 
times make but alow progress ; and so does 
the Canadian voyageur, or the English 
Norlh-weslem trader, as our print repre- 
sents. How desolate a scene must be pre- 
sented (0 the eye from day to day, as the 
forests rapidly degenerate into grovea, they 
into clusters of stunted fir trees, and ere long 
only a few shrubs give place to the last 
trgces of vegetation, which, in a thin coal- 
ing of moss, seem to have written on the 
rocks a melancholy warning to roan to 
proceed no farther ! 

Maonkho Tklboraph. — Ainos Ken- 
dall writes lo the Union that the Magnetic 
Telegraph is compelled lo stop (for the pre- 
sent] at Newark; the directors not having 
succeeded yet in making it cross the Hud- 
son river. 




A thovnnd little Kcnes like ilitB, ever 
nrrioff from Hiemtelvee u well as from 
then, present ihemselret to the trareller, io 
mott of the cooDtries oa the globe, and per* 
hapi at often in our own as in any oihet land. 
To a refined taste, a practiced tje, and a 
heart at peace with all mankind, especially 
to one aeeneiomed to tnm ior hit highest en- 
joyment to the contemplatioo o! God, and to 
read hit name and his glorioua attributes in 
Ae works at his hands, how inexpressibly 
elwfmiiig may aucb a scene appear ! 

To those of our readers who participate io 
feelioga like these, who appreciate the beau- 
lies of natural scenery, and imike it subsep 
Tient to its highest and proper use, we might 
mdinte Lakes George and Champlain ta ob- 
jccU worthy of being embraced in their fa- 
nretonra, or recommend Winnipiseogee Lake 
in New Hampshire, and indeed many other 
parts of our mouniainotie districts in the nor- 
theni, soQtbern, middle and western states, 
where placid lakes are embosomed among 
the hills : or rivers, checked by some rocky 
Barrier, stop in their course, and spread out 
BiranqBil mirror to refiecl the wilder beau tiei 
of the moaniaina. 

Many arlislt of the highest grade have J 
lavished their fineet tints on landscapes, and < 
almost incredible turns have been paid for ) 
their beautiful product it os : yet the si 
daily course presents ihousandsofscenetwhicb i 
they can never equal for the observer n 
eye is directed by a heart in unison with na- ) 
ture, and the system on which her n: 
are directed. 

We add a few linet from our favoriie \ 
French rural poem, " Les Saisons," by Saint , 
Lambert, and cell upon our readers for trans- 
lations 01 

vallons ! d cdieauz ! champs heureux and < 

fertiles ! < 

Quels charme* ces beaux jours vont rendre k ' 

O de quels roouvemens je me sens agit£, 
Quand je reviens k vous du sein de la ciii 
Je lena renaitre en mot le plaisir, j'etpiran . 
" ' " Qe henreuse exist- ( 

Que le monde frivole oil j'et 

is entratni. 

Etson luieand set arts ne 

m'avoient point 


Tout me ril, loot me pisft 

dans ce t^onr 

champdtre ; 

C'ett lit qu'(« est heureux sant troji penter k 



"Greece in 1814: . or a Greek^s Return to 
^ his NatlTe liand.** 


QnUimttd JrOm Vol, 1, pags 807. 

Chap. XIL 

Arriiral at Samos.— Vathy.— My father.— 
Old friends and familiar 8cene8.^-RecoUec- 
lions of the Turkiah inyasioo and the Greek 
naval victory. 

The vessel in which I crossed the strait 
was a small sloop, and had a strong south 
wind to encounter, which was quite too vio- 
lent for our convenience or advantage. This 
we found true, especially when we sailed 
round the northern end of the island, and 
turned towards the south, to coast along the 
eastern side. Several times we found the vio- 
lence of the wind so great, that we had to 
lower all sail, and wait awhile for it to mo- 

The coast is generally bold and mountam- 
ous, but to a considerable extent under culti- 
vation. When we had approached those 
parts of the island with which I had been 
acquainted in former years, I found great 
pleasure in observing the various spots which 
I once had known. Here and there was a 
farm house on the hills which I could recog- 
nize as the habitation of some family of 
my friends ; and now and then a small vil- 
lage would open to view near the water, 
and every thing at first seemed unchanged 
through the lapse of time. I, however, com- 
monly remarked some things which denoted 
change, as if the former inhabitants, or some 
of them had departed. In more than one in- 
stance, I observed pieces of ground neglected 
and overgrown, where I had been accustomed 
to see fields or vlnej-ards. This I could ac- 
count for, as I had seen in Athens a consider- 
able number of the former inhabitants of 
Samos, and well knew there were many 
more scattered about Greece. 

At length our little vessel entered the har- 
bor of Vathy, and my native town lay before 
me. Our captain, I had ascertained, was 
acquainted with my father; and, wishing to 
take him by surprise, I had requested the sai- 
lor not to mention my name. But he did not 
keep his promise ; for, soon after landing lie 
named me, either by accident or by de- 
sign ; and the secret was now out. It hap- 
pens that^ several poor boys of that place 

make it their principal business to find 
out all the arrivals, and to carry the news to 
such friends of new comers as thev have 
reason to think will give them some reward. 
One of these urchins learned my name from 
the captain, and set off with such prompti- 
tude and speed for my father, that, although 
he was on the mountains, attending to some- 
thing on the farm, it was not long ere he was 
on his return to the village. He met me in 
the street, and the meeting was most gratify- 
ing to me, though affecting on both sides. — 
Being prepared to see me in the first stranger 
he should meet, he recognized me through 
the changes of fourteen years, and saluted 
m&with much emotion. "Uie mou! Uie 
mou !*' (my son, my son !) were the only 
words he was able to utter for some time ; 
and I felt that that one moment was more than 
enough to repay me for all the labor and ex- 
pense that had brought me back to my fa- 

During my stay in- Samos, I took great 
pleasure in revisiting many spots connected 
with the interesting recollections of child- 
hood, and calling on families of old friends 
and acquaintances. I found a welcome at 
many a house in the town and in the country, 
and met with a considerable number of per- 
sons, and even families, whom I had former 
ly known. In all, perhaps I may say, I found 
some changes perceptible, and in most a 
striking alteration of some kind or other. At 
the same time I missed numbers who had 
withdrawn from Turkish domination for some 
part of free Greece, being ready to relinquish 
home itself, rather than remain under even 
the slight and almost unseen supremacy of a 
power mo&t detested by my countrymen.— 
Numbers of these, as I have before had oc- 
casion to remark, I had lately met with. 
chiefly at Athens : but it was pleasing to find 
so many as I still saw inhabiting their ancient 
abodes. A little observation proved to me 
that few of the changes going on among 
other Greeks had reached that secluded 
island. In many of the houses which I en- 
tered, I foimd the old customs and furniture 
the low Turkish table still used at meals, and 
the people sitting on the floor. 

I ranged among the fields, climbed the hills 
and mountains, and wandered along the shore. 
Every turn, every new scene, every object pre- 
sented something to awaken my memory and 
affect my heart. What changes had the 




ooDTse of time effected in my natire island^ 
my country and myself; and what calls did I 
K heai to be grateful to Grod ! 

I leached Yathy on Wednesday, and not 
only received snch a welcome as a son may 
expect from an affectionate father, but many 
ezinre^ons of joy from my old acquaintances, 
neigbbors and townsmen, who were still re- 
maining in their old residences, and engaged 
in ibeir former occupations. 

The town still wore its former aspect, with 
few differences discoverable by the eye. It 
always was a Greek town ; even while tmder 
Turkish despotism in my early acquaintance 
with it, cffily about fifteen Mahomedans 
being found among its inhabitants. They 
were too few to have tnuch influence on so- 
ciety, even had they had any connection with 
iu I found things still going on much in the 
former manner, with the advantage of pro- 
fcMind peace. Those engaged in trade now 
had their little vessels arrive and depart for 
different points of the neighboring coasts, 
without risk or interruption ; and the proprie- 
tors of land in the country were engaged in 
the labors appropriate to the season. I spent 
some time in friendly intercourse with my 
old acquaintance, and made an excursion to 
the hill country with my father, to visit his 
little estate, which he had come to the island 
to oversee. It had been a favorite retreat of 
my early years : for I had begun when quite 
young to partake in the cares and labors of the 
vineyard and olive grounds, as far as my age 
would allow, and took up my abode there, 
with some of the other members of the fami- 
ly, during the finest season of the year. 

In beholding again the scenes of my child- 
hood, I was reminded of my former various, 
and oAen pleasing occupations in the fields. 
Not only was labor necessary during the day, 
but watchfulness at night : for the rich crops 
were exposed to depredations, and required 
the presence of watchmen. It was the cus- 
tom, therefore, for all who had such lands in 
the country, to keep a few persons constantly 
oo the ground for several months in the year. 
That period I always enjoyed highly ; and it 
may be supposed that our manner of life 
there had attractions lor one of my age, when 
tbe reader is informed of the nature of the 
lofty, fertile region and the mildness of the 
climate. My father's farm lay at a consider- 
able elevation, and the road to it was long 
and laborious orer a wild and rou^ region. 

yet the spot itself had a rich sdl and a level 
sur&ce, being a small piece of table land, 
partly surroundedj by some of the highest 
peaks of the mountains. The weather was 
eommcmly warm and dry through the summer, 
but heary dews at night made amends for 
the scarcity of rain ; and the situation was 
as healthful as agreeable. Strange as it may 
seem to persons accustomed to other cUmates 
and circumstances, we always slept in the 
open air during our stay in that pleasant re- 
gion, and always preferred it to the shelter 
of a house. Being provided only with a few 
clothes proper to spread over us, we stretched 
ourselves upon the ground, and a shower now 
and then, at long intervals, was the only an- 
noyance we ever had >to apprehend. Plenty 
of fine fruit and pure air, among green fields 
and cool shades, with occupation enough to 
give us an appetite for food and sleep, free 
from severe labors, and with peace and har« 
mony, those seasons I have often looked back 
upon with emotions of peculiar pleasure. 

From some portion of thos^ periods, how- 
ever, I must make an exception. The latter 
part of the time I had spedt at' home, far 
from being blessed by the quiet of peace, had 
been disturbed, and dreadfully disturbed by 
the war with the Turks. From the time of 
the commencement of that desperate struggle, 
all parts of the Greek nation were distracted 
with apprehensions, hopes and fears. 

It would be difiBcult to give an idea of the 
dread with which the defenceless Greeks re- 
garded the Turks, or of the dismay and con- 
fusion produced by a threatened invasion. — 
Their blood-thirsty character was well known. 
There was not the smallest ground of hope, 
in case of their Jiavihg the power to destroy 
that they would be prevented from murder, 
robbery and barbarity of every kind and de- 
gree, by any feeling of compassion, any sense 
of shame, or any regard to either Grod or 

I was at home when the rumors came of 
the first attempt to invade Samos ; and the 
alarm at ooce became general. All seemed 
to have but one wish — to escape from the 
island. The vessels then in our port were 
tilled as fast as possible, and my father was 
among the foremost to provide for his family. 
He made all arrangements for our imme* 
diate embarkation, having engaged a passage 
for us to the island of Syra. 

(To be continued,) 




The Arabi of ihe dwert " is a lerm so 
', familiar to oar etii, thai we are apt to ima- 
' gine that they are the only race of men who 

make ibeir abode in ibe great oorthem Afri- 
I can deeert, as well ai that of Arabia. Our 
' print repreiCDU lome of these ; but there are 
I banda, and eren whole iribeB, of dilTerent ap* 
I petrance, manners and origin ; and we copy 
' the loUowing account! of tome of them from 
' the journil of the enierprizing Engliih tra- 
I vellers, Denham and Clapperton, who crMsed 
' the Sahara to Houriook, with a cataran, in 

Id the route, the travellers had on one side 

> the Tibbooa, on the other the Tuaricks, two 
I native iribea, probably ot great aoiiquiiy, and 
I hafing DO alliapce with the Arab race, now 
' K> widely spread over the continent. The 
'. TibbooB were on the left, and ii was through 
) their villages that the caravan passed. These 

> people live partly on the milk of [heir camels, 
' which -pick up a icaniy subsiBience □□ the 
I few verdant spots that rise amid the Desen, 
' partly by carrying on a small irade between 
', Mouraoak and Bomuu, in which ihey are so 
) busily employed that many do not spend at 
' home more than four months in the year. 
! They are black, ihough without the negro 
1 features; the men ugly, but the young fe- 
' males possessed of lome beauty, noi wholly 
! obscured by ibe embe]li«hmenlB of coral 
I stuck in the' nose, and of oil streaming over 
' the face. They are besides a gay, good-hu> 
I mored, ihonghiless race, with all the African 

C anion for the song and the dance; which 
ist they praclise gracefully, ant with move- 
, meote somewhat analogous to the Grecian. — 
I This cheerfulness appears wonderful consider- 
5 iog the dreadful calaraiiy with which they 
I are threatened every day. Once a year, or 
) oftener, an inroad is made by their fierce 
{ neighbors, the Tuaricks, wbo spare neither 
t age nor lex, and sweep away all that comei 

within their reach. The cowardly Tibboos 
dare not even look tbem in the face ; they 
can only mount to the top of certain steep 
rocks with flat summits and steep side*, near 
one of which every village is built. They 
carry up with them every'tbing that can be 
removed, and this rude defence avaiU against 
still ruder assailants. The savage Tusrickt, 
again, were observed by Clapperton and 
Oudney in a journey to the westward from 
Mourzouk, and were found in (heir private 
character to be frank, honest and hospitable. 
The females are neither immured nor op- 
pressed, as is usual among rude Mabomedan 
tribes, but meet wiih notice and reBftect; in- 
deed, the domestic habits of this nation hare 
much resemblance to the European. Thev 
are a completely wandering race of shepherda 
and robbers, holding in contempt all whojiva 
in houses and cultivate the ground; yet ibey 
are, nerhapa, the only native Africans who 
have letters and an alphabet, which they in- 
scribe, not on books and parchments indeed, 
but on Ihe dark rocks that checker the sur- 
face of their territoiy ; and in places where 
they have long resided every alone is seen 
covered with their writings. 

Btlroa, the capitalof the Tibboos, was found 
a mean town with walls of earth, but sur- 
rounded by numerous lakes ccmlaining th« 
purest salt, the most valuable of all articlea 
lor the commerce of Soudan'. The inhabi- 
lanis, however, though deeply mortified, 
durst not prevent the powerful Tuaricks from 
lading iheir caravans with it, and under-sell- 
ing them in Ibe markets. About a mile be- 
yond Bilma was a fine spring, spreading 
around, and forming a little circle of the rich- 
est verdure. This was the last vegetable 
life that the discovereia were to see during a 
long march of thirteen days. In these wilds, 
where the constant drift causes hills to rise 
or disappear in the course of a night, all 
traces of^ a road are soon obliterated, and the 
eye of the traveller is guided only by rocks 
which raise their head) amid the sterile waste. 



This Dkinc. with tba kcecBt placed on the 
! ilie lut If llabl*, in pronomieiDg it, dongnatM 
) one of tbe moat remarkable of the Dameion 
) tribea oT Arabi who reitleMly waqder over, 
( lathei ibmn inhabit, the Arabian desert and 
i Mwne portioDS of the Holy I«nd, and other 
) adjacent connlriee. The pooreai and the 
J pnadeatirf the hnmui (amilf isa term which 
might be applied to them with nlmost p«r- 
f feet jimice. 

We hare no where foimd a more fall de- 
> KTipiiMi of the history, appearEince and roan- 
• of the Bedaween, and other tribes of 
Araba, at least one which gave as a feeling 
; of greater familiaKtjr and interest in them, 
' than tbe scattered noiicea we find in reading 
, Frtrfessoi Bobinson's Biblical Researches. 

3r. Siepbeni gives us the following brief 
' sketch of the Bedaween and his eoontrf . 
"Among these barren and deflate m on n- 
laios, there was freqnentljr a small space ai 
, groood, near some fountain or depoiite of 
' wmter, known only to the Arabs, capable of 
I producing a scant; crop of grass to pasture a 
I few enmels and a small flock of sheep or 
I goata. There the Bedaweeu pitches his tent, 
': remains till the scanty product is con- 
_ied ; and then packs up hi* household 
{ goods, and seeks another pastore-ground. — 
\ The Bediweena are essentially a pastoral 

Die; their (»ily richas are their flocks and 
s, their home is in the wide deurt, aud 
\ they hare no local attachments ; to-day they 
r pitch their tent ammg the mountains, to- 
{ BtOTTOw in the plain ; and wherever they 
) plant themselTea for the timsfall that they 
1 are en emrth, wife, children and friends, are 

immediately around thera. In ftct. tbe life 
01 the Bedaween, his appearance and habits, 
are precieely the same as those of the patri- 
archs of old. Abraham himnelf, the first of 
the patriarchs, was a Bedaweeo, and four 
thousand years have not made the slightest 
alleraiion in the habits and chsraeler of this 
extraordinary people. Read of tbe patriarchs 
in the Bible, snd it is the best desciipiion 
you can have of pasloial life in the East at 
the present day. 

Tht Emptror o/Auftia.—The Emperor ar- 
rived at Rome on the 12ih, and departed for 
Florence on the t7ih ult. He wus to leaTe 
Florence for Venice on ilie 21si ult., and pro- 
ceed from thence to Vienna. A letter from 
Romeofthe 18ih ult., says that at his last 
audience with the Pope, the Pootiff said to 
the Emperor ; — " At this moment ibe eyes of 
the entire universe are fixed upon ui, and 
every Catholic is anxiously awaiting the re- 
sult of our interview." This result will short. 
Iv be mnde known. The Pope will make it 
the subject of an address lo tbe Sacred Col- 
lege in ibe approaching Consistory, which 
will take place in the month of January. 

Other tellers from Rome, of rhe same date, 
mention tbe conclusion of a son of cnneordal 
between the Pope and the Emperor of Russia. 
The latter, it appears, made numerous con- 
cessions. He protested thai it was without 
his knowledge or consent, tbe atrocities peiv 
netrated against his Catholic subjects had 
been committed, and that if, on his return, he 
ascertained that the accounts published by 
the journals were well founded, their authors 
should not remain unpuniihed. 

M. Rienii. cne of the leaders of the la»t 
revolt at Rimini, had beeu arrested at Flo- 






Honolulu, May 26th, 1845. 

Mkssrs. Editors: A brief account of 
the, for this part of the world, novel proceed- 
ings, which have characterized the opening 
of the Legislatve Chambers, may be not 
without interest to your widely 'extended 
readers, who feel any curiosity in the poli- 
tics of this diminutive kingdom. Probably 
most of them are aware that, hitherto, go- 
vernment business here has been most ir- 
regularly conducted ; the discussions being 
more after the fashion of Indian Councils, 
than anything else— over which missionary, 
merchant, or man-of-war captain, having 
her alternate influence. The consequence 
has been as migl)t be expected — a loose, 
disjointed, unequal legislation, adapted nei- 
ther to natives nor foreigners. The Legisla- 
ture now called together, cotisists of the 
best men of the nation, divided into two 
houses — that of the nobles, embracing the 
hereditary and newly-created aristocracy of 
the Kingdom — and the representatives, elect* 
ed by the people of the several Islands. As- 
foisted by foreign professional talent in their 
service, it is proposed, at this session, to en- 
tirely re-organize the government, create 
: n independent and well-informed judiciary 
— after the model of that of the United 
Elates— re-codify the Laws, and do other 
mportant acts. That the Legislative 
Chambers should commence their session 
with due attention to forms and dignity, it 
was determined that the King should go m 
state, after the fashion of Victoria to her 
Parliament, and read before them his speech. 
A large hall was setected for the ceremony. 
A temporary throne was prepared in the 
middle— while in the rear and front, spread- 
ing out semi-circular rows, were arranged 
the seats for the nobles, representatives, offi- 
cers of government, foreign diplomatic 
corps, invited guests, and others. The body 
of the house was thrown open to the public, 
^ and was crowded to excess, by people of all 
^ ranks, and classes, and nations, drawn toge- 
ther to witness a spectacle so anomoious, in 

Tuesday, May 28th, was the day ap- 
pointed. To add to the decorations of the 
nail and throne, the old stores of past gran- 
deur had been thoroughly ransacked, but 
produced a '* beggarly account of empty box- 
es." Two only of those stately and splen- 
did kahilis the plume-like insignia of roy- 
alty, at once so beautiful and appropriate, 
were to be found — and their feathers were 
worn and rumpled by age. They were, 
however, about twenty feet high, with moa- 

sive and rich stafis — ^the one surmounted by 
black feathers on a white ground, the other 
by orange and crimson. — These were pla- 
ced so as to tower over the throne— over 
which was thrown the only real rich orna- 
ment of ancient royalty left. This was a 
feathered cloak, made of very minute yel- 
low feathers— two only being produced by 
a single bird — and attached with great skill, 
to fine net or gauze work, so as to form a 
brilliant and even garment, resembling 
delicate and malleable plates of very fine 
gold. It took eight generations of kingf> 'o 
complete it. There were, also, the fine old 
spear of Kamehameha the First, and fea- 
ther capes, of scarcely less beauty than the 
cloak, borne by young chiefs, attendant 
upon the King ; but all of those rich hel- 
mets, and other articles, which elicited the 
encomiums of the early voyagers, for the 
skill apd beauty of their workmanship, have 
now either perished, or been borne away to 
decorate the Museums of Europe or Ame- 
rica. In lieu of them, the nobles and chiefs 
wear the more glittering uniform of civi- 
lized lands, heavy with gold lace and gilt 

The diplomatic corps made a tolerably 
brilliant show. Commissioner Brown's uni- 
form is certainly the neatest and most ap- 
propriate that has appeared here---plain 
and republican, but not wanting in efifect — 
Consul Qeneral Miller was covered with 
silver lace and decorations. He eaoorted, 
on this occasion, the young and acomplish- 
ed Mrs. S., recently arriv^ from Boston — 
The officers of the English war ships, 
Talbot and Basilisk, added not a little to 
the show by the glitter of their arms and 
uniforms, and the effect of the whole was 
made the more pleasing by the rich and 
tasteful attire of some 50 to 100 ladies pre- 
sent. The female chiefs here, by the con« 
stitution of the country, take an active part 
in governmental afiairs; are governors and 
peeresses by birtL For this occasion they 
turned out in all their strength, and if I can- 
not say beauty, although some are very 
pssable, particularly the Clueen, M^s. 
Young and Mrs. Rooke, I may add size j 
for to no inconsiderable weight of influence 
they add weight of body, and all have 
waists that wouki carry envy through the 
most populous harem of Stamboul. I do not 
think their average weight can be less than 
200 or 225 each. However, they were 
dressed with excellent taste, and appeared 
to very good advantage. One of the young 
female chiets,JVli8s Bernice Puahi, scarce 
16, ii a sweet gif 1, of good education, fine 




features, approaching the Grecian, light 
compleiioa, and very lady-like manners.—- 
She attracts admirers everywhere, but is 
very retiring, and said to be zealous in her 

The King was dressed in a very splen- 
did and costly uniform. He came attend- 
ed by the Queen, his cabinet, and a military 
escort As he entered the building, the 
new royal standard, containing the national 
coat of arms, designed at the Herald's office 
in London, wholly from national emblems, 
was hoisted for the first time, the brass band 
struck up the national anthem, the guns from 
the fort thundered forth 21 times, the whole 
company arose, and the King walked with 
much dignity to his throne. His ministers 
and the Queen took the place immediately 
in his rear, and afl remained standing while 
the Talbot frigate ffave forth her royal salute, 
in compliment to the new flag. ■ l^rayer was 
then made by the Rer. William Richards, 
chaplain of the court ; after which, by com- 
mand of the King, all seated themselves: 
that is to say, all that had seats, for some 
hundreds were obliged to stand the ceremonies 
thTongh. The King then covered his head, 
and in a distinct and really graceful manner, 
read his speech, which you will find printed 
in the Polynesian, as well as the reports of 
the cabinet ministers* which reflect much 
credit upon them, for the liberal spirit they 
manifested in recommending many useful 
changes, favorably affecting both the natives 
and meipi residents. We have much rea- 
son to rejoice that the chiefs have been so 
wise as to take into their councils men of 
such enlarged views, although for them to 
give satisfaction to all is not to be expected. 
They, however, stand high in the estimation 
of the well informed and really influential 
part of (he community. 

Atier the King's speech the houses ap- 
pointed a committee to draft a reply, and 
then adjourned. I must* confess that ^tify- 
ing reflections filled my mind upon viewing 
the well ordered and appropriate ceremonies 
of the day, the absence of all that could be 
set down as incongruous, the rt*spect shown 
by this king, so recently absolute, to consti- 
tutional forms, and to his legislature and peo- 
ple ; the reciprocal respect on their part ; the 
becoming imiforms, decorations and dresses of 
chiefs and people; the quiet, gentlemanly 
deportment of all ; the ease and eloquence of 
the speakers ; in short, the tout ensemble of 
refinement and civilization. Still more grati- 
fying was the reflection, that this order had 
MCD brought trom disorder and savage barba- 
rism, m the short space of twenty years, by 
my countrymen. The contrast was, to me, 
the more striking, from having witnessed the 
past as well as the present. — Best, Atlas. 

Maple Suffar. — Mr. David Stevenson, of 
Tamwortb, N. H., has made this year 2,800 
pounds — laist year 3,200 pounds. 

Russia. — St. Tetersburgh. — It is stated 
that the Imperial Crown Prince recently sent 
a despatch to the Emperor at Palermo, ex- 
pressive of the most serious apprehensions for 
the internal peace of the empire. The system 
of religious prosecution and proselytism prac- 
tised of late by the special direction of the 
Autocrat had created universal discontent, not 
only in Poland, but also in every province of 
Russia, In many dioceses the Greek Bishops 
themselves had declined to become the instru- 
ments of that system, and the Holy Synod, 
presided over by General Protasofl, had itself 
protested against it. 

The Crown Prince informed his father that 
the Government was paralysed thereby, and 
that unless a speedy remedy was applied, he 
would not answer for the consequences. The 
Emperor, after reading that part of the de- 
spatcht drew up an ukase, wbich he immedi- 
ately forwarded to St. Pefersbnrgh, directing 
that the operation of that system of intole- 
rance and persecution be suspended for six 

The St. Petersburgfa Gazette of the 7th ult., 
contains an Imperial order, permitting the im- 
portation of wheat, rye, barley, oats, flour, 
Deans, peas, and other similar products, from 
Prussia, free of duty, up to the 13th of Sep- 
tember, 1846. 

A fire near Tobolsk, in Siberia, lately de- 
stroyed a forest sixty leagues in length, and 
twenty leagues in breadth. Twenty-five per- 
sons perished in the flames, which destroyed 
one village, thirteen mills, eighteen hundred 
and fifty barns, seventy-seven thousand eight 
hundred stacks of hay, six hundred horses 
and eight hundred and fifteen homed cattle, 
&c. &C. 

Accounts from St. Petersburgh, of Decem- 
ber 20th, state that the chief branch of the 
Neva was covered with ice, and foot passen- 
gers were able to cross it. 

Italt. — Discovery of a Conspiracy. — ^It is 
stated that a revolutionary plot has been dis- 
covered in the Grand Duchy of Tuscanv, 
whose object^ was the sfiduction of a whole 
battallion of Tuscan troops, in order to invade 
the Roman States ; twenty men of this bat- 
tallion have fled. 

St. Domingo. — At the last dates the Hai- 
tians, or French inhabitants, were collecting 
all their forces to attack the Dominicians, or 
Spanish, on the other part of the island. 

A Lecture on the Battle of Waterloo has 
been delivered in Boston, by Lieut. Halleck. 
If he drew from it the solemn lessons which 
that sanguinary scene holds up to mankind, 
and especially to our countrymen, the lecture 
would deserve to be printed in letters of ffold. 
If it breathed the war spirit of some of^our 
lieutenants and other men of higher rank, it 
undoubtledly deserves the disapprobation and 
contempt of the public. 






T6th$ EdUor of th€ Am, PifUMf Mdga9in», 

My dear Mr. Dwight» 

I am puzzled to know 
What you did with those verses 

That I sent to you. 

Eighteen was their nuraher» 

Trimetre in length ; 
In sentiment varied, 

Nor wanting in strength. 

I fathered them all : 

So» as father I*m styi'd, 
I'm anxious to know 

What's become of my child. 

I flnive you the right 

To decide as umpire :— 
To shme in vour paper, 
Or blaze in the fire. 

Pray settle this query, 

In earnest or joke : — 
If still in existence. 

Or ended in smoke. 

Inform me the fate 
Of that rhythmical gem, 

And oblige the young rhymer, 
Yours truly — 

J. M. 


We design to publish facts and suggestions 
appropriate to the seasons of the year, to m- 
duce old and young to pay some attention to 
the propagation of useful, ornamental and 
curious plants, and to transmit such seeds as 
may be valued. We intend to give some 
hints respecting the birds, insects, and fishes, 
in their seasons, beside our usual notices of 
interesting facts in natural history. 

Our readers shall be made acquainted with 
the accounts we may receive from the various 
travellers now investigating foreign countries. 
Our biographical notices will embrace some 
of the philanthropists of Mexico and South 
America, whom we have known and loved, 
as well as several Spaniards and others, 
whose characters ought to be admired by our 
countrymen. Our original plan of publish- 
ing lessons for use in families anA schools 
) will be more regarded in future ; and a de- 
partment on religious subjects will enable us 
to introduce more subjects of that nature. — 
At the same time, important news, valuable 
books, discoveries in science, &c., will be no- 
ticed in their places, while our obliging cor- 
respondents, we hope, will have less reason to 
complain in future of our seeming neglect. 


To OxxR Old SBtraGRiBEB8.^The first vo* 
Inme of the American Penny Magazine is 
completed now: the beginmng, February. 
7th. Those who began with No. 1 will have 
52 numbers, of 16 pages each, containing 
nearly 200 illustrative engravings, and a va- 
riety of reading matter, derived from a great 
variety of sources, foreign and American, 
ancient and ml>dem. Of their value our 
readers can judge. Many new and valuable 
sources of information are continually open- 
ing to us. The experiment which we have 
made, of furnishing American faimilies with 
an illustrated weekly paper, devoted to use- 
ful infoimation and sound principles, intel- 
lectual, moral and religious, at a l6wer price 
than any similar work, promises permanent 
success. Those who wish to receive the 
next volume will please to send tlie money, 
($1) by the close of the term. Those who 
may wish to receive any or all of the back 
numbers, will be promptly supplied. As 
they are stereotyped, we shall always be able 
to furnish complete sets. 

To OtTR New Subscbibbbs. — Those who 
have subscribed for our second volume only, 
and been supplied with any of the last num- 
bers of Vol. 1, without V charge, are re- 
quested to circulate them among their friends. 
They will be entitled to all the numbers of 
the second volume. 


procure one new subscnber, it will be ren- 
dering an important service to a new pub- 
lication, designed for extensive and lasting 




With numerous Engravings, 
edited by Theodore Dwlght» Jr« 

Is pablisbed weekly, at the office of the New York 
Exprew, No. 112 Broadway, at 3 cents a mimber, (18 
pages lai^e octavo,) or, to subscribeis rooeiving i* by 
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** The information coouined in this woric is woitb 
BDore than silver."— iV. y. Observer. 

•* It ahould be in every femily in the comitrv.*'— ' 
N, y. Baptiu Rseordtt. 

The New York Methodist Advocate apeaks of it in 
similar terms. Also many other papers. 

Editors ot newspapers publishing this ad- 
vertisement for 3 months, will be furnished 
with the work for one year. 





BcanBTTHini>oarI>wiBHT, Jk. 1 

1 Paiai 3 

l«l - r-r. 


Vol. n. N«w YoRi 

Saturdat, FtBBDABT 14, 1846. 

No. a. 


What serioua refleclions, what strong i gubjecl more properly American, Bome one i 

I kii Tariojs feelinga, will Ihis portrait and } more appropriate to our eDiightened, ''rr* I 

j 4» title excite in the mind* of many of S and Christian country, in its proper con- S 

( Hr readen ! We should have preferred a ' diiiou, that is in the midst of ptoaperity and J 




the enjoyment and prospect of peace. But 
we are denied thia pleasure: for the spirit 
as well as the rumors oi war are agitating 
the nation ; and we feel it to be our duty, 
I to turn aside occasionally from topics more 
welcome to our heart, in order to lay be- 
fore our readers some of the warnings of 
history, as well as of conscience and reye- 
latioD. And we can hardly describe the 
gratification we find* in meeting, on the 
platform of peaoe, many of the editors of 
our newspapers andT reviews, as well as 
eloquent orators and powerful writers at 
home and abroad. With all our hearts we 
wish to thank those Canadian philanthro- 
pists, who have addressed to our countrymen 
a manly and most Chrisiian appeal against 
the spirit of war. May God in his mercy 
impress good men with a sense of their 
duty, that they may use all the influence in 
their power in favor of peace, before it be 
too late! 

<<But why all this apprehension?" I 
think I hear some of my ardent readers ex- 
claim—'' Whence this horror at the thought 
of war V* If we had but one answer to 
give to such enquiries, one might well 
suffice: — We have visited the field of 
Waterloo I When our more enthusiastic 
and less reflecting readers have learned, 
and considered all which that place is able 
to teach, they may feel the true force of obr 
reply. There is recorded the termination 
of that career of ambition in which the 
subject of our remarks, the original of our 
portrait, devoted all the energy of his 
mind and body, because he had fixed upon 
it all the affections of his souF; and there 
is written a most pungent lesson, on the im- 
portance of adopting good principles early 
in life, and pursuing the course to which 
they shall direct us. There we see an 
awful gulf full of human blood, into which 
unbridled ambition cast one of her most 
devoted champions. 

The portrait on our frontispiece is a fit 
object of study for every American parent 
Let us consider it At the time of life at 
which he is here represented, Napoleon 
embarked on that career to which he early 

devoted himself, and which involved the 
interest of millions add the fote of Europe. 
Some men have an admiration of what is 
called natural genius, in the abstract, and 
will eulogize^ in the highest termS| one who 
accomplishes what others cannot do, or never 
have done. Mere ability is thus proclaim- 
ed worthy of general and unqualified .re- 
spect and praise, independently of moral 
character. I>eeds are raised above mo- 
tives, and judged of only by their magni- 
tude. On Such grounds we hear the most 
destructive ravagersofthe earth, the great- 
est human butchers, ranked higher than all 
the other members of the race, as most fit 
to receive the commendations of all gene- 
rations. Such men, if consistent with their 
professions, would be most eloquent and 
abundant in the praises of the fallen spirits, 
and chiefly of the '^Archangel ruined." We 
are plainly justifiable in pressing this con- 
clusion upon every enthusiastic admirer of 
geniv^ in the abstract^ when it leads, as it 
often does, to a lamentable, and a danger- 
ous, and an inexcusable disregard of cha- 
racter and intention. Christians must not 
forget their own principles — ^if they do they 
should be reminded of them. Christianity 
would never make a man like Napoleon : 
but the admiration of " genius in the ab- 
stract" would yield a worldful of such as 
he. We, parents, at our firesides, can lead 
our children in fancy to such scenes as 
Waierloo, and there draw such pictures, 
apply such principles, and make such im- 
pressions, that our little flocks, at least, shall 
never go into the world prepared either to 
follow or to lead to an ocean of human 
blood, to a state of civil disorder or con- 
fusion, to any disrespect for the laws, or to 
any measure which shall admit ambiti- 
ous men or corrupt principles to public in- 
fluence, or private respect, or even endu- 

A highly finished French engraving^ 
drawn, and printed, and colored by most 
skillful artists, a few years ago, arrested the 
attention of many passers-by, in one of the 
principal s reets ofour city. It represent- 
ed a duel, in which one noble-looking young 





man lay a corpse on the ground, while 
his late firiend, now his marderer, wore an 
expression on his &ce which a successful 
duellist may be supposed to assume, when 
his crime and his danger strike at ooce 
upon his mind. Nothing farther seemed 
aeoessary to make every spectator fancy 
be saw the mother and sisters of the de- 
oeased, and heard the moans and shrieks 
of his Aiinilyi soon to be overwhelmed by 
the awful blow. " I will never be a duellist 1 " 
leemed an exclamation ready to be uttered 
by every tongue ; and as one person afUr 
another turned away from the affecting 
sight, all seemed filled with sad, deep, and 
abiding impressbns of horror and abomi- 
nation at the inhuman practice. O that the 
iceoe of Waterloo, with its thousands of 
objects not less solemn and instructive, 
might produce its proper eflfeots on man- 

ThHe are several classes of the admirers 
of Bonaparte. Some think him a mere devo- 
tee of glory, actuated by what, they con- 
fider a lofty and commendable desire of 
lasting &me ; some r^ard him as better 
than thiS| a friend of human liberty ; and 
others merely as an enemy of hereditary 
monarchy ; while some extol his spirit of 
enterprise, his feelings of humanity, his 
patronage of science, or his military 
skill ; and others still tbinkoniy of the close 
of his career, and sympathise with him in 
captivity. There is another class, who ima- 
gine that he was actuated by disinterested 
attachment to the good of Europe in the 
eari J part of his career, but afterwards be- 
canae intoxicated with ambition. But each 
clasB of his admirers might easily find, 
among the millions of his victims, some 
one, and often hundreds of individuals, 
aaperior to him in the very qualities which 
ibey BO mvLch extol in him. Each of his 
ealogists, therefore, might be called upon to 
Com his back upon his hero, to consider and 
admire some other lees noticed, but more 
shining object, who, when viewed through 
tke medium of truth, totally eclipses the 
Inmioary which they worship. Without 
imdertaking to name all his superiors in 

the various points above mentioned, if we 
should begin vnth the Duke D'Enghien to 
enumerate those signalized by misfortune 
and fortitude, we should never know where 
to stop. To what scenes of mourning, to 
what abodes of woe would we be conduct- 
ed ! From the sands of Africa to the fires 
of Moscow, and through the snow-drifis o^ 
Russia, our courage might perhaps carry 
^ us, with some of the insane enthusiasm of 
men intoxicated with the spirit which took 
possession of so many hearts ; but there is 
no human soul which could have witnessed, 
unmoved, the deep sufferings of even on^ 
of many thousands of ruined families, pa- 
rents and children, wives, daughters and 
mothers, mourning over the corpses of 
their only hope and hapiness — fathers, sons, 
brothers or husbands, sacrificed to that in- 
satiable ambition which too many admire. 

We do not wish to do the character of 
Napoleon injustice, by charging him with 
any greater blame than he deserves ; nor^ 
would we apologize for the crimes or the 
faults of any of his opponents. We may, how* 
ever, rest assured of one important truth : 
that if we, or any of our children, possess 
characters Uke his, and indulge in the feel- 
ings of unbounded ambition, we shall he 
fiur more inexcusable, because he was i»ot 
instructed in the will of God, nor trained 
up under the influence of those Christian 
principles by which we are surrounded. 

The family of Bonaparte long since mi- 
grated to Corsica from the a^yoning coast ef 
Italy ; and considerable remains pf it are 
still found in a small village in sight from 
the high road ; but they are said to be in no 
way distinguished except by name, from the 
common people of the country. Happily 
for theuTand mankind, they resemble him 
^ not in career and character. He had seve- 
ral brothers and sisters, who afbrwarde 
shared with his generals in the wealth, 
honors and power which he gained by his 
armies, and many an awful scene of war 
and bloodshed. 

(To be eontinned.) 







uvnro BURiAii and bscapb. 

Account of the remarkable disaster at 
Carbondale, Pa*, and the almost miracaloos 
escape of a ^^^ ^^^ ^"^^ buried in the 
crushed mines, by the Rer. Mr. Rowlamd, 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Hones- 
dale, hut fonnerly of the Pearl street Church 
New York. 

HoNESDALE, Jao. 15, 1846. 

On Monday morning hist about nine o'clock, 
an accident occurred m the coal mines of the 
Delaware and Hudson canal company, at 
Carbondale which has produced considerahle 
excitement in the community. A lar^e por* 
tion of the hill or mountain into which the 
mines extend^ following the law of gravity, 
suddenly descended on the honev-comb cavi- 
ties witnin its bosom, burying all the unfor* 
tunate individuals within its reach. Very 
many acres descended in a mass; and so 
great was the pressure of the atmosphere, 
occasioned by this descent, as to shoot out 
from the mouth of one of the mines, as from 
a cannon, a train of cars with a horseman 
and a boy, throwing them to a considerable 
distance. Think of a bellows moved by 
mountain power, and you will form a very 
correct idea of the blast. Painful to relate, 
fifteen individuals were beneath the descend- 
ing mass, only one of whom has had the 
good fortune to escape; and his adventures 
exceed every thing on record. The remain* 
inff fourteen are buried alive, if not crushed, 
^ ana mav be now hopelessly wandering in 
those gloomy caverns, beyond the reach of 
human aid, and shut out forever, in all pro- 
bability, from the light of day. 

To present a distinct idea of the occur* 
rence, I must first give a brief description of 
the mines, and the manner of working them. 
There are several openings to the coal, which 
are numbered, as 1, 2, 3, 4, &c., two of them 
are above the bed of the Lackawana, and the 
others are below it. These opening are 
holes in the side of the hill, about six feet 
by eight, and are the main entrance to the 
mines. From these mouths are roads lead- 
ing to the interior of the mountain, following 
the dip of the coal, sometimes ascending ana 
sometimes descending. The extent of the 
mining operations will be perceived from the 
ftct that there are thirty-five miles of rail- 
road laid under ground, m the bosom of the 
mountain, including the main roads with all 
their ramifications. 

The coal lies in a horizontal stratum of 
from four to six or eight feet in thickness, 
between strata of slate. The method of 
mining is, to cut out and remove the coal, 
leaving only piers of it to support the hill 
above, aided by wooden props made of sec- 
tions of trees, cut of a suitable length. As 
fast as the .coal is removed, the' lateral 
hranches of the joad are abandoned, and the 
main avenues pushed on to the coal beyond. 

In this way the coal has been removed for a 
mile and a half under the mountain and the 
roads extend that distance. About a mile 
froni the mouth of mine Na I, an air-hole 
was*cut to the surface, up an inclined plane, 
by which access could be had to the surface 
of the earth, and down which props were 
taken. The excavation for coal extends half 
a mile or more beyond this opening. It was 
in this vicinity that the accident occurred, and 

a closing the mouth of this passage cut off 
i hope of escape to those within, in this 

As fast as the coal is removed, no particu- 
lar care is taken to support the mass above, 
in the chambers which are abandoned ; the 
props are left to decay that the rock and 
earth may ^adually settle down and fill up 
these cavities, as it has done in former in- 
stances ; but care is taken to giiard the maio 
avenues to the coal from being thus obstruct- 

The coal lies ^ beneath a mass of slate: 
above the slate is the sand stone rock, and 
aboFe this are the gravel and soil. I have 
of\en noticed, in passing through the mines, 
that many of the ends of the props, which 
support the slate above, were shivered like a 
broom, from the vast pressure on them ; and 
I never saw this indication without thinking 
what might happen, should the mass from 
above take a notion suddenly to descend, and 
always breathed easier when I had passed 
through the mines and emerged to the light 
of day. 

Symptoms of the working of the mass 
above bad beeu for some time observed ; and 
these symptoms had greatly increased for a 
few days previous to the catastrophe. Every 
thing was done which could be clone in these 
. circumstances to avert danger. No one sup- 
posed it possible that the rock above would 
prove so firm, or that it would settle suddenly 
or in a mass. 

Only a few of the workmen, of whom 
there are nearly four hundred employed in 
the mines, had gone in on Monday morning, 
when Mr. Clarkson, the superintendent, dis- 
covered the ominous appearances, and imme- 
diately set some hands to work in propping 
up the slate. On coming out of the mines, 
about half past eight o'clock, he met Mr. 
John Hosie, (who is well known on the Cro- 
ton water works as one of the ablest masons, 
and who has been in the Hudson and Dela- 
ware Canal Company's employment for about 
a year, preparing himself to take charge of 
the new mines to be opened below Carbon- 
dale,), and told him that be had better wait 
till he could fo with him, and they would 
examine the mines together. 

Mr. Hosie went on, however, into No. 2, 
intending to join Mr. Clarkson presently, and 
had proceeded about a mile when instantly 
the mountain over his head descended with 
an awfUl criisli of every thing which opposed 
its progress, and shot down over him, filling 
up the road with crushed coal and bending 



him doable, Iea?iDg not a foot of uptLce be- 
tveen the 8<did mass '«bo?e and the crushed 
coal below. The distance descended was the 
height of the mine, or from six to eight feet 
So ffreat was the preeeore of the air that it 
produced a painful sensation aa if some sharp 
instrument nad been thrust into his ears. — 
All was total darkness, e?ery light in the 
mme beine instantly extinguished. Ever and 
anoQ the uimder of the fallen masses roared 
throi^h the caverns. AAer waiting a suita- 
ble length of time for the rocks to ce^se fill- 
ing, Mr. Mosie began to remove the loose ma- 
teral around him and to creep. He tried one 
way and it was closed. He then proceeded 
in the other direction ; and after nine hours 
incessant toil, creepiujgr, removing loose coal 
and slate* and squeezing himself past obsta* 
des, he-made his way mto the open mine. — 
Here he tried to strike a light, but his match- 
es had become damp and would not ignite. — 
He then felt around him and discovered by 
the direction of the track ot the rail road 
that, mstead of making his wav out, he bad 
gone farther into the mine, and was cut off 
from a return by the mass which had settled 
down upon the road. He then bethought 
him of the air hole, and attempted to reach 
it ; but ^at passage had been crushed in and 
closed. Bein^^ in. the vicinity of the mining 
operations he round some powder, and spread- 
ing it on the floor, he endeavored with^ pick 
to ignite it, but could not. He found also a 
can of oil, which he reserved in case of ne- 
cessity to use for food. 

All was total darkness, and the part of 
mountain over him was also settling, throw- 
ing off huge piec^ of slate and exposing him 
to imminent danger at every step ; for but a 
part of the mass above bad come down at 
once, and the other teemed likely to follow. 
Sensible of his danger, Mr. Hosie protected 
himiBelf as well as he could ; he wound up 
his watch, and felt the time by the hands. 
He also, with a piece of chalk, wrote in 
different places his name and the hour when 
he was at certain points. Being m total dark^ 
ness, however, he lost his way, but was ena- 
bled through his acquaintance with the mines 
to set himself right. He first tried to reach 
No. 1, but after toiling to that road, found 
that it was also crushed in. His only chance 
seemed then to proceed at right angles with 
the main arteries of the mines and ' pass 
over to No. 3, and this he labored to do in 
accordance with his best judgment. 

At one time he. passed through a narrow 
entrance into a chamber, and in endeavoring 
to creep out on the other side, he was cau^m 
in a narrow place by the hill above settlm^ 
down upon him, and remained in this posi- 
tion an hour, expecting to die there. But ano- 
ther settling of the mass crushed out some of 
the materials around him, and he was en- 
abled to free himself and draw back to the 
chamber of the mine. In returning, how- 
ever, to the hole by which he effected his 
enirance, he found to his dismay that it was 

oloeed, and he was compelled to himt a new 
passage and finally to dig his way out with 
his hands* 

Thus, after workinff for more than thirty- 
six hours, he at length reached No. 3, where 
he rested, and then when the hill had par- 
tially ceased its working, proceeded towards 
the mouth of the mines. On his way he met 
Mr. Bryden, one of the superintendents, who 
with his men, were exploring the cavern with 
lights, in search of him ; and at five o'clock 
in the morning he emerged to the light of day, 
having been given up as dead, and been in- 
carcerated in utter darkness beneath a set- 
tling mountain for forty-eight hours. Mr. 
Hosie told me many of those particulars, and 
the others I gleaned from the principal offi- 
cers of the company, to whom they were nar- 

At one time Mr. Hosie saw lights at a dis- 
tance, but they soon vanished. They were 
the light of men in Na 3 seeking for him. — 
These lights, however, assured him that he 
was pursuing the right course. Mr. Hosie's 
hands were scratched and cut up by working, 
so as to be completely covered with sores. — 
He never for one moment lost his self-pos- 
session, and to this fact added to his tact and 
perseverjmce, is to be ascribed his deliver^ 

There were about forty men in the mines 
when the catastrophe occurred, and the twen* 
ty-six who escaped, owed their preservation, 
in a great measure, to Mr. Bryden, one of the 
superintendents, who conducted them out 
with great coolness and self-possession while 
portions of the hill, other than those .which 
first fell, were settling down around them. — 
Learning that one poor Irish laborer, who had 
been struck down by slate, was left with his 
leg broken, he went back alone and brought 
him out Sometimes he was compelled to 
creep, and draw the man after him, through 
crevices which were soon after closed by the 
settling of the hill. In two hours more the 
whole had shut down, so that if he had been 
left his death would have been inevitable- 
Thanks to Mr. Bryden, for his coolness, in- 
trepidity and humanity. 

The greatest possible efforts are now made 
by working night and day to reach the place 
where the fourteen were at work ; but fiiint 
hopes, however, are cherished respectinff 
them. The place cannot probably be reached 
before the middle of next week, if then. The 
probabilitv is that they have been crushed to 
death. Most of them were men with fami- 
lies. One boy only is known with certainty 
to be dead. 

Except the loss of life, this unforseen oc- 
currence is not much to be regretted, nor will 
it greatly impede the company's operations 
since it has occurred at about the time when 
it is usual to suspend labor for a couple of 
months, to repair for the Spring, and every- 
thing will be rectified b«;fore theln. The 
immense strength of the rock above prevented 
the hill from settling in the usual way ; but 




now it w down, it is to be rejoiced at, as it 
frees from fotare danger, and tne roads, wlien 
re-opened, will be perfectly secure. It was 
an innovation for it to come down^ siiddeidf 
and in a mass instead of tbe qniet decent 
way it has adojjied in former instances, and 
no numan foresight could have predicted the 
manner of its descent, nor could tiuman prti^ 
dence, in the present state of knowledge, 
have provided against it. 

The quantity of the mountain fallen is rari- 
ously estimated, Mr. Bryden said that it was 
about three ouarters of a mile Ions, by half a 
mile in width. Mr. Clarkson said that it was 
about half a mile lon^ and an eighth in width. 
In the former case it would be about 240 
acres, and in the latter 40 acres. Mr. Archi- 
bald, the chief superintendent of the mines 
and rail road, whose science and practical 
skill are not exceeded, estimates the amount 
fallen at far less than either of his assistants. 
8iiice the first avalanche, it must be borne in 
nUind, however, many other portions have 
gone down. What the extent of the whole 
fc no One can conjecture with any approxima- 
tion to certainty; and it is exceedmgly diffi- 
calt at present to get at any accurate infor- 
mation respecting it. 

I do not know that the company have any 
interest either to magnify or conceal the mat- 
ter, inasmuch as it is more likely to prove a 
benefit than a damage to future operations. 
The Only expense attending it will be to re- 

Kir the roads and improve the constructions; 
t these will then be safer ; and the know- 
ledge acquired by this experience may prove 
of the grestest utility hereafter. 

This occurrence seemed to me so unlike 
anjTthing I ever heard of, that I commenced 
writing the account of it to my friends ; but 
it' has proved so long, that to save the multi- 
plication of letters, I have concluded to send 
it to your paper, which most of them are ac- 
customed to read ; and they may , if they 
choose, consider it as personally addressed to 
each of them. There ma/ be others of your 
readers also to whom it may not be uninter- 
esting. — Commercial Advertiser* 


l^orelgn niastrated Pabllcatloni» and oar own 


It would afford us real gratification, it we 
were able to lay before our readers specimens 
of the various penny papers, and works of a 
similar description, which have appeared in 
England, France and (Germany, and some 
other European countries, within a few years. 
With respect to the size and style of the 
prints, our own, the American Penny Maga- 
zine, is but a humble rival. Some of the for- 
eign illoatrated publications have been issued 
under the sounding titles of large societies, by 
wealthy publishers, and with resources far 
beyond anything in our reach. It is, however, 
with feelings of a particular kind, that our at- 


tention is occasionally directed to a compari- 
son of our magazine with those which come 
to us across the Atlantic in another, but not 
less important point of view. We can assure 
our readers, that the pages which we send 
them from week to week are the only ones 
we have yet seen, which make any exertions 
to explain or to recommend the principles of 
morality and religion as objecu of vital and 
prime importance to the heart, the family, 
and the State ; which aim at the fireside as a 
place above almost all others worthy of at- 
tention to the wise and good, where wisdom 
and virtue can be best inculcated, and where 
characters may be best formed hereafter to 
bless mankind, and to shine in a superior and 
a better world. Though it may perhaps ap* 
pear in some degree unbecoming for a hum- 
ble editor so to speak, we can conscientiously 
say, that we have thus far looked in vain 
for the pleasure of hailing a writer of views 
and objects like our own. We find among 
the 3ditors and oontributors of the foreign 
publications, men of taste, of science and oi 
literature ; those who deveiope the principles 
of knowledge like adepts in their different 
branches, and recommend learning by their 
ardor in its pursuit, and their raptures in 
speaking its praise. We find writers who 
admire poetry and sentiment, who love to 
hold up examples of virtue, and to place be- 
fore the people some of the wamiogs of his^ 
tory. With double pleasure we now and then 
recognize the delicate hand of a female wri- 
ter, which adds some touch to the pages 
prepared by a stronger pen. Yet we regret 
to say again; that in some of the objects 
which we have most at heart, in some of the 
spheres where we most delight to move, we 
find no foreign companion, we meet not even 
a wanderer. 

The London Penny Magazine, the first 
of this class of publications which presented 
itself to our view, has been, up to the present 
time, nominally published under the patro- 
nage of Lord Brougham^s Society for the Dif- 
fusion of Useful Knowledge, but has ever, as 
we are informed, been conducted as a matter 
of private speculation, and directed in chief 
or in whole, by a single editor. Under the 
nominal control of such a man as the presi- 
dent of that merely benevolent society, it is 
almost unnecessary to say, it could hardly be 
an advocotate of vital ^Christianity. It, in 
fact, seldom mentions the name of religion. — 





The Saturday Ma^^zine, although published 
by a religious society, was chiefly deroted to 
the diffosioD of useful informatioa. With 
reapeet to the range of subjects, those, and 
most other weekly illustrated publications, 
hare been greatly limited by the small quan- 
tity of matter of any kind which they have 
eontained, their pages, though a little Urger 
thaa OUTS, being only half the ncunber. 

A glance at the long Index, which closed 
our last week's number, will give an idea of 
the rariety and value of the information which 
OUT first volume contains. We have tried 
one original experiment in connection with 
this publication, with some useful as well as 
gfuofying results. We have placed about 
100,000 seeds of an elegant tree in the 
hands of about 8 or 10,000 persons in different 
parts of the Union, many of which will fhr- 
uish a desirable embellishment to public and 
private grounds ; and it is our intention in fu- 
ture to extend our operations in this depart- 
ment, as well as in the intellectual and moral. 
We anucipate the pleasure of walking with 
some of ooir friends, some hitureyear, beneath 
their shade ; and, in the mean time, we look 
forward, with not less pleasure, and a greater 
certainty, in the course of our^ editorial duties, 
to meeting tnem in fancy on the classic banks 
of the Ilyssus, and near 

** SUoa's brook, that flow*d ' 
C^ose by the oracle of God " 


A fair exhibition of war, in its origm, its 
progress, aiid actual results, would be a start- 
ling condemnation of the whole custom as a 
piece of suicidal iolljr and madness. The Et- 
trick Shepherd, in his Lay Sermons, tells the 
following story, quite to the point : 

*• The history of every war is very like a 
scene I once saw in Nithsdale, (Scotland.) — 
Two boys from different schools met one fine 
day upon the ice. They eyed %BLch other 
awhile in silence, with rather jealous and in- 
dignant looks, and with defiance on each 

" ' What are ye glowrin' at Billy ? 

*• ' What's that to you, Donald ? I'll look 
whar I've a mind, an' hinder me if ye daur !' 

** To this a hearty blow was the return ; 
and then beean such a battle ! It being Satur- 
day all the boys of both schools were on the 
ice. and the fight instantly became general 
At first they fought at a distance with missile 
weapods, such as stones and snow-balls ; but 
at length, coming hand to hand, they coped in 
a rage, and many bloody raps were liberally 
given and received. 
• "I went up to try if I could pacify them 

for by this time a number of little girls had 
joined the affray, and I was afraid they would 
be killed. So/addressiuff one party, I asked, 
* What are you fighting those boys for ? What 
have they done to you V 

** * 01 naethiog at a', maun ; we just want 
to gie them a gude thrashin', that's a'. 

" My remonstrance was vain ; at it they 
went afresh, and, after fighting till they were 
quite exhausted, one of the principal heroes 
stepped forth between the combatants, him- 
self covered with blood, and his clothes all 
lOTD to tatters, and addressed the opposing 

rty thus : *« Weel, I'll tell you what we'll 
wi' ye-^/ ye'// let ui alane, we*ll Ut ye 
alane.^ There was no more of it ; the war 
was at an end, and the boys scampered away 
to their play. 

" That scene was a lesson of wisdom (o me. 
I thought at the time, and have often thought 
since, that this trifling aflVay was the best 
epitome of war in ffeneral that I had ever 
seen. Kinss and Ministers of State are 
just a set of grown up children, exactly like 
the children I speak of, with only this mate- 
rial difference, that, instead of fighting out 
for themselves the needless quarrels they 
have raised, they sit in safety and look on, 
hound out their mnocent but servile subjects 
to battle, and then, after an immense waste 
of blood and treasure, are glad to make the 
boy's condition — ** ifye^lUet usalane, we*llUt 
you alane,** 

" Here is the upshot of nearly ^very war, 
the stattis quo ante helium,*^ 

An Accomplished 2Angui8t.~~The celebra- 
ted missionary, Dr. Wolff, in his narrative of 
his remarkable expedition into Bokhara, states 
that on going from Persia through the Cri- 
mea and arriving at Odessa, he met there an 
industrious and wonderfully instructed young 
man, a German (William Schauffler by 
name,) who undertook the task of copying 
his journal for him, though he did not com- 
pletely understand English. This learned 
youth studied at the Andover seminary in this 
country, under the distinguished Moses Stu- 
art, and afterwards at Paris, under Silvester 
de Sacy. He then went to Vienna, aiid trans- 
lated the whole Bible into Jewish Spanish. 
He now knows twenty-four languages and is 
pronounced to be the most eminent mission- 
ary in the Levant By trade, he was a turn- 
er, but his propeosities for research were un- 
bounded, and he gave uo the sim*)ly mecha- 
nical lor the purely intellectual. 

The License Question^-^ln Europe the opa- 
ratives in the work-shop, or cotton-factory are 
most degraded. England alone consumes 
over 500,000 ffalloos of strong beer yearly.— 
From strong drink of all kinds she receives a 
fearful revenue to debase her population, ahd 
pay her soldiers to awe her citizens to 
submission. It is strong drinks rather than 
low prices, which has d^praded and kept un- 
der the laborers of England. 



The South Bek ul&ader*, nys Ellis, were 
peenlUrly addicted to pleasure : and to their 
moaic, daocing, and other amusements Deail; 
u mach of their time was devoted as to all 
other aToeacioDa. Their muaie wanted almost 
vrerr quality that could render ii agreeable 
to an ear accustomed to harmony, and naa 
deficieol in bII that constitutea excellence. — 
It waa generally boisterous and wild, end, 
with the eicepiioD of the soft and jilainiive 
warblinga «f ilie uatire flute, was diatinguish- 
ed bf nothing *o much aa its diKordaot, deaf- 
ening sounds. 

The principal musical instrument used by 
the South Sea islanders was the pahu, or 
drum. This varied in size and shape accord- 
iitg to the purpose for which it was designed. 
Their drums were all cut out of a solid piece 
of wood. The block out ot which tbey w«a 
made, beins hollowed out from one end, re- 
maining s^id at the other, and having the 
top covered with a piece of ihark's akin, oc- 
casioned their frequently resembling, in con- 
atruciion, a kettle-drum. The pua and the 
ireva which are reraarkebly close-grained and 
durable, were esteemed the most suitable 
kinds of wood for the munufacture of their 
dnmia. The large drums were called pahu, 
and the smaller ones toete. The pahu ra, 
■acred drum, which was ruiu, or beaten, on 
every occasion of eriraordinary ceremony at 
the Idol temple was particularly large, stand- 
ing ■ometimes eight feel high. The sides of 
one that I saw m Tane'a marae al Maeva 
were not more than a fool in diameter; but 
many were much larger. In some of the 
islands theae instruments were very curiously 
carved. One which I brought from High 
Island, and havn deposited in the Missionary 
Museum, is not inelegantly decorated : others, 
however, I have seen, exhibiting very superior 

The dmma used in their heivas and dances 
wore mgeniontly made. Their consimction 
membled that of thoae employed in the tem- 
pts; the akin forming the nead was fastened 
U the open work at the bottom by stringe of 
einet, made of the fibres of the coeoanat- 
husk. Druma were among the martial mutic 
of the .Tahitiana, and were used to animate 

the mm when proceeding to battle. The 
drums beaten as accompaniments lo the re- 
cital of their songs were the same in shape, 
but smalln. They were all neatly made, and 
finely polished- The larffe drums were beat- 
en wiib two heavy sticEs, the smaller onea 
with the naked hand. When used, they were 
not suspended from the shouldera of the per- 
formers, but fixed upon the ground, and tsoa- 
aequenily produced no very muaical effect 
The aound of the large drum at the temple, 
which was sometimes beaten at midnight, and 
associations connected therewith were moat 
terrific. The inhabitants at Maeva, where 
my house stood, within a few yards of the 
temple, have frequently told me, thai at the 
midnight hour, when the victim waa proba- 
bly to be offered on the following day, they 
have ofleu been startled from their slumbers 
by the deep, thrilling sound o{ the sacred 
drum ; and, as its portentous sounds have re- 
verberated among the rocks of the valley, 
every individual through the whole district 
baa trembled with fear of the goda, or apprv 
henaion ol being aeiied aa the victim lor sac- 

The Tnii^l.Sh«H. 
The aouod of the trumpet, or shell, « spe- 
cies of murex, used in war to atimulate in ac- 
tion, by the priests in the temple, and alao by 
the herald, and others on board their fleeia, 
was more horrific than that of the drum. 
The largest shells were usually selected fur 
this ipurpose, and were sometimes above a 
foot m length, and seven or eight inchea in 
diameter at the mouth. In order tofacilitate 
the blowing of this trumpet, they insert « 
bamboo cane, about three feet in length into 
a perforation near the apes ot the shell. 




la No. 33 of th* Snt Totuma of the Ajne- 

lieu Pamf Hagaziiie, (pftg« S34,) we gare 

ft brief notiM of the Cmnbrie p«ople> an ap- 

prcMcd, bat buiulaM, mii4 intereitiiig tribe* 

of AJricuM, whieh the Lwiden met irith 

in ikeit Toyage down the Niger. This print 

i KpreMnie one of iheii poor and iodiutriiiaa 

I women mgnged in the conttrnction of a hut, 

I rath as thef bnild to sleep in on the bordera 

ot their noble nalire stream. The following 

paMage from Landeti' Joamal conlaina a 

deacaiption of ihit kmd of building, with a 

few additiiwai pariicnlarB regpectiag the 

G ambries. 

Tb« annexed sketch is a repreienialioa of 
the sleeping hats of thes« people, (Cnmbrie,) 
which we idluded to on our passage up [be 
rirer. The doorwar, which is ibe only open- 
ing they hare is closed hjr a mai whicn is 
Mtspeoded inside. Tbef hare no steps to en- 
tHDy, but scramble into it as well bb ihey 
can. The commm cooiie hut is used bj 
ihem for ordinary purposes, each as cooking. 
Ice, daring the day, bat never at night. — 
These sleeping huts are abont seren oi eigbi 
feet wide, ihey are oenrly circular, are made 
of clay and thatched with the palm leaf; 
ihey are elersted aboTe the ground so as lo 
•ecnre ihe iomatn from the annoyance of 
■nu, snakes and the wet ground, and even fat 
protection from the alligators which prowl 
about ai night in search of prey. We were 
informed of instances where tiiese crestures 
ha.TB carried off the legs and arms of natives, 
wlio hire incauiiously exposed theraselres to 
their attacks. The huts will hold about half 
a dosen people. Sometimes the pillars sup- 
pcrtinR the hut are walled round, but this is 
^K>c often done, and they generally appear as 
io the sketch. 

The natives frequently kill the alligators 
by means of a hcary spear about lea feet 
long. One end is furnished with a heavy 
] pieee of iron-wood, to give it force, and the 
i aber with a sharp-pointed barbed iron. It is 
I attached to the bow of iheir canoe by a piece 
' of grua rope, which is fastened to the upper 

end, and is a formidable weapon. A smaller < 
speaT <^ the same description is used bytfaese i 
people for killing fish, m which oecapalioo ^ 
they are very expert. 

The tribute, or rather rent, which they pay < 
to the sultan for the land they cultirate, co^ } 
sists of a quantity of com, sbont the slse of i 
a bundle as much as a man can carry, for s 
every plot <J land, whether it be large oc J 
aa»ll. When, however, the harvest tails, i 
they are at liberty to give a certain Dumber J 
of cowries in lieu of the accustomed duty of ) 
com. If the poor have no means of paying | 
their rent when it becomes due, the sultan ! 
immediately despatches a body of horsemen i 
lo theii viltages with a command to seize and * 
carry away ss many of the people as they \ 
may think proper. It sometimes happens, i 
however, that the sullan of Ykoorle pulls < 
the reins with too tight a hand ; and as cow- , 
ards, when driven to despersiion, often give < 
specimens of extraordinary counge *ad reso- ' 
lutim, so the negligent and despised Cum- < 
brie writhing under the lash ot injuries which < 
they have never deserved, defend themselves | 
with extraordinary determination and bravery, < 
and not unfrequenily come off victorious from J 
the conflicL The benefits which result to } 
them from these advantages is an exemptiou < 
from the payment of rem for two or three J 
Buhsequenl years. 

During our residence in Yhoorie, an eipe> ) 
dttien despatched by the sultan for the above i 
purpose returned unsoccessful from Enganki. ( 
The most unfavorable itait in the character J 
of the Carabrie is the extreme dirtiness thev 
display in their habits generally, from whicn 
not one of them appears to be free. They ' 
are generally considered good agriculturists ( 
and expert fishermen: they grow abundance ' 
of com and onions, but a great part of the , 
former is disposed ot lo the natives of Booesk, i 
and YJLoorie, to whose monsrchs they are J 
subject. Most of them are laiher slovenly i 
about tbeir persons, and make use of few or- • 
naments, and even these are of the common- \ 
est description. They bore immense holes in ( 
the lobe of ihe ear lor the admission of bits < 
of fine colored wood ; and the soft pert of the | 
septum of the nose is perforated in hke mi 
ner, in which is thrust a piec^ of blue glu 



Feok the Capb of Good Hope. —The fol- 
, tovJDg piece of iatetlifeDcs woald seem to 
I decide a point which hu been much mooted 
' amoagf us tinee the iDtroduciioi) of Horse's 
[ Telegraph ; it is taken from the Oapa Town 
Mail, in Not. 1st. 

" We have been maefa 
i portaoitf afforded ns, oi 
I witnessing an experimett t 

' purpose of testing the dj * 

I tencci — as anDounced in s , 

I ^rt of which was copied I 

Jtine into tbe last nuc 
I -. ...e capabilitv ol the eajib to act as a con- 
) dnctor for the electric iet%^f>h, Ttik kxpHi- 
' tnani was triea in Ibe grounds of the Good 
' Hjpe estate, flD the upper end of ttio Gavera- 
) ment Gardens" by Mr. Spaarmann, fiufreyor 
^ to tbe MnnfcTpaltiy, aBsisied hv Mr. Wagner, 
) and we are happy to sar, witli complete suc- 
Ta ptore that the aaith, erea Ander 
' I capable ef completing iba gaifamfc 

' dof at a little distance beyond the etlds of tbc 

I trench, and in each of these was buried a ' 

) cupper plate, having a suTface of about two 

J feet by eighteen ioefaei. To these plates a 

) ungle wire was attached, which was snp- 

> ported a few leet above the ground in a ataie 
' of iiwulatioa tilt it dipped into the pits at 
\ eiiher end of the trench. These prepara- 
) tions being completed, a small battery and 
' galvanometer were brought into connexion 
I with a wire, and after a few oscillations, the 

> needle vigorously deviated to 90 degrees, 
' thus proving that the circuit whs in no de- 
) grae inteTTUpied by the iDterreniion ot t 

viih 1 

; and 

1 of the needle, there 

I seemed Do reason to doubt, that had the 

) apace been very much larger the aame result 

J would have appeared. 

, It shoulit be understood, that for tbe pnr- - 

) pose of the electric telegraph two wires have 

' Bithertoalwayabeeacousidered indiupeosable, 

, the ends of both being brought iniocoDnexitKi 

' with the apparatua of tbe termim, to com- 

I pleie tbe circuit. It has now, however, bt^n 

nelly proved that only o 
^ , the ends being simp^ a 
' plates sunk in the ground at each ttrminu* ; 

sary, the ends being simp^ attached to metal 

I and that, when set forth by the battery attHig 

> this wire, the wondrous messenger springs 

' back through the earth from plate to plate — 

', again obediently hurries aioog the wire, re> 

I vealing to the eye any message with which 

' it may be charged — and so continues to wing 

' its mysterious flight, silent snd tapid ai 
thought— till the operator movea a finger, and 

Polar Expedition. — Accounts have been 
', received bylhe Admirality of the Polar ex- 
' peditlon, under Sir John FrenkliD, up to 
I the 16lh of Angust, when they were on the 

north oout of Greenland, above Oilbert'a 
Sound. They would probably winter near 
this 8po(, or at the Arctio islands, the win- 
tering place of Parrv among the Esqui- 
maux, as the state of tne ice and the advan- 
cing season, would prevent much further 
progress bemg made this year. 

Expected fjHt of the Queen to Parit.— 
It is annoiAicM. fton Paris that ber Majesty 
is to pay !l tiSf to the Kmg of the French 
in the Ipriiig. Her Majesty will take up 
her residence at the Qrand Trianon, and al- 
ready a crowd of workmen are restoring, 
embelliabingf K*d pr^>ariiig for her recep- 
tion the pttlac^ whioh was once o6oiipied 
by Louis XVl.- and Marie Antoimtte. 

Oni HitUdfed Lives Lost. —The foreign 

Ewpere are lilted with accounts of the most 
eart-reDding casualties' at sett, occasioned 
by the late terrific gales on the English and 
French coasts. It is stated that nearly one 
hundred renels were lost, during the month 
of December ; and, at a moderate caletria- 
bation, no less than one hundred human 
beings have perished. Among the most 
distressing shipwrecks, is that of the St. 
David steamer, with passengers and goods, 
landing between Havre, Plymouth and 
Liverpool. A large part of her cargo, and 
several bodies, were found on the French 
ooast ; and, it is supposed, every soul (»i 
board perished, during a violent gale. The 
Tom Bowling steamer is supposed to have 
foundered, off* tbe Dutch coast, on the 
17th, when 40 persons, it is said, perish- 
ed. Several vessels, with valuable cargoes, 
have been lost on the English const, and 
many lives httve also been tost. 

A Fathbb's Geatitdde. — Some time 
ago a son of Mr. Key worth, of Washing- 
ton, D. C, was, saved from drowning by a 
son of Benjamin Evans, Esq., ofihal place. 
We now find that Mr. Keyworth, appreci- 
ating the aid rendered to an extent that a 
parent only can feel, has presented to young 
Evans a beautiful silver cup, on which ara 
inscribed the following words, as an indica- 
lion of the sense of gratitude he entertains 
for the service afforded: — "Robert Key- 
worth presents this cup to Edwin G. Evans 
as a token of his gratitude for his gallant and 
timely conduct in saving the lifa of his son 
George Keyworth. while struggling for life 
in the waters of the Washington canal.— 
Dec. 24lb, 1845." 



French Africa.; — 1^ War in Algeria 
— Frightful Razzias. — ^The National gives 
a frightful picture of Marshall Bugeaud's 
doings in Africa. According to the ac- 
coonts published by this paper, 50 prison- 
ers were one day shot in cold blood — 13 vil- 
lages burned^the Dahra massacre acted 
over again, for it appears that a portion 
of a tribe having hid themselves in a cave, 
the same means were resorted to exactly as 
were employed by Colonel Pelissier, and 
all smoked and balked to death. The mar- 
shall himself is the author of all these hor- 
rors— his last triumph was a monster raz- 
zia — ^he has ordered the most strict secrecy 
as to his barbarous proceedings ; and the 
writer of the accounts, of which we have 
just givoi a summary, calls him a second 
Auilla* for he puts all to the sword and fire, 
sparing only women and infants. 

The Toulonnais of the 25th ult. announ- 
ces that Marshall Buroeaud, who had 
quitted . Tiaret on the 5th ult to proceed 
amongst the Cllott-el-Cheurqui, met with a 
considerable mmiber of emigrants, who were 
flying from General Jousouff Having sent 
forward his cavalrj, he captured the entire ; 
men, women, children, numerous flocks, 
and an immense booty. The capture, es- 
corted by two battalions, arrived at Tiaret 
OD the 7th. ^ 

Later accounts from Algeria state that 
Abd-ei-Kader was only an hour in advance 
of his deadly enemy, Greneral Jousouff, 
whose iade&tigable perseverance, cunning, 
and courage, seem to meniuoe the Bmir with 
capture or death. No Indian ever followed 
the track of a foe, it is said, with more perti- 
nacity, sagacity, and resolution, than Jou- 
souff displays in the pursuit of the heroic 

Abd-e\-Kader had encamped on the 11th 
of December about 12 leagues from the 
town of Orleansville ; but having heard that 
Colonel St Arnaud was in pursuit of him 
with his column, the Emir departed on the 
following day towards the south. 

Depopulation of Virginia. — A corres- 
pondent of the National Intelligencer, wri- 
ting from Wilton, Va., says :— 

^< It often seems to me that as yet there 
are no people here, and I wish, therefore, 
to see them come. I have to take up a spy- 
giats to see the houses of my neighbora, 
they are so far off,. and yet so near am I to 
a capital of about 24,000 inhabitants that I 
can see its spires and steeples, and almost 
hear the hum of its laborers. Back of me, 
and below me* off the river as far as 1 have 

explored, I cannot find much else but woods, 
woods, woods. I ride for miles and miles 
in the forest, looking for people — and yet 
this is the first settled and oldest settled part 
of Virginia ! The people have gone off : 
They have settled m Georgia, Alabama, 
Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
Florida ;$fid now, as if there are too many 
people left, a bribe is held out to the r^st to 
go to Texas ! It is a shame that this beauti- 
ful country, so blessed in climate and so 
Uttle needmff, only the fertilizing hand of 
man, should oe without people. Here is a 
venerable river running by my door, older 
than the Hudson, which is now lined with 
towns and villages — much older than the 
Ohio^ older in settlement and geography I 
mean, but where are ^the people 7 For a 
hundred and fifly miles, nrom Richmond 
to Norfolk, the first explored river running 
into the Atlantic ocean, the homeofPowhat- 
tan and the sceaes of the truly chivalrous 
John Smith — where are the people 1 Gone, 
I say, to the North and West ; the trum* 
pet 18 blowing amongst them now to go to 
Texas! Virginia has depopulated herself 
to make homes elsewhere. 

Iron in Pennsylvania, — The Iron foun- 
dry, near Harrisburg, Pa., paid during the 
past season $10,000 for tolls on its coal 
and iron transported on the canal. There 
have beefh erected in the State of Pennsylva- 
nia, within the last two years, thirty -two 
anthracite foundries. 

p*— ** 

AccrD^T AT Sea* — The sehr. Ellen and 
Clara, Capt* Griffin, went ashore a few days 
since at the Timbeller Islaifds, owing to a 
file having accidentally been dropped into 
the compass box which made the needle 
point any thing but the light way. She was 
fortunately got off without much damage, 
although a portion of the cargo had to be 
landed. — The EUea and Clara was boimd to 
Arkansas Bay at the time, and we believe 
bad part of a circus company on board. 

ReceJiktsftr Vlts* 

JFVom ** Old Bmnpkn^^ Obmruttiens," 

Though no doctor, I have by me some ex* 
cellent prescripiions ; and, as I shall charge 
you notmng for them, you cannot grumble at 
ihe price. We are most of us subject to fits. 
I am visited with them myself, and I dare say 
that you are also : now then for my prescrip- 

For a 1*^ OF Passion.— Walk out in the 
open air : you may speak your mind to the 
winds without hurting any one, or proclaim- 
ing yourself to be a simpleton. ** Be not 
hasty in thy spirit to be angiy— for anger 
resteth in the bosom of fools."— £ccles. viL 9. 



The iniect which conttnicia in eoormous 
babiiktioii of thU ronn, ia one of the moit 
deatnictive uiimalt, in proponioa lo iu size, 
exisibg in ihe world. The bare recital oT 
the tnosl iDcontrorenible laets Teepectin; its 
deeiiactiTe operationa, naianllf excilea the 
doubt, or rather the disbelief Bod oflen the 
ridicule of a hearer uoacqaaiated with its 
nature and its habiu. • 

Some rears a^, a gentleman lately reinni' 
«(t from a Tojrage to the But Indies, was re- 
garded with incrednloas anapieion by acme of 
hi* friends, beoiiue he mentioned the folloir- 
■Dg incideots, jn giring a narrative of aome 
ot his obaerraiions. An English residoit of 
his acquaintance took him toa conniiy house, 
which be had erected « few moDihs before in 
a Avori'e spot near the sea-shore ; and which 
had not yet been occupied. On their arriTal 
they found erery thing apparently in good 
order. The siiuatitm being soliiarr and re- 
tired, it seemed not to hare been visited hy 
any one aince the workmen bad lefl it, and 
the fnmimie had been brought in and ar- 
ranged. They entered und began to enjoy 
the ncenery and the solitude, with the accom> 
modatioos which bad been prepared, well ap- 
propriate the country and the climate. It 
happened, however, that, in the course of the 
.day, the proprietor sccideaially struck or 
pressed with no great strength against on; 
of the door-posts, when a small piece gave 
way and « hole was made which showed 
that the inside was hollow. He changed c(^ 

lor,' and ia preat agitattoa rapped against the 
casings of the windows and the woodwork 
in different patis of the boose. Then, turn- 
ing to his guest, he said :— " My house is 
ruined ! The white ants have destroyed it — 
it is a mere shell, said must fall in the next 
high wind. 'It is unsafe for a shelter even 
fur an hour. We must return lo the city. this 

On examination, concluded the i 
it proved that almoet nil the wood-work had 
already been eat^ away, excepting merely 
the external crust of the timbers and boards, 
which might be broken through with the 
hand ; and this was the work d thousands 
' of large white ants, which have often been 
known lo perform operations not less astonish- 
ing and destructive. 

The following extrscts, relating to this re- 
markable insect, we take from Harper's 
Family Library, No. 8. 

AlmoHt all that we know concerning the 
habits and instincts of these curious animals 
is derived _from an account published by 
Smeaihman, in the " Philosophical Transac- 
tions " for 1761. The proceedings of the in- 
sect-tribe, as detailed m that paper, are so 
singular, that ihev cannot fail to prove inter- 
esting to the reader. 

The termites are represented bj Linnttus 
BB the greaieet plsgue of boih Indies, and in-- 
deed, between the Tropics, tbey are justly so 
considered, from the vast damages and losaee 
which they, cause : ihey perforate and eat 
into wooden buildings, utensils and furniture 
with all kinds of household staff, and mer- 
chandize ; these they totally deatroy, if their 





l»rogreM be not timely itopped. A pertoii re* . 
siding in the equinoctial regions, . although 
not incited bv cnriodity, must be Very fortu- 
nate if the safety of his property do not com- 
pel him to observe their nabits. 

•' When they find their way/' says Kirby» 
"into houses or warehouses, nothing less 
than metal or eiass escapes their ravages. — 
Their favcNTite food, however, is wood, and so 
infinite is the multitude of assailants, and 
such the excellence of their tools, that all the 
timber work of a spacious apartment is often 
destroyed by them in a night Outwardhr, 
everj thing appears as if untouched; for 
these wary depredators, and this is what con- 
stitutes the greatest singularity of their his- 
tory, carry on all their operations by sap or 
mine, destroying first the inside of solid sub- 
stances, and scarcely ever attacking their 
outside, mitil first they have concealed it and 
their operations with a coat of day." 

An engineer havins returned from survey- 
ing the cooutry, left his trunk on a table ; the 
next morning he found not only all his clothes 
destroyed by white ants or cutters, but his 
papers also, and the latter in such a manner, 
that there was not a bit left of an inch square. 
The black lead of his pencils was consumed, 
the clothes were not entirely cut to pieces 
and carried away, but appeared as if moth- 
mt&i, there not beine a piece as large as a shil- 
ling tbat was free nrom small holes ; and it 
was fiuther- remarkable, that some silver 
coin, which was in the trunk, had a number 
of blaek specks on it, caused by something 
so corrosive, that they could not be rubbed 
off, even with sand. '* One nl^ht," says Kem- 
per, ** in a few hours they pierced one foot 
of the table, and having m that manner as- 
cended, carried their arch across it, and then 
down, through the middle of the other foot, 
into the floor, as good luck would have it, 
without doing any damage to the papers left 

The nests of these insects are usually term- 
ed hilis by natives, as well as strangers, from 
their outward appearance, which, being more 
or less conical, generally much resemble the 
form of a sugar-loaf; they rise about ten or 
twelve feet in perpendicular height above the 
ordinary surface of the ground. 

They continue quite bare till they reach 
the height of six or eight feet, but in time, 
the dead barren clay of which they are com^ 
posed becomes fertilized by the genial influ- 
ence of the elements in these prolific di- 
mates ; and in the second or third year, the 
biUoek, If not overshaded by trees, becomes 
like the rest of the earth, almost covered 
with grass and other plants ; and in the dry 
season, when the herbage is burnt up by the 
rays of the sun, it appears not unlike a very 
large hay-ccfeir. '* But of all extraordinary 
things I observed," says Adamson, "nothing 
8 truck me more-than certain eminences, which 
by their hei^h* and regularity* made me take 
them at a distance for an assemblage of ne- 
gro huts, or a considerable village, and yet 
they are only the nests of certain insects*" 

Smeathman has drawn a comparison be- 
tween these labors of the termes and the 
works of man, taking the termes' laborer at 
one-fourth ot an inch long, and man at six 
feet high. When a termes has built one inch 
or four times its height, it is equivalent to 
twenty-four feet, or four times the height of 
a man. One inch of the termes* building be- 
ing proportionate to twenty-lour feet ut hu- 
man building, twdve inches, or one foot, of 
the former must be prc^rtionate to twelve 
times twenty-four, or two hundred and eighty- 
feet, of the latter ; consequently, when the 
white ant has built one foot, it has in point of 
labor, equalled the exertions of a man who 
has built two hundred and eighty-ei^ht feet ; 
but as the ant*hills are ten feet high, it is 
evident that human bein|^ must produce a 
work of two thousand, eight hundred and 
eighty feet in height, to compete with the in- 
dustry of their brother insect. The Great 
Pyramid is about one-fifth of thu ; and as 
the solid couii^nts of the ant-hill are in the 
same proportion, they must equally surpass 
the solid contents of that ancient wonder <^ 
the world. 

Every one of these hills coDsbts of two 
distinct parts, the exterior and the interior. 

The exterior consists of one shell formed 
in the manner of a dome, large and strong 
enough to endose and shelter the interior 
from the vicissitudes of the weather, and the 
inhabitans from the attacks of natural or acci- 
dental enemies. It is, therefore, in every in- 
stance, much stronger than the interior of the 
building, which, being the habitable part, is 
divided, with a wond^nl degree of regularity 
and contrivance, into an amazing number of 
apartments for the residence of the king and 
queen, and the nursing of their numerous 

Erogeny; or appropriated as magazines, to 
old provisions. 

These hills make their first appearance 
above ground by a little turret or two in the 
shape of sucar^loaves, rising a foot or more 
in bdght. Doon after, at some little distance, 
while the first turrets are increasing in height 
and size, the insects raise others, and so go on, 
increasing their number ahd widening their 
bases, till the space occupied by their under- 
ground works becomes covered with a series 
of these elevations ; \the centre turret is al- 
ways the highest ; the intervals between the 
turrets are then filled up, and the whole col- 
lected, as it were, under one dome. These 
interior turrets seem to be intended chiefly as 
scafiblding for the dome ; for they are, in a 
great part, removed when that has been 

When these hills have reached more than 
half their height, they furnish a convenient 
stand, where the wild bulls of the distiict 
may be seen to station themselves, while act- 
ing as sentinels and watching the rest of the 
herd reposing and ruminating below; they 
are suffidently strong lor this purpose. 

To these remarks we may add, that our 
American ants are worthy of more attention 
than has yet been paid to them. 











Two or three books, republished in this 
country within three or four years, and exten* 
sirely circulated, have turned many minds for 
the first time to scientific views of apicul- 
ture. They have happily been written in 
such a familiar style as to be, at least in part, 
inteliigible to common' readers ; and such is 
the interesting nature of the subject to which 
they are devoted, that they became interest- 
ing of course. 

We oaanot flatter ourselves into the belief 
that the public, or any very large portion of 
the readers of the various cheap editions of 
Liebig and Thompson which have been is^ 
saed, are perfectly acquainted with ail the 
chemical terms they contain. On the con- 
ti^ry, we have reason to apprehend that some 
of our best educated men are not familiar 
enough with the proximate principles of ve- 
getables, the salts which most abound in 
common soils, or even the simplest elements 
of plants, to be able to give a clear account 
of many of the pages of those authors, in 
which they have read theories of the action 
of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, potassa, &c 

It is gratifying to know, however, that 
these books contain a great deal which maf 
be understoood without a knowledge of che- 
mistry, or even its most common terms. For- 
tunately it happens, that those portions of 
the works which are now of the greatest 
praetioai value, are precisely those of which 
we are now speaking ; and we would urge 
every person to read at least such parts, pass- 
ing over, if he chooses, what he thinks difil* 
cuk of comprehension. 

We learned <Tom Liebig one thing which 
surprised us, respecting the ignorance in Ger- 
many on some parts of the very alphabet of 
this scienee. He devotes several pages to 
proving one of the plainest facts : viz., that 
plants are supplied with their charcoal by 
the atmosphere, and that it must be offered 
to the roots in the form in which they are 
able to absorb and digest it. 

Nothing could be more evident to any re- 
flecting person at all acquainted with chemis- 
try and the growth of plants : yet these facts 
were evidently supposed by Liebig to' be ge- 
nerally unknown. 

The truth is, that the study is by no means 
a simple one. fiefore a person can appre- 

hend the leading prinef|^e« of che'hiistry,^* 
as to applf them to much practical use, he 
must employ his mind with vigor. There is 
one great diflSculty in the case, because the 
principal causes, whose nature, operations 
and effects h^ is to learn, are invisible, or so 
changeable that appearances are often unlike, 
and indeed quite opposite to the tnith. The 
mind is required to be constantly regarding 
things as being what they have been proved 
to be« often in direct opposition to their ap- 
pearance : for instance, wheat flour a^ 
chiefly consisting of charcoal, ahd marble as 
half fbrniedofair. 

The study of chemistry is admirably 
adapted to train the mind to the exercise of 
faith ; and, when legitimately employed; will 
gr^tly promote the vigorous life of a spirtual 
man. It is our intention to introduce from 
time to time a few facts and suggestions oa 
this subject, indicating simple experiments; 
and we hope to contribute, in this way, to 
the entertainment and benefit of some of our 
curious readers. 

Sor the Amm%ean Penny MagaMin§, 
lustructipn In Vocal Masle by Force. 

A curious experiment was made at Lyons, 
in France, in 1842 and 1843, which is of 
great value, as tending to show what may be 
effected by dry practice of musical exercises 
wifere present gratification is wholly left oiit 
of view, and permanent advancement made 
the single object. 

One hundred and fifty soldiers, connected 
with the military gymnasium at Lyons, were 
piit under the direction of Dr. Chev^, for an 
hour and a half each day, who undertook to 
teach four fifths of them, in one year, the 
theory of music— to read at siffht any piece 
of music within the compass of their voices, 
one at a time, without any accompaniment, 
and to write any piece that should be sung 
to them. 

The first lesson was on Isl. of Oct. 1842. 
The soldiers manifested great unwillingness 
to come under the direction of the •• medicin 
fou," (crazy doctor,) as they called him; and 
in a month twelve protested that they would 
not siog at any rate. By July, 1843, the 
number had been reduced, by punishments, 
removals and changes, to fifty odd, and some- 
what later, to 28, while it was found impossible 
to make any additions. Two commissioned 
oflicers were present at all the lessons, to en- 
force obedience. 

Before proceeding to the results, we feel 
obliged to state our decided conviction, that 
the * method of instruction' used, though 
superior to that m common use in tne United 
States, was greatly inferior to the prevaiiinff 
system in France. 






An exhibitioQ was held before the geneml 
and hn staff, on the 25th of A.pril, 1849. <'It 
would be diflScalt»" says Capt. D'Argy, «*to 
paint the astonkhment prodoeed by this ex- 
lubition opon all who were present. The 
truly sarprising readiness with which thes^ 
men sung at sight the most difficult intervals 
in both scalea, the facility with which they 
read in every key, and in tine the occuracy 
and readiness with which aU,.withoat exeep< 
tion, recognized the various notes uttered by 
others, convinced the audience that these men 
were masters of intonation to a very high de- 
gree All the pieces were sung with fault- 
leat aocQracy» only two measures of each 
piece being beaten by the professor, to give 
them the movements.'' On the 1st of Sep- 
tember» 1843, all could sing at sight any 
pieee» prorided the movements were not too 

We have looked at the exercises they used, 
and assure our readers that it is the driest 
kind of stuff, destitute of all melody, designed 
in abort, not to give pleasure either to singer 
or hearer, bat simply to teach the performer 

And, we thought, while looking at it, how 
soon so tedious a course would be abandoned 
by oar jroonff acquaintances, unless they were 
eonstramed by some martial law, as efficient 
as that maintained in the barracks of Lyons. 
In learning to read words, it is not so ; no 
one expects to doive any pleasure from any 
thing be shall read in the first 500 pages of 
his practice. When will our school children 
ieam to read mnsic, (i. e. to sing,) with a 
similar spirit of perseverance, and pa- 
tient wnitmg for the natural maturity of the 
6ait of well applied labor? 

Tbe Tarlcfy and Abnndanee of Matter* 

When we first proposed the publication of 
the American Penny Magazine, it was with 
the COD Fiction that abundant and various 
sources of information were offered to us, 
greatly or wholly neglected by other popular 
works in the United States. We had often 
expressed the opinion, that sufficient matter 
might easily be found, to occupy a large 
portion of iu pages, which would be novel, 
mteresting and instructive to the mass of our 
countrymen. Oar duties as the editor of 
soch a work have since led us to more exten- 
sive and minnte inquiries and observations ; 
and we are now quite lost in the accumula- 
ting matter dfall kinds, which we find offered 
to aa» and pressing on our attention. New 
works <rf* many classes, with rare old books, 
and manuscripu which we had long ago laid 
by* form a stock which is daily increasing, 
by the kind labors of friends and approving 
strangers ; so th&t we can assure our readers, 
that they need appiebaiid no dearth or scar- 

city for the ensuing year, butmtjr, with much 
gtaaler reason, regard with sympathy, htm 
whose task it will be to select for them from 
so great^a mass of materials, and Who must 
continually suffer from regret at leaving un- 
touched much that is both valuable md 

For tke AmtriionPmmy Magmnm, 
ITAIilkN lilNBS, 


Era Panno trentasettsb 
Triste tempo di dolor ; 
Sopra monti, sopra vette. 
Me ne giva trovator. 
D 'una patria novella 
D 'una terra ospitalier, 
Sol guidaio dalla steila 
Che dirige lo straoier. 

Era Tanno trentasette , 
£ d 'Italia me ne iva. 
Per fiiggire le vcndette 
Del tiranno che colpiva. 
Li prodi dell' Italia 
Che libera volcan 
La mal divisa patria 
Ch' in sola unir vclean. 

Era I'anno trentasette, 
Che il sovaono mi dann6 
Alle carcere ristretie. 
Ma 1 esiglio mi salvo; 
8olo ramingo ed esule 
Al quarto lustro appena 
Solo pensoso e debole 
Dolente e senza lena, 
Errava in terre e lidi 
Cercando liberty. 

Ma. DwioHT.^I send vou the Enigma be- 
xow which was composed for your Magazine. 
It may amuse your young readers ; and if 
you have no objections, I may send you 
others. Respectfully, &c. 

New York, Jan. 2S, 1846. H. C. B. 

JF\tr thf$ American Pe»my Jidagasinsi 


I am three words composed of 11 letters. 
My 1, 9, 10, 11, 9, 5, 7, 4, is an amphibious 

My 10, 9, 3, 4, is a noted city of antiquity ; 
My 7, 5, 8, 9, iD, is a river of Egypt, men- 
tioned in the Scriptures. 
My 4, 3, 2, 10, is a Turkish functionary ; 
My 10, 9, 6, 4, is a very fragrant flower ; 
My whole is a troth, which should be im- 
pressed upon our minds, and incite us to duty. 

Louisiana, comprising all the territory now 
belonging to the United States west of the 
Missias^ppi, was purchased of France in 
1803 ; and Florida, of Spain, in 1819. 





She dreamed, and by her ooach there stood 

A being, bright and fair ; 
Her torm was wrapped with snowy lawn — 

A crown of glory gem'd her hair. 

Celestial mildness stamped her brow, 

And lit her angel eye ; 
The maiden gazed, bat dared not speak 

To one who dwelt on high. 

^ She listened, and, in tones most sweet, 
V A Toice fell on her ear ; 
** It is thy mother speaks to thee. 
My child — why dost thoa fear ? 

« Long years have pass'd, since I was wont 

To clasp thee in my arms, 
And pray, in faith, that Grod would keep 

My child from every harm. 

'** That he'd direct yoar infant^ feet 

To tread 'he narrow way — 
That he would lead you safely on 
To realms of endless day. 

*' And when mv form lay resting 

Beneath the burial tree — 
When other arms were round thee thrown* 

I still remembered thee. 

<* Thotigh I had sought a heavenly home. 

My love ceased not to flow ; 
God bade me keep a silent watch 

O'er my dear child below. 

" I've lingered by thy couch of pam — 
I've heard the deep drawn-siffn ; 

And whispered, in the depth of night, 
' Thy mother still is nigh.^ 

" A silent watch I'll ever keep 

Over thy trusting heart ; 
And when my Father wills it so. 

We'll meet no more to part." 

Mother ! dear mother ! let me go 

To (hose imiliortal spheres ; 
Leave me no longer here below, 

To roam this vale of tears. 

" Not now, my child, she made reply — 

Wait patiently God's time ; 
And when your earthly work is done* 

I'll bear you to that blessed clime. 
To pluck the fruit from life's own tree. 
And sing the angel's song with me." 

New Haven paper. 


To Ottr Old Sbuscsibsbs. — The first vo» 
lame of the American Penny Magmzine is 
completed: the second beginmng February 
7th. Those who began with No. 1 will have 
52 numbers, of 16 pages each, containing 
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riety of reading matter, derived from a great 
variety of sources, foreign and American, 
ancient and modem. Of their value our 
readers can judge. Many new and valuable 
sources of information are continually open- 
ing to us. The experiment which we have 
made, of furnishing American families with 
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than any similar work, promises permaoent 
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next volume will please to send the money, 
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To Our New Subscribbbs.— Those who 
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They will be entitled to all the numbers of 
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procure one new subscriber, it will be ren- 
dering an important service to a new pub- 
lication, designed for extensive and lasting 

The articles of Confederation were entered 
into in 1777. The present United States 
Constitutioo, framed in 1787, went into opeia^ 
tion March 1st., 1789. 



With numerous Engravings. 

edited by Theodore Dwlght» ^r. 

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iJ'H^ S?ll*2 ^ ?^^^ fiumlyin the oountiy."- 
iv. y. BapHtt Recorder, ' 

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Editors ol newspapers publishing this ad- 
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Empfm, OJb; 113 Bromdm^. J 

Tm. n. Nsw YoBK, Satotday, F«bbu*et 81. 181& 








The oharacter represented in our frontis- 
piece this weeky is one of which much has 
been written, and of which we may enter- 
tain some erroneous conceptions, if we 
take our ideas of it from the writings of the 
poets, or the euiogiums of those prose 
writers who admire the days of chivalry, 
and the gloom of the Dark Ages. The 
barbarians who overthrew the Roman em- 
pire, and occupied Europe, a few centuries 
after the Chnstian era, introduced a new 
order of things. The leaders, who had 
gained the control of the countries by de- 
stroying or subduing their opponents, paid 
their chief officers by giving them lar^e 
tracts of land, on condition that each should 
appear asain in the field with a certain 
number of troops, whenever called out for 
their assistance. In case of rebellion or 
neglect to obey, he forfeited his possessions^ 
and was promptly driven from them by a 
new &vorite. 

These chiefs had officers to whom 
they assigned portions of their estates on 
the same conditions; and these again to 
their subordinates, until all the common 
soldiers were provided for, each occupying 
a small piece of ground so long as he proved 
fiuthful to his superior, and he to his, ^c, 
unless dispossessed in an unfortunate war 
with some common enemy. Various du- 
ties and privileges, connected with this ge- 
neral system, were established, differing 
in the different parts of Europe and oflen 
in difierent parts of the same country : but 
the general results were much the same, so 
far as they related to the division of ranks 
and the condition of society. The lord or 
baron was a petty prince, his castle was a 
little palace and fortress, his wife Was a kind 
of queen, his family virtually royal, his 
power often great* and sometimes almost 
unlimited. Of course the female character 
had great opportunity to display itself in so 
commanding a position ; and we find in the 
history of the succeeding ages, some ladies 
exhibiting remarkable traits, and performing 
deeds' worthy of attention, or, as some say, 
of admiration, and beyond a parallel iu 
other times, and other states of society. 

But these are the pictures drawn by po- 
ets, and are no doubt as worthy of our con- 
fidence as many ot^r of their descriptions, 
made centuries after their subjects lived, 
and with little but fancy for their founda- 
tion. If the female character was really 
so exalted and refined under the feudal sys- 
tem, why have we so few evidences of it ? 
Why have we none of their intellectual 

productions banded down to us by admiring 
generations? Alas I they could neither 
read nor write ; and, alas ! alas ! they, 
with others, were victims of a S3rstem most 
adverse to their true refinement! They 
could dress and display their beauty in 
public ; they could treat their retainers 
with pride and disdain, or with grace and 
condescension; they could exercise femi- 
nine virtues or feelings ; they were able 
to act on a more extensive scale than others t 
but let their admirers tell us how it was 
possible for them to acquire that intelligence 
and true refinement, that polished and well- 
formed character, which our times and cir- 
cumstances offer to their sex. 


F(*\v modern writers have labored so 
bard and so long to commend the institu- 
tions of feudalism to the public taste as Sir 
Walter SeoU. ^ If we recall some of his 
sketches of female characters, scattered in 
his works, we shall perceive evidence of 
the extreme dearth of materials which he 
found in his attempts to make anything tru- 
ly great, or to the eye of present times, 
exalted or refined. Even in their most fa- 
vorable state, the females of the feudal 
ages were either pent up in their castles, 
which were such abodes as we have de- 
scribed in Vol. 1, No. 29 of this magazine, 
(p. 449,) or exposed to the unfavorable at- 
mosphere of the court, which was some* 
times rude and savage, sometimes luxurious 
and vicious, but always ignorant and fitr 
removed from true refinement 

We can hardly realize how our minds 
are filled with interesting poetical associa- 
tions connected with ruinous castles, until 
we begin to travel in Europe ; then, whe- 
ther we deliberately turn to the review of 
the true pictures given us by history, or 
contrast our own views with those of per- 
sons accustomed to contemplate those ob- 
jects from their childhood, our illusions be- 
gin to vanish. Our ^ castle-building " seems 
to have wasted our time, and perverted our 
taste ,* and it is very probable that we shall 
return home at least partially cured of a 
mania, which our situation in a new coun- 
try, surrounded by books relating to old 
ones, has made very extensive. 

Ruinous castles are doubtless picturcsaue, 
and many of them are associated with his- 
torical events and personages well worth 
knowing: but, after contemplating and 
even sketching a scene, and reading, with 
new interest, authentic relations respecting 
it, let us not indulge in false and delusive vi- 
sions of fiuicied happiness or refinement 

{To h§ caniimud.) 




la rery beaotifiilly described by S. S. 
Prentice — who wns oDoe a monarch of a 
school himself — in his late address, deliver- 
ed hefore the New Englami Society of New 
Orleans. — 

^< Behold yonder simple building near 
the crossing of the village roads ! It is 
small and of rude construction, but it stands 
in a pleasant and quiet spot 

A magnificent old elm spreads its broad 
arms above, and seems to lean towards it, 
as a strong man bends to shelter and pro- 
tect a chikl. A brook runs through the 
meadow near, and hard by there is an 
orcbUrd — but the trees have suflfe red much 
and bear no fruit, except upon the most re- 
mote and inaccessible branches. From 
within its walls comes a busy hum, such as 
yon may hear from a disturbed bee hive. — 
Now peep through yonder window, and 
you will see a hundr^ children, with rosy 
cheeks, mischievous eyes and demure faces, 
all engaged, or pretending to be so, in thoir 
little lessons. It is the public school — the 
free, the conmion school— provided by law; 
open to all ; claimed from the community 
as a right, and acoepted as a bounty. 

Here the children of the rich and poor, 
high and low, meet upon perfect equality, 
and commence under the same anspices the 
race of life. Here the sustenance of the mind 
k served up to all alike, as the Spartans 
served their food upon the public tabla — 
Here young ambition climbs his little lad- 
der, and boyish genius plumes his half- 
fledged wing. From among those laugh- 
ing children will go forth the men who are 
lo control the destinies of their age and 
country ] the statesman whose wisdom is 
to guide the senate ; the poet who will take 
captive the hearts of the people, and bind 
them together with immortal song — the 
philoeopher» who, boldly seizing upon the 
elesoents themselves, will compel them to 
his wishes, and, through new combinations 
of their primal laws, by some great dis- 
covery, revolutionize both art and science. 

That common school is New England's 
fairest boast — the brightest jewel ^that 
adorns her brow. The principle that soci- 
ety is bound to provide for its members edu- 
cation, as well as protection, so that none 
need be ignorant except from choice, is the 
most important that belongs to modem 
phlloeophy. It is essential to a republican 
government Universal education is not 
only the best and surest, but the only sure 
ibandation for fVee institutions. True liber. 

ty is the child of knowledge ; she pines 
away and dies in the arms of ignorance. 

Honor, then, to the early fathers of New 
England, fpm whom came the spirit which 
has built a sohool-house by every sparkling 
fountain, and bids all come as freely to the 
one as to the other ? 

Remarkable Diseovery.^^Laat June a 
man named Edmund Dougan, residing on 
lot 17, in the 4th concession of the Town- 
ship of Nottawasaga, in the County of 
Simcoe, discovered on the lot he oecupiee, 
a sunken hole in (he earth, having the re* 
semblance of a small pond of water, or low 
fen. It was situated on a rising ground 
in the forest, which he was engaged in 
clearing, preparatory to cultivation. The 
roots of the trees had spread over the marsh ; 
and many of considerable thickness were 
cut away by the occupant ot the lot and 
his assistants. 

Dougan's son on stooping to drink out of 
the hole, discovered some Imnes in it, whioh 
caused a further examination, which ulti- 
mately led to the discovery of a very large 
quantity of human bones, mcluding between 
6 and 600 skulls. They also found about 
40 lbs. of brass ; several brass kettles, in 
a decayed state, and several hatchets. 

in about a month after the occurrenee 
above narrated, a similar hole was die- 
covered hy Mr. William Thompson, on the 
third lot in the same concession and town** 
ship, which being examined by Mr. Thomp- 
son and his neighbors, was found to con- 
tain eleven copper kettles, each of which 
would hold about nine pails of water. 
Eight of the kettles were found as periect 
as when made, and the other three were 
much corroded. In this bole wera also dis- 
covered 10 or a dozen sea shells, and a 
large quantity of pipe clay buttons. The 
holes are situated about one mile and a half 
from each other, with the North Branch of 
the Nottawasaga river dividing them. — 
BrockvUle Statesman. 


MaisaehuseUs, — This state was settled in 
1620, by English ; acceded to the Union 
in February, 1788; capital, Boston. Qae 
year's residence in the State and payment 
of a state or county tax, gives the right to 
vote to every male citizen of 21 years and 
upwards, excepting the paupers and per- 
sons^ under guardianship. Area, 7,800 
square miles. Population in 1840, 787,- 





WHttm fir a$ AmtneemPnmy MagoMifU. 

C5ne of the most remarkable discoveriea of 
Mny Ag«f andent or modern, is tbat of the 
Xtegtterreotype ; bv Which, by the ageocy of 
lights a perfect Ukeaesa of an indiyidnal, or 
a perfect resemblance of any inanimate ob- 
f I ject, or scene of nature, is, in a few seconds, 
> c transferred in a permanent form to a metallic 
plate. This is probably the most perfect 
means of pictare-making extant, and conse- 
^Motfy tiie most wondenuL 

BqvImiw much more wonderfal a discoTery 
woqld Ihat be, which would lay before our 
eyes, lol a copy of the external features but 
a true rei^resentation of the human heart— 
th« heart in Daguerreotype ! What a power- 
ful instrument would that be, which should 
expose to view that which has been so se- 
curely guarded from human sight, which is 
locked up in the inmost recesses of the hu- 
man ikreaai* and was never perfectly known 
even by its possessor ! There, in your hand, 
on that plate of silver, is spread out a human 
heart — a human character — a real mafl. ^ No 
external substance, no body envelopes it in 
its deceiviag folds, to cloud over, conceal, <nr 
to tell a false tale: there it stands in the 
clear light of day. There are its sins, its 
wicked acts, its evil intentions, its unhallowed 
thoughts, all that is vile and destructive in the 
heart. There are its virtues :— benevolence. 
Self-sacrifice, self-deniaU love —all that makes 
the heart pure and sacred. There is no hiding 
of faults, no fal# display of virtues. There 
ihey stand, each in its proper place, and ac- 
cording to its true de^ee, scorning and bid- 
ding defiance to decepuon. What a discovery 
tltts would be ! What a change it would pro> 
duce in the world ! How many unjust acts 
would we find we had committed towards 
one we now discover to be innocent: how 
many wrong opinions of character held! 
We nad always considered this bad man, this 
hypocrite, perfectly good and true; and, on 
the oUier hand, how often have we condenmed 
M base and despicable, diis pure and lovdy 
character! Harbor no longer that ill will 
against your neighbor : he is not your enemy, 
as you now see. That deed which excited 
your anger against him, was meant and done 
for your good. Recall the harsh word you 
uttered to that unoffending being, which 
brought the tear to her eye. Little did you 
think, at the time, of the mjustice which you 
now perceive that you were doing her. Take 
from that man, who is even now working 
your ruin, your misplaced confidence ; and 
restore it to him who, you thought, was plot- 
ting your downfall, but who, in secret, was 
your smcerest friend. 

Such a discovery, I repeat, would indeed 
make a new world of this. Men would put 
on in reality new characters, so far as their 
real self is concerned. Their position, their 
influence, their standing in the world would 
be entirely changed. They would present 
themselves to one another as different beings. 

Those who were friends would now see how 
totally opposite and uncongenial are their 
characters ; and enemies who now se« each 
other *'face to face," would soon become 
true friends. Many that are ** last would be 
first, and the first last" With what surprise 
and wonder, would we read the characters 
of others ; and, with what still greater as- 
tonishment and confusion, would many see 
themselves pictured forth ! The world would 
receive a shock, from which it would not in 
a long time recover. Its whole machinery 
would be broken, and would require a thorougn 
reor^nization, before it could again be s^t in 

And if this be true, if suck be the real ef- 
fects which would follow a discovery of the 
characters of others, m what a deceptive 
world, in this respect, do we live; what 
strangers are we to one another ; and what a 
false index is this outward form ! The come- 
ly visage, the winning smile or mannera, how 
often may they conceal the fiendish heart; 
or the naturally severe and harsh, the angel- 
ic ? The human character must of all things 
be the most difficult to become acquainted 
with ; and he who would pass judgment upon 
it, whether for its good or its evil, must have 
long and closeljr studied his subset. OAen 
do we see traits of character dispkyedt in 
hearts with which we have always thought 
ourselves well conversant, of the existence 
of which we were wholly ignorant, and 
which have taken us by surprise! It has 
been said by a distinguished divine, that **we 
liule know how bad some good men are, and 
how good some bad men afe ;** and pediape 
the contrary of this may be true : that many^ 
good men are far better, and many bad men 
are far worse than we think they are. The 
heart, for wise and good purposes, has been 
carefullv barred ana veiled to mortal eyes ; 
and it therefore behoves us to walk humbly 
and oprightljr with '< Our Father which arc 
in Heaven," in the hope that hereafter we 
may receive the crown of true glory, in that 
place where the heart is fr(»e from all wieJked 
and deceitful things. 

Caution. — Never use Blue Ifdu-^We have 
this moment received a letter fVom a friend 
in Alabama, which was written with blue 
ink. It bears date July 21, and has been fall 
long enough in reaching its destination ; and 
in obedience to the law which requires the 
mails, at an enormous expense, to be con- 
veyed in covered carriages^ it has been wet 
through and through, leaving but fiiint traces 
of the contents. Had the letter been penned 
with Black Ink, it would have stood the test 
of the soaking which all letters must occa- 
sionally receive, so long as mail contractors 
are permitted to use the mails as a covering^ 
for the baggage of stage passengers ! 

We commend to the notice of our firiends 
throughout the coontnr the Black Ink of 
Messrs. Maynard & Nc^raa, Boston. It is 
better than we have ever seen, and is for sale 
in all parts of the coimtry.— BsZ^ot. FaUs Otu 


'>^>^ X>\^-\^Ny' 





•« Greece iu 1844: or a Greek's Return to 
his Kattve liand,** 


(Cmtriued from VoL 1, page 12.) 


8cmo6. — Recollections of the Turkish inva- 
sioo. — ^Tbc approach of the enemy's fleet.— 
Terror of the iiihabitant8.-~The author and 
hn hmilf fly to the moantams. — Appear- 
ance of a deliverer. — ^Reflections.* 

Crowds of people were moving in all di- 
rections ; and numeroas difliculties occurred 
in carry mg their plans into operation. — 
Through some mistake or delay, in conse- 
quence of some misfortune or other, I found 
myself lefl behind with one of my brothers. 
The time had passed— the vessel had sailed. 
My fitther had left us in charge' of a friend 
who was to see to our embarkation, while he 
nperintended the movements of the rest of 
the family and such effects as he could take 
with him. We were left behind ; but hap- 
pily we were not without guides and protect* 
ors. I was not quite ten years of age : but 
the memory of that day, and of many that 
followed, is distroctly preserved. Some kind 
neighbors took us under their charge, and 
made us accompany them to a vessel in which 
they designed to escape to a safer place. We 
entered it, but were delayed in leaving the 
island. We sailed along the coast, and stop- 
ped at a place near its northern eztremity, 
where our fears were relieved by the news 
that the enemy had given up their intention 
and that we should remain unmolested. We 
therefore returned, and hoped we should re- 
mam for some weeks in security, though 
sdll separated from the rest of the family. 

At length, after many rumors and tales of 
war had at different times reached and ex- 
cited the inhabitants of our little town, a se- 
cond powerful Turkish fleet made their ap- 
pearance in sight of our island, and all the 
inhabitants become engrossed with apprehen- 
sions for themselves. Ottoman ships were 
seen coming from the opposite coast of Asia 
Minor. There they had received hordes of 
Turks, prepared to land and subject the 
Samiots. The fate of the wretched Scio was 
before ns ; for we had no way of retreat from 
ow island. Our only hope was in taking re^ 
fbge m the mountains, where we might poe- 
siUy escape the hands of our savage and 

unsparing enoan^ or where we might be 
able to prolong our liberty or our lives. but |i 
few days lunger, than if we should remain 
on the shore. Our family returned^ 

Our neighbors and townsmen, were soon* 
seen proceeding from their homes, and as- 
cending the hills. Old and y<Hieg, rish and 
poor, male and female, miogled tflfjeiher^ and 
hastened from their houses to s^k the most 
remote and secluded retreats ilk. < the. .high- 
lands. Our arrangements weee.f soon mads, 
and our family also were on thcrsoi^ £mr our 
favorite mountain farm. Those^of us who 
were able to take anything wi^ tM* lotdcd 
ourselves with articles of val«e, and such 
household effects as we oould moat ssadiAy 
transport ; and thus we joined the sad aali 
. terrified groups who formed the leng piooei- 
sion to the hills. On reaching the spot, ar- 
rangements were soon made £Mr the aseom- 
modation of the family ; and, Isaidng my 
mother and sisters, I rejunied with My-fiuher 
and some of my brothers, to snatch a fsw 
more articles from our deserted habitatiofty 
» from the threatening hands of th«e Tivks.— 
We went and returned in safety. (The sns- 
my's ships were still in our waters, a»d 
threatened an immediate . debaftartion, bat 
still, tor some reason, delayed. We saw 
their immense hulks moving «p and down, 
going and returning, taekiag and tacking 
again, without any apparent rsassa* Agam 
we set out for the town ; and, wkhont ms- 
lestation or accident, deposited another col- 
lectiixi of our effects at our moimtain home* 

In the morning -we found the Turkish fleet 
still sailing up and down the coast; and thet 
day also they made no attempt 'to hmd, al- 
though the shore was open to them, and no 
force was prepared to resist them. On the 
third day our attention was unexpectedly at- 
tracted by the sudden appearance of a small 
number of merchant vessels, which ap- 
proached the town and anchored not far 
from the shore. From the first moment we 
well knew they were Greeks : their gracefnl 
models, their white sails and their skilful 
manoeuvering proclaimed the welcome troth. 
It was one of those little squadrons wiih 
which the nautical heroes of our country had 
already gained themselves a name for bold- 
liess, management and success, surpassing 
perhaps every parallel in ancient as well as 
modern times. The commeroe of the Greeks 
having been, at the commeneement of the 






war, ruined at a blow« the seamen and their 
▼eiseU were all as suddenly converted to the 
objects of war. And most eflScient instra- 
menta they were in working out the final 
triumph and independence of the nation. — 
Without the Ipsariots, the Hydriots and the 
Spezziots, what would have been the result? 
What would be the present condition of Greecel 
We knew well what even such small num- 
bers of diminutive vessels had effected against 
fleets of Ottoman ships, as numerous and 
enormous in size as those which now threaten- 
ed us. Yet we could not be certain that we 
had now any sure prospect of deliverance in 
this little squadron, They might have come 
merely to make a show cf defence, and per- 
haps were wholly unprepared for an attack. 
Their only means of doing injury to the high 
and massive hulks ot the enemy was by fire- 
slups ; and whether they were provided wKh 
these, it was impossible for us to discover.— 
According to custoiQ then, no mark whau 
ever could be seen to distinguish the charac- 
ter of any of the vessels. If any of them 
had been prepared for the purpose of carrying 
fire among the enemy, not « trace of it had 
been left in sight. There might be indeed 
one or several fireships all prepared for use; , 
but, to all appearance, one appeared as much 
like it as another ; or rather, not one wore 
any sign of such a destination. Even if pre- 
pared, and well prepared, still there could be 
no certainty that the attempt would be made : 
for it was well known that the wind must 
blow, and firom a favorable quarter, or it 
would be impossible to give effect to the plan. 
One thing more: the crews of the Greek 
vessels must be favorably dbposed, and lend 
all their powers to seconding the officers, or 
every other preparation and advantage would 
be in vain* And we were long left to reflec- 
tions like these ; for the Turkish ships con- 
tinued their strange movements, and their 
feeble enemies lay quietly at anchor. These 
seemed as mysterious in their inactivity as 
the others in their motions. 

I was once more in the town, when a 
change took place in the position of the par- 
ties. Suddenly, and in an evil hour for the 
enemy, as the event proved, the Ottoman 
cannon opened upon the Greek vessels. In 
an instant our countrymen were seen in ac- 
tive motion, tip came their anchors, out 
spread their white sails, and they flew over 
the water straight for the enemy. The can- 

nonnade was redoubled by the Turks ; bat 
not a gun was fired in reply. On they press- 
ed, with all sails set, right for the very thick- 
est of the invaders, who turned their helms 
for the open sea, crowded canvass, and fled 
in consternation. I was now passing along' 
the beach, at some distance from the towD» 
with some of the last of our portable effects 
in my arms, when this singular naval actjon 
was going on. We felt that we were some- 
what exposed, although we knew that we 
were by no means objects of the Turkish 
cannonniers. Indeed we knew that they had 
no object, it being their invariable practice to 
fire their cannon as fast as possible, without 
the precaution of taking aim, or looking to 
see whether the muzzles point at the water 
or the sky. The knowledge of this made 
our seamen the more bold, as they always 
felt, in approaching Turkish vessels of any 
force whatever, that they were exposed only 
to the merest chance shooting. But, for the 
same reason. We felt that our walk along the 
beach at that moment was the more hazardous. 
We hastened therefore towards the higher 
ground, and partly for the purpose of attain- 
ing an eminence from whioh we might com- 
mand a more perfect view of the contest. 

In this we were soon gratified to our hearts' 
content; for from the side of one of the 
mountains we ecjoyed an uninterrupted view 
of the neighboring sea and coasts, and over- 
looked every ship of the flying Turks and all 
the little pursuing Greek Polaccas. ''Zeta 
Miaulis!" Long live Miaulis! exclaimed 
some of our townsmen near us ; for they had 
discovered that our protectors were led by 
that most distinguished man, who had already 
ranked as first among the naval champions 
of our country. Zeta Miaulis, Zeta Miaulis ! 
resounded and was repeated again and again, 
as the lumbering fugitive hulks of the enemy 
pressed on in flight, with an appearance of 
terror which seemed quite unnecessary, 
groundless, and even ludicrous, when we 
compared them with their small and few 

'** Long live Miaulis V^ And see ! how the 
foremost of the Greeks has almost reached 
one of the mighty Ottoman frigates! Thel 
wind favors, she gains fast upon her, and 
will soon overtake her. The frighteDed foe 
shows every mark of desperate fear ; but all 
to no purpose. He dreads every Greek ves- 
sel as a fire-ship in disguise, and chiefly those 


•^. X,* . -» 




which are most forward io the pursuit. He 
strtTes and turns, but cannot escape. Straight 
down upon him comes the little white-sailed 
Ckeek — and see, now a wreath of smoke 
arises; the ominous boat drops from her 
stem, the few articles on board that are to be 
saved are hastily thrown into it» the crew 
leap after them, and cut themselves adriA. — 
Now tbey ply their oars and are rapidly sepa- 
rated firom their trus^ vessel, which still 
bears on its course, with its helm lashed in 
its place, while clouds rise from the hatches 
and flamee run up the rigging. Roars of de- 
spair burst from the Turkish hulk, now 
marked for sure destruction. Crash goes the 
little bowsprit as it strikes the sturdy planks 
of the frigate ; smoke, sparks and flames 
spread over and rise up its side, and one 
mighty flame now envelopes both in a terrible 

The impressions of the scoie are still dis- 
tiaedy on my mind, and the vievr of them 
from the heights to which we had fled for 
safety, produced the deepest and most inters 
esting feelings. 

MorallsiBg on a Pair of Stockings* 
A correspondent of the Boston Journal 
sends the following letter to the editor, and 
says it was written by Miss £. W., (now 
Mrs. Y., I believe,}~and sent with a present 
of a pair of blue mixed woollen stockings, 
to her cousin, Judge W., on the eve of his 

TaoT Femals Seuinabt, Dec 10, 1820. 

Dtmr Cousin: — Herewith you will receive 
a present of a pair of woollen stockings, knit 
by mv own hands ; and be assured, dear cou- 
sin, that m^ friendship for you is as warm as 
the material, active as the finger work, and 
generous as the donation. 

But I consider this present as peculiarly 
appropriate on the occasion of your marriage. 
You will remark, in the first place, that there 
are two individuals united in one pair, who 
are to walk side by side, guarding against 
eoldnesa, and giving comfort as long as they 
last. The thread of their texture is mixed, 
and so, alas, is the thread of life. Iti these, 
however, the white is made to predominate, 
expressing my desire and confidence that thus 
it will be with the color of your existence. — 
No black is used, for J believe your lives will 
be whollv free from the black passions of 
wrath ana jealousy. The darkest color here 
is 6fue, which is excellent, where we do not 
make it too blue. 

Other appropriate thoughts rise to my 
mind in regarding these stockings. The 

most indifi'erent subjects, when viewed by 
the mind in a suitable frame, may fbmish in- 
structive inferences. As saith the poet, 

'* The iron dogs, the peel and tongs. 
The bellows that have leathern lungs. 
The firewood, ashes, and the smoke. 
Bo all to righteousness provoke.^ 

But to the subject.* You will perceive the 
legs of these stockings (by which I suppose 
courtships to be represented) are seamed, and 
by means of seaming were drawn into a snarl, 
but aAerwards comes a time when the whde 
is made plain, and continues so to the end and 
final toeing off. By this, I wish to take oc* 
occasion to congratulate you that you are now 
through with seeming and have come to 
plain reality. Again, as the whole of thirrr 
comely stockings were not made at once, but 
by the addition of one little stitch aAer ano- 
ther, put in with skill and discretion, until 
the whole presents the fair and equal piece 
of work wnich you see ; so» life does not 
consist of one ffreat action, but millions c^ 
little ones combined : and so may it be with 
your lives, no stilch dropped when duties are 
to be performed ; no widening made, where 
bad principles are to be reproved, or economy 
is to be preserved ; neither seeming nor nar* 
rowing where truth and generosity are in 
question : thus everv stiteh of life made right 
and set in the right place, none tihher too 
large or too small, too ti^ht or too loose; thus 
may you keep on your smooth and even 
course, making existence one fair and consist- 
ent piece, until, together having passed the 
heel, you come to the very toe of life ; and 
here in the final narrowing off, and dropping 
the coil of this emblematical pair of compan- 
ions, and comforting associates, nothiqg aj^ 
pears but white, the token of innocence and 
peace, of purity and light. May you, like 
these stockinffs, the final stitch being dropped, 
and the work completed, go together m>m 
the place where you were formed, to a hap- 
pier state of existence — a present from earth 
to Heaven. 

Hoping that these stockings and admoni- 
tions may meet a cordial reception, I remain 
in the true blue friendship, seendj yet with- 
out seeming. 

Yours from top to toe^ E. W. 


J^hode Island. — This State was settled in 
1636, by English from Massachusetts; ae* 
ceded to the Union in May, 1790 ; capitals, 
Providence and Newport. By the constitu- 
tion recentlv adopted, the qualifications for 
voting may oe stated, omitting details, to be 
a freehold possession worth 9134 ; or if in 
reversion, renting for $7, together with a 
year's residence in the State, and six months 
in the town; or, if no freehold, then two 
years* residence in the State and six months 
m the town, ond payment of a dollar of tax, 
or militia service instead. Area, 1,363 square 
miles. Population in 1840, 108,830. 



Then aie nrenil spedes of tliu nogular 
and ftwlnraid-looking iDaect MoufTet 
tolls na, that " they are called mantes, that 
it, fiatnnMellera ; either because by their 
eoming tbej do show the spring to be at 
hand, so Anacreon, the poet, ssng or else 
they fiiretell death or famine, as Ccelius, the 
scholiast of Theocritus, writes ; or, lastly, 
because it always holds up its forefeet like 
band^ praying, as it were, after the man- 
ner 01 their dinners, who, in that gesture, 
did pour out their supplications to their 
ffoda Bo dirine a creature is this esteemed, , 
Uint if a childe aske the way to such a place, < 
■he will stretch out one of her feet, and | 
seldom or never misae. As she resembleth 
, these diviners in the elevation of her hands, 
I so, also, in likeness of motion, lor they do 
tiot sport themselves as others do, nor leap, 
mar play, but walking softly, she relume 
her modestljr, and showea ^rth a kind of 
mature gravity." 

This tribe of insects, says a popular 
writer, which is scientifically termed Man" 
U», is peculiar for the eggs being imbed- 
ded by the female iu a case of mailer of the 
oocratence of fine parchment, of an orange 
eoior, nearly two inohea in length, and 
■boQt three-mrths of an inch in its ereatest 
diameter. This maas is usually fixed to 
the stalk of some plant. As soon as one 
had succeeded in freeing itself from the 
(ffig, it ran off with the agility of an ant ; 
the color, general form and size of which, 
it had a no less strict resemblance to than 
to its nimbleness. 

RcDSel, determining to study their habits, 
enclosed the yonng mantes in a ^lasa ves- 
sel, hut this confinement appeared to be 
excessively irksome ; the insects, according- 
ly, made every attempt to escape from their 
prison. While the insects ran about the 
glass, RcBsUl remarked that they frequently 
oame in contact with each other, and that 

when this was the case a battle ensued, and 
the victor, even at their tender age, always 
devoured its vanquished brother. Ahhough 
Roesel was aware of the carnivorous pro- 
penaities of this tribe of insects, he did not 
imagine that these would be exercised on 
their own kind ; and, thinking that so un- 
natural a proceeding could only have been 
oocasioned by the onvings of hunger, the 
observer then supplied the impriscned man- 
tes with ants for food. I had no sooner 
done so, says Rasel, than I perceived my 
error: my young insects fled before the 
ants like sheep from wolves. The whole 
community was in great commotion, and I 
soon saw the ents, which I had intended 
to be eaten, falling on, ktlling, and eating 
the mantes 

The same observer, having put two into 
a ghiss case, and taken the precaution of 
satisfying their hunger, saw, nevertheless, 
that tiieir cruehy was not atirpassed by that 
of the spider. No sooner did the two in- 
sects espy each other, than both remained 
Btifi* and motionless, fixing their eyes on 
each other. In this condition they con- 
tinued a long time, when the whole frame 
of each became violently agitated ; the neck 
waa stretched out, the wings expanded and 
fluttered, wliile the rest of the body and tail 
were moved with great agitation. They 
ruahed towards each other with the utmost 
fiiry, and hewed away with their sharp, 
aabre-like forefeet, to use Rccael's expression, 
like a couple of infuriated huzxara. 

Bairow has remarked, that the Chinese 
take advantage of the pugnacity of these 
inaecia, and keep them ai^parate, in bamboo 
cagea, for fighting, as some do game-oocks. 
He mentioned, that they attack each other 
with Bucb ferocity, aa seldom to quit their 
hold without brin^g away, at the tame 
lime, a limb of their antagoniaO 



ThMC two old and ooble cmk ir«ef stood 
>id«lij ode throngh a incuesiionorfeara, ia 
ihe naghboriog beautifol Tillage of Flash- 
ing, until one of Ihem wai proitrated by ■ 
ndtal liana. Among the Tarioni Tegeiable 
betatiea of that place, which the celebrated 
LiQBsan Garden hae reodered celebrated, none 
offtred toch moral aMoeiaiioaa as the twin 
(iintoake: for tradition poinied at the apot 
leaded bf their deep foliage, aa one of the 
ptiMa where the celebrated George Foz col- 
leded some of his hearers in 1673, and de* 
liTcnd leveral of 'hoae discourses, which 
pradvced atrDOg and luting impressions on 
Ihe minds of many ot onr predecessors, in 
■bnr earl; and more simple days. 

Sercral yean ago, while both those Tenei^ 
Mt trees Ktoained, a Frencb artist visited 
■he spot, and made a drawing of them, which 
ns aflerwarde published in Franee, with a 
dncripiioo, accompaaied by similar represen- 
niioaa and notices of several other treea in 
Jiflcreot pans of (he United States, distin- 
fMhed by their historical associations. Our 
(during has been copied from that, and 
viidesigned tot a targe work oo Amerioaa 

forest iiees, by Mr. D. J. Brown, now pie- 
paring, for the r'e** of Messrs. Harper, t 
book which we can conSdenily and wmrmly 
recommend before hand to onr readers IVom 
onr personal acquaintance with the science, 
taste and faithful rewaichea of the autboi; 

There is B peculiar'impreasion made upon 
the mind by the sight of a luge and aged 
tree, acanding in full rigor, covered with 
foliage, and extending its branches far alofl 
in the ir. No iangoage we believe can do 
full justice to the feelings whioh it can raiM 
in the heart, or. to the lofy and solema 
thonghis which it can excite in the mind. 
From out earliest childhood to onr last yean 
we cannot lemaio iodifTerent to the appear- 
ance of so grand and beautiful an object ; 
and eo salutary are the impresaitras it con* 
veys, that a taste for woodUind scenes may 
be justly esteemed one of Ihe most impoii- 
aot to be cultivated in persona of all dassM 
and conditions in life. Happily many asao- 
ciatibns, fi'om early limes, are connected with 
the oalr. tJodei the shade of it Abraham 
had pitched his lent oa the plain ol UMnra, 
■kI there he " entertained angels mawaree." 





In ^ipgYand, of the twenty-fiTe speciet of 
trees most in ase, the oak *' staDos in the 
front rank." It riBet there with a straight 
trunk to the height of 40, 50, or 60 feet, when 
the branches strike ont, nearl^r at right 
angles. The leaTes are deeply lobed in most 
Tarieties, and clustered in bunches, among 
which the wind produces an agitation, with 
a low, murmuring sound, favorable to medi* 
tation, and well accordant with the venerable 
aspect of the tree. No tongue can describe 
the appearance of the numerous oaks in the 
old London Parks and Windsor Forest. On 
our first visit to the former, in our youth, 
they made impressions not to be effaced. 

Mr. Evelyn, in his Svlva, says he has 
counted between 300 and 400 circles in the 
trunk of an oak, which indicated the num- 
ber of years of its age. The Eing*s Oak, 
in DenninfftoQ Park, was 50 feet to the first 
limb ; and the lower part of the trunk, when 
squared for sale, measured five feet across. 
One in Shropshire was 9 feet through, and 
the branches extended 150 feet in diameter. 
One in Norbury measures 45 feet around ; 
and when felled, two men on horseback could 
not see each other over the trunk. An oak 
in Gloucestershire was 54 feet in circumfer^ 
ence near the pround, and a hollow within 
was 16 feet in diameter. In Derbyshire was 
another hollow one, 68 feet round outside, 
and an ale-house was kept within, 16 feet 
long and 20 high. The celebrated oaks of 
King Alfred and Charles 2d. have long since 

The oak is a tree of no less importance 
and interest in our country than elsewhere ; 
and, although the superior value of the white 
and some other varieties, have caused a 
scarcity of them in the older parts of the 
Union where they once abounded, we need 
but travel to Michigan and Illinois, to see 
them in great numbers, and in pristine size 
and ms^jesty. In the latter state, says a 
friend, who has made the scenery of that re- 
gion a particular studv, the trees are chiefly 
round on the banks of tne streams, which flow 
through ravines, from one to three hundred 
feet below the surface of the vast level prai* 
rie. Some of the oaks are found scattered 
over that extensive plain, in the proportions 
of one, two, five, or more, to the acre: but 
in the deep cuts opened by the rivers, they 
abound in groves and woods, and there X 
have often spent hours rapt in admiration of 
their venerable forms, beneath their solemn 
shadows, which have been deepening for 
centuries, and seem likely to remain, S led 
undisturbed by man, (or centuries to come. 
What a noble product of vegetation is a gi- 
gantic oak ! Yet how interesting is it to re* 
eoUect that its germ was once enclosed in 
an acorn! Many of the patriarchs of our 
most noble forests probably had their places 
assigned by the freaks of the squirrels ; and 
thousands of future ones may be planted for 
the enjoyment and use of our successors by 
*he man, nay even by the children of the pr** 

sent day. We would say to every parent : 
see that each of your children plants at least 
one tree, and renaind him fVom time to time, 
that he has thus done one laudable deed, 
which he may ever look upon with satiid&e- 
tion. While there are acorns in our reach, 
and a spot of unoccupied land Is left aroand* 
indeed, why should any of us ever indulge 
the painful idea, that we are useless beings, 
and have no opportunity to do good I 

We have many trees, in different parts of 
our country, in some way or other connected 
with important events in history, or with 
distinguished men. Some of these we de- 
si^ to notice in future numbers -of our mag« 
azine, having been, for man^ years, partica- 
larly interested in the subject, and having 
taken pains to procure facts, drawings and 
descriptions, in the course of our reading, 
travels and intercourse with many persons 
of intelligence, observation, study, and 
taste. We take this opportunity to invite 
our readers to lend us their aid. Many of 
them, doubtless, may have it in their power 
to Aimish something about some distinguish- 
ed tree, which will be valued by ouri^elves 

and others. 


In early childhood, the celebrated Charter 
Oak of Connecticut arrested our attention, and 
excited that reverence with which it is still 
regarded ; and we hope soon to have the 
^ratification of iotroducmg this noble old 
friend to the acquaintance of our distant 
readers. It is a remarkable fact, that such a 
tree, which is said by tradition to have been 
spared by the axe, on account of its size and 
age, at the time when the original forest 
around it was cut duwn, should afterwards 
have served as a repository for the Charter 
of the Colony, after it had fallen into the 
possession of Sir Eklmund Andross, the com* 
mi^ioner of King Charles 2d., and yet snr> 
vive at the present day, m full strength and 

It is gratifying to find, that what we have 
said and done in relation to trees, has met the 
approbation of friends and straingers in dif- 
ferent parts of the Union. We can assure 
those who have addressed us with expres- 
sions of encouragement, that their kind words 
are not lost ; and we hope to aid them still 
farther, and in different ways, if we find that 
their interest and exertions in our fsTor are 
continued. We anticipate the pleasure not 
only of contributing to the embellishment of 
many private and public grounds, in near 
and distant villages*of our country, with or- 
namental and useful trees, but of adding for 
the coming spring, a few new flowers to the 
gardens, and a few new seeds to the farm. 

NeW'Hampshire, — ^This state was settled in 
1623 by English ; acceeded to the Union, 
June, 1788; capital, Concord. Every male 
citizen of 21 years of age, except paupers, 
has the right to vote. Area, 9,280 square 
miles. Population in 1840, 284,574. 






A House and a Family of Jour CkUdren 
saved by a Dog. — Mr. Solon E. Bett«, of 
Sansfield, (Ms.) being aboat to go out for 
an evening visit on New Year's night, di- 
rected bis eldest boy, a lad of some ten 
years of age, to put wood into the. stove 
and to have a good fire when he and the 
other children went to bed, and to have the 
kindlings ready for the morning fire. The 
hoj did so, but put the kindlings under the 
baser, so that the fijre communicated to 
diem from the stove. When the fire com- 
municated to the kindlings, the children 
had all gone to their bed, in the cham- 
ber, but there was a faith^l watchman 
left below. Mr. B. had an intelligent 
•pa&iel, which seeim^ the fire communl- 
caie to the wood and 6om that to the floor, 
.mouDted up siairs to give the alarm, but find* 
ing that he could not make the boys under- 
stand him, he laid himself down on one of 
their beds for a few minutes. As if aware 
of the increasing danger, he soon returned 
to the fire however, then to the bed again, 
and on his third visit to the chamber, he suc- 
ceeded by his barking and howling in awa- 
king the boys, all of whom had &llen asleep 
in the mean time. The smoke soon con- 
vinced them that the house was on fire; 
and when they entered the room below, 
where the fire was spreading, they founa 
the laithful sentinel at his duty, striving to 
arrest the progress of the flames with all 
his energies, and scattering the burning 
brands with his teeth and paws in every din 
reetioQ about the floor, Uiinking, no doubt, 
that ifhe^ couU not proeure vfater, this was 
his last resort to save the house. It seemed 
that he had been doing the same before he 
succeeded in arousing the boys. The fire 
burnt a large hole through the floor before 
the boys succeeded in extinguishing it — 
Springfield^ (Mass.) Post, 



• A Worthy Example. — One of those grati- 
fyins exemplifications of a high-souled sense 
Qt honor, and honesty looking beyond the 
statute-book for its standard of right, which 
occasionally iUumiaate the darkness of this 
work-day world, occurred in this city on 
Friday last. Mid we take great pleasure ia 
ebrooiding it. On that day, an elderly 
gentleman, a stranger, called at one of our 
Banks, and after introducing himself to the 
Dbectors and the other officers, made known 
the object of his visit. It se^ns that about 
twenty years ago, in 1827, he was an en- 
ioruTt merelyr on a note, the parties to 
wJiich iaihsd at that time, and after paying 

to their creditors a dividend of s9veniy'Si9 
per cent, received a faU discharge from all 
claims. The present Board of Director* 
were wholly unacquainted with the gentle- 
man or the transaction, and were oWiged to 
seek a knowledge of it in the books and pa- 
pers of the Bank— the endorser insistioff 
upon paying the balance of the debt, which 
he did, (notwiihstsnding the discharge.) to 
the amoimt of about $1450. 

The gentleman, whose name ought not to 
be concealed, was John Willkms, of Boe^ 
ton, and we believe this is not the only traaa- 
action of the kind with which he has been 
connected. He needs no utle but his simple 
name. — Salsm Regtster, 

DueUing.^A death bfow to this practice 
Bas been struck in Alabama. A Mr. Miles 
Ivey, conceiving that he had a cause of quar- 
rel with the member of the Legislature from 
Barbwir county, challenged him to fight, and 
now hnds himself convicted and sentenced is 
the penitentiary. 

Rs-aptearance of a Corn*/.— Biela's Comet 
was observed at the Hydrographical office, 
Washington, on Monday night Its place 
was m the southwest, and invisible to the 
naked eye, and, in the light of the fuU moon, 
presents, through the telescope, the appear- 
ance of a faint planetary nebula 2' or 3' in 

The period of this comet is 6f years. It 
18 the same which created such alarm amon^ 
the French in 1832, lest it should come in 
cdlision with the esrth. 

The Revolutionary Army.^lt is pleasant 
to revive associations connected with there- 
volution, and whatever has relation to that 
menwrable event becomes of interest A 

ij r ^^® ^*' ^^^ searching among some 
old family records, glanced upon the follow- 
ing statement of the force of the United 
States, and as a matter of record and inter- 
est, we sutgmn it :— U: 8. Gaz. 
State of the U. S. Arbit m June I77a 

Rank and file Iniantry, 11,330 
Artillery, l^i 
Cavaiary, 506 

The Asn of trb 


Lt. Colonels, 



First Lieutenants, 

Second do. 





Quarter Master, 


United States, Sept 177a 

51 Surgeons, 69 

43 Surgeons' Mates, fiO 

48 Sergeant Migors, 68 

311 Q. Mas, SergtSi 66 

314 Drum Majors, 61 

269 FifeM^'ors, 46 

117 Sergeants, 1,705 

11 Drum. & Filers, 997 

G2 Rank k file, 30,134 

61 Artillery, 1,444 

62 Cavahry, 650 








[CotUmmtd/r^ Vol. II., p 19. 
Napoleoa was boro at Ajaccio, in Corsica, 
on the I5th of August, 1760, and early entered 
the military sohool of Brieone. Theie he 
engaged, with all the ardor of boyhood, in the 
exercises and studies which form, as it were, 
the alphabet of war ; being attracted as tho«p 
aands of children have been, first by ita mu- 
tie and tinsel, and then by that pride, lore o( 
power and lawlessness which are naturally 
planted d^ep in every hearu 

We may conjecture how much oi that 
salutary discipline he learned, for wtiich such 
institutions are sometimes praised. It is re- 
lated, that, in order to gain a license to leave 
Ihe ground on a festival day, when the pupils 
had been ordered to remain at home, he blew 
«p one of the waUs with gunpowder, and 
ran away to join the sports in the public 
square. If he had had the blessing to be sutgect 
to good old*fashioned American fiunily disci- 
pline for such a high-handed offence, he might 
perhaps have never dreamed of reducing all 
Europe to his own single will, which then 
gained one of its dangerous triumphs : but 
our principles, views, or objects of education 
did not prevail in the military schools of Eu- 
rope, nor in the household of Madame Jos^ 
phine Bonaparte ! 

He was made a second lieutenant at six- 
isiB, and joined the regiment of Lafere at 
Valence. He was promoted to a captaincy 
four years after ; and in 1793 commanded the 
artillery at the siege of the British troops in 
Toulon, where he first distinguished himself 
by directing the cannon with great military 
science and skilL The next year he was 
commandant of the army in Italy ; and, for 
his services, was made general of iniiuitry in 
1795. That same year he suppressed an in- 
surrection of the people in Paris. 

He was only 26 when he took command 
of the army of Italy, and gained four victo- 
ries over the Austrians in the northern pari 
of that country, and soon got the. control of 
the whole of the peninsula, so that the peace 
of Campo Fomio was concluded in the fol« 
lowing year. 

In 1798 he sailed for Alexandria, capturing 
Malta on the way ; and after gaining posses- 
sion of Egypt, and all Syria, except Acre, his 
army was expelled by the British afler the 
reduction of his fleet off the Nile. 

In 1799 a revolution was made in Paris, 
and Napoleon was proclaimed first Consul of 
France. In 1800 be marched another army 
into Italy, gained the battle of Marengo, and 
again took possession of the country. Ha 
was dected Consul fof life in 1602 ; and, in 
1804 (December 2nd} sent for the Pope to 
crown him Emperor of IVance, but, snatching 
the crown from his hand, placed it upon hia 
own head, assuming the title of Napoleon 
First. He was crowned King of Italy in 
March, 1805, in the city of Milan. 

During the first part of his career, Bona- 
parte excited the hopes of nations, with pro- 
mises of freedom and happiness, which they 
did not enjoy under their monarchs. But 
they soon found their mistake, and discovered 
that he was ambitious, and seeking only to 
extend and establish his own power. Than 
was many a point in his hislDfy, where he 
might have stopped, and resigned to the 
French, the Italians and other nations the 
right to form governments for themselves, 
and to pursue their own way to happiness. 
He would then have enjoyed a well-founded 
and lasting fame, and left an example of the 
most glorious kind to all succeeding genera- 
ions. Whatever the results might have bean, 
he could not have been held responsible for 
the conduct of nations left to their own wilL 
There was one ihan who would have acted 
thus ; and it is difficult to speak with equal 
confidence of any other. — Unhappily Napo- 
leon was not a Washington. 

When the people of Europe had become 
convinced that their conqueror was not their 
friend, they encouraged their sovereigns to 
join aginst him : but a long and bloody con- 
flict lay before them. His officers and soi« 
diers, like himself, now felt their own inter- 
ests identified with conquest ; and multitudes 
of the enthusiastic among the people, the 
corrupt, ignorant and deceived as well as 
those most opposed to the old systems of 
governments still adhered to him. In 1805 a 
new confederacy was formed against bim, to 
oppose which he invaded Germany,took 30,000 
prisoners at Ulm, entered Vienna in Novem- 
ber, gained the victory of Austerlitz, Dec 2d, 
over the Emperors of Russia and Austria, 
concluded peace with the latter, created the 
electors of Bavaria and Wirtemburg kings, 
and his elder brother, Joseph, King of Naples. 
He invaded Prussia, Oct, 1806 ; and on the 





3d gained the yictory of Jena, with the coa« 
%aeBt of PmsBia and Grermany. 

His fiuaoBs Berlin Decree waa published 
^a^ aoth, ezeloding fiiiiiah trade from the 
coQtiaent, under whiek many American ships 
w«n afterwards seiiad» whieh were not paid 
fo uBCil within a few years, lie def^ted 
the Em^^eior of Russia at £gUa Vkd Fried- 
land, in Jane, 1807 ; after whieh he made the 
treaty of Tilsit. In Norember he drove the 
King of Porlngal to Brasil by eonquering his 
kingdom. i>ec Ist he made Jiis younger 
brother, Jerome, King of Westphalia. In 
ie08» May 5th, Charles the 4th of Spain 
gave «p lus claim to his crown ; and Napo- 
leon's brother Joseph was proclaimed in his 
^ace» oa the 6th of June. Napoleon and the 
Mspcfov cf Eussia proposed peace with £n^ 
gfaoi^ in September, which was rehised. In 
Octobtf his armies in Spain drore the British 
Horoes to Corunna, and carried the new king 
to the capital to be crowned. 

But the AuBcriao armies taking a threaten* 
ing attitude, Bonaparte returned from Spam, 
to oppose them, and gained the rictories of 
A b fn t twg , Eckmnhl & Ratisbon. 

Thus the great conqueror had gone on, 
from one Tietory to another, until he had r^ 
doeed to his control almost all £«rop«» 
Doubtless he felt as confidet hi his own 
abMi^es as thousands of other men did, even 
in oor country; but nothing is more true, 
than that he would have been powerless, 
if tha people d France and Europe had 
been such men as they should have been. 
An the talents and natural superior genius 
in the world* (if there be such a thing,) 
would have availed him nothmg, unless 
thflce hsid been, as there was, a vast pre- 
dominance of vice, corruption and irreligion 
f^tfjwg in Europe, prepared to sustain him, 
or if he had not used a coarse oi various 
ieeepffnns, and thus imposed upon many of 
the virtuons and patriotic, but too credulous 
of the people. 

{To he eotUimud.) 


« J%e Musical A. B, C."— by E. Ives— 
is a neat little work, just published, design- 
ed lor thorough iDstruction of children 
in the science and art of vocal music The 
lessons are excellent aud numerous, and 
secure more elementary practice than is 
usually given in schoda There is ako a 
collectioa of hymns, songs, dsc, partly ori' 
gisalj which furnishes a eonvenfent and 

valuable addition. We woald urge parents 
and teachers to pay due attention to sing, 
ing. They may make it a most pow^ul 
assistant in the discipline and instruction of 
the family and the school ; and a little ao* 
qnaintanoe with the principles of the sci- 
ence will enable them to use such a work 
as this with snccess. A great deal remains 
to be done, b^re our children will have 
that musical education which is d^nanded: 
or rather the beginning can hardly be said 
(o have been made. 

Was im thb CsyBNKBa— In the last 
number of the Foreign Ctuarterly Review 
is an article upon the '< war in the Ceven- 
nes," which followed the revocation of the 
£dict of Nantes. Ignorant friends, or 
secret enemies of the troth occasionally 
publish falsehoods, or misrepresentations, 
like the ibllowing. 

One day, Cavalier (a Protestant leader) 
stopped in the neighborhood of Ledi^nan, 
six mules laden with wines of Calvisson, 
int^ded for the table of Marshal Montre- 
▼el (a Catholic general officer.) He re- 
tained the animals, and sent on the mu- 
leteers with a note, in which he informed 
the Marshall that the Camis-ads (a nick- 
name of the Protestants) were going to 
drink his wine to his health and tbit o? his 
friends ; a ceremony which they duly per- 
fenned. Upon another occasion, Cavalier, 
quartered at the deserted mansion at Fau, 
carried off four mules lad^ with sucking 
pigs, hares, turkejrs, fowls, and bottles of 
excaUei;^ wine. At the same time one of 
his parties brought in a capture of a very 
dirorent kind, but no less precious ; a Je- 
suit, one of the missionaries who were 
preaching a cmsade ajgfainst the << Children 
of God." After having destroyed his ee. 
cort, they carried him in, to be presented 
before Cavalier and the council of the pro- 
phets, in order that the desolation of Lan^ 
guedoc might be avenged upon him. But, 
uke hungry men, they shut him up in the 
vaults of the castle, and busied themselves, 
in the first place, in preparing their repast, 
keeping their victim for the dessert. In 
the middle of lAe feast, the men, in a trans- 
port of cruel joviality sent for the prisoners 
in order to to amuse themselves with his 
alarms. The Jesuit, who was in momen- 
tary expectation of death, was astonished 
when they invited him to place himself at 
a table and presented to him a roasted pig, 
stuffed, and as yet untouched. His joy, 
however was of short duration, for the exe- 
cutioner, or, as he was officially styled, the 






<< exterminator " placed himself near him, 
and* raising his large cutlass, said to him, 
<< Eat, father, take the hest piece ; hut he 
assured that whatever memher you cut, the 
corresponding memher of your own person 
shall he canred likewise." ^ I am not hun- 
gry/* mournfully replied ihe Jesuit. " No 
matter," said the Camis-ards, <<eat you 
must, and that instantly." The unhappy 
priest turned his pig over and over, looked 
at his hosts, raised his eyes to heaven and 
sighed. ^< Make haste 1" cried the exter- 
romator in a terrible voice, brandishing his 
weapon. The ffood father was compelled 
to resign himself to his fate ; and, making 
a desperate effort, he contrived to suck out 
the stuffing without cutting the pig. The 
Camts-ards, aurprised and enchanted hy 
this ingenious turn, uttered shouts of laugh- 
ter and applause. The story was repealed 
to CavaUer, who was then at tahle in an 
adjoining chamber. He sent for the priso« 
ner and gave him his liberty, saying, he 
was really worthy to be a Camis-ard, ainoa 
they also lived only hy stratageuL 

Tales like the above are designed to 
counteract the accounts of the horrible re- 
alities of the most inhuman hutcherias 
practised on the very persons who are here 
represented as taking the place, and prao- 
tismg on the principles of their unrelenting 
enemies. The story was perhaps wiitten 
hy a Jesuit 


Geography and EUttory* 

Grbbcb.— What are the boundaries of 
Greeoe--the latitude and longitude ? What 
country in America is in the same latitude? 
What islands are there in Greece ? What 
fulfs and hays, capes and promontories, 
ports, mountains, rivers, divisions, cities? 
Describe them. 

1. The climate is generally very mild 
and healthful, and the soil fertile in the val* 
lies, so that the country produces abundance 
of grain, oil, wine, and silks, as well as dif- 
ferent fruits. The surface is extremely ir- 
regular, so that it is difficult to travel many 
mfies in any part without crossing moun- 
tains or winding through narrow defiles. — 
The shores are bold and rocky ; and the 
fiice and form of the country have been of 
great use. both in ancient and modem times, 
in defending the inhabitants from their ene- 
mies, and in promoting commerce. 

2. Greece was early peopled by some of 
the descendants of Japheth ; and the coun- 
try is one of those called in the Old Testa- 

ment the land of Javan. The arts of build* 
ing ships and large houses and temples of 
stone were brought there in early times hy 
colonies of Egyptians, and letters by the 
Phosnicians from Syria. Those ooloniea 
grew into pow^ui states, several of whicli 
were republics for many ages, in which the 
people cnose thmr own rulers, as we do ao w. 

(Let the parent or teacher ask questions 
on these suhjeots.) 


It has been su^ested in distinguished 
quarters that the Territory of Oregon is 
worthless. It has also been said on both sides 
of the Atlantic that the territory cannot long 
be governed either from Westminster or 
Washington ; but that it will require a sepa- 
rate government of its own. If either of 
these assertions be true, a war, in this age of 
civilization, to determine the tiil€ to Oregon* 
will be " monstrous " and '* impious " beyond 
any uKtger of battle in history. The follow- 
ing verses from an ancient newspaper will fii> 
ly illustrate the folly of both nations that en- 
gage in It— Ballon Daily Adv. 

Clyhtt and Clod, two surly clowns, 

As reeling home one nifht 

From alehouse, where their sappy crowns 

They'd soak'd in sad'ning plight. 

While all the azure tinted sky 

Spread out its clear expanse. 

And all the glittering train on high 

Seem'd o'er their heads to dance* 

Quoth Olump to Clod, ** I tell thee what ! 

** I only wiBh that I 

** As much good pasture land had got 

** As 1 can see blue sky.** 

*" And I," quoth ChMl to Clomp, «<shoukl like 

*' Thy wish to beat by fiir, 

** And have, to prove a wealthier tyke, 

** An ox for every star." 

** Ah but," says Clump, '• to veed them all 

** What pasture could be vound 1*' 

" Enough," says Clod, <« vor great and small : 

" I*d veed them on thy ground." 

"What! and without my leave?" says 

^Ay, that I would," says Cloddy. 
Quoth Clump, "then thee my head shali 

" Or I will bump thy body." 
So to't they went, bioth Clump and Clod, 
As fast as nst could tag. 
Till both lay sprawling on the sod, 
And scarce a fist cpuld wag« 
" Now Where's your oxen, Clod ?" saya 

" And where," says Clod, " your ground ?" 
Both sigh'd, and, carcase raised on stump, 
In vain for both looked round ; 
Then shaking hands they cursed all jars, 
And all deceiving eyes. 
That looked for ox«i in the stars, 
And pasture from the skies. 





jmuAxanrL stobm * shipwrsck* 

On Saturday nts^t and Sunday, the 14th 
and 15lh of February, a very violent snow 
and wind storm, from E. N. E., prevailed 
OD the coast, which caused in a few hours 
the wreck of several vessels and the loss of 
many lives. 

The N. Orleans packet ship John Min- 
Uim struck on Squam Beaoh, about 3 on 
Sabbath rooming, heeled and lay on her 
side, with the deck exposed to the waves. — 
The Captain sent five men to shore with a 
lope, but it soon broke ; and at 10 the ship 
went to pieces, and all the other persons 
were soon drowned: viz., Captain Stark, 
his wife, daughter and son, with sailors 
I and passengers, about 30 in all. The car- 
' go was womi about $60,000. 

The Swedish barque Lotty, with oorn 
and rice for Antwerp, went ashore at 9 
P. M., and the captain and mate were 

The barque New Jersey was wrecked 
very near the Lotty. She was a Savannah 
packet — Crew saved. 

The schooner Register, from Newbem, 
was driven on the beach in front of the 
Long-Branch Hotel, and lost one passenger. 
The cargo was scattered along the shore 
for three miles. 

The schooners Arkansas and Pioneer 
were thrown on Deal Beach ; and the 
schooner Alabama on Squam Beach. 

There were many disasters on other 
parts of the coast At Nevi^Haveo, it is 
said, the snow fell deeper than it had in six 


New Yorky Jan. 29, 1846. 

Mr. Dwioht. 

Sir : — The within is a 
piece of my composition for which 1 would 
respectfully ask a place in your magazine, 
if you think it worthy of as much notice. 

I trust the sentiments are correct, and 
hope that my course through life may accord 
with them. 

Respectfully, your youn^ friend 
and well-wisher, 

H* C. B* 

Ijet OS do Good. 

We have a soul whose welfare for eter- 
nity will be affected by our actions in this 
life. We should then improve, to the best 
of our abilities, the time and talents given 
to us by our Creator, keeping in view His 
honor inA glory and the good of our fellow 

It is a sad spectacle to behold men, en- 
dowed with noble fiiculties, living in the 
wbrki where sin abounds, without making 
any exertions to allay its blighting influence. 
Suffering humanity receives no assistance 
from them. They 

^"never raise their thoughts so high : 

Like brutes they live, like brutes they die." 

On the contrary, it is a spectacle which 
commands the, admiration of the intelligent 
and well disposed, to see one laboring pa- 
tiently and zealously to dispense happiness 
among his fellow-creatures. Such a one is 
acting the part of a rational and immortal 
being ; and, if actuated by right motives, 
will receive an imperishable crown. He 
feels that he has a work to do, and knows 
he is not pursuing a shadow, like him 
whose soul is wrapped in the things of time. 
And, when about to leave the world, he 
can look with satisfaction upon his past life, 
and say, " I have not lived in vain.'' 

We can all do iome good, with our va- 
rious opportunities and qualifications, and 
the aggregate — how immense! There are 
varions benevolent institutions, such as Bi- 
ble, Tract and Missionary societies, the 
Sabbath-school, and kindred associations, in 
the support of which we are serving God, 
our country and humanity. 

Let us not fold our arms and look with 
complacency upon the wants of our fellow 
mortals, but let us do what good we can, 
ere we sleep in death. d^ 

Yankee Rovers. — At the New England 
dinner at Washington, on the 23d ult, 
Judge Woodbury said : — 

'< At this moment an emigrant from the 
shores of the Winnipiseogee Lake in New 
Hampshire, holds a high rank in the na- 
vy of Russia. Another from the same 
State, has manufactured cannon for the 
Sublime Porte, m the dock yards and ar- 
mories of Constantinople; and within a 
month I parted with one of her hardy and 
intelligent mechanics, on his way to Mex- 
ico, where he and his femilies have built 
cotton manufactories, more than five hun- 
dred miles west of the capital of M^'nte- 
zuma ; on rivers that tumble into the Pa- 
cific. Ask, likewise, who established the 
great sta^e lines in that kingdom, and you 
will find that it was another emigrant 
from the mountains of the Granite State, 
and that the carriages which now run over 
the ground where Cortez marched to vic- 
tory were built either on the banks of the 
Merrimack or the Hudson." 







Mm. DwiOBT.— I send yoa the eneloted, 
not with the thought that they will e¥er be 
pablished» but rauiei with the intention of 
making a commencement of sending you 
weekly contributions in the hopes that #01110- 
timei you may find one worthy some comer 
in your eotertaming family newspaper. 

Dec 6, 1845. Qumor. 


There is a thought— each hour brought 

Which solemnly does cry 
Within my ear, when no one's near» 

** I very soon must die." 

That selfsame thought, though daily brought 

To men both low and hig& 
Ther can't conceive, they soon must leave 

This earth, and quickly die. 

Some would now cease to life in peace. 

And hard for war do try ; 
Rejoiced that they have found a way 

To make men sooner die. 

Oh thou Great God, the Mighty Lord, 
Who reigns in heaven on high. 

Thy aid do give, that men may live 
Always prepared to die. 

la heaven above, in purest love» . 

Without a pain or siffh : 
Or else in hell, we eacn must dwell* 

For we must shortly die. 

SeltiHon of the Enigma in our last nvm* 
her, page ^A. — ^Time is short. Tortoise. 
Home. Sihor. Emir. Rose. 

The Psbstdent of trb Academy of Abtb 
AND SciEKcibS, at Paris, has written a letter, 
in reply to a Mr. Driscoll, of Warren, R. I. 
who had addressed him upon the subject of 
an artiticial arm, the work of a Dutch sculptor, 
M. Van Petersens, which was presented to 
the notice of the Academy by M. Magendi^ 
^aud a partial description of which appeared 
in tba Jouiaal des Debats. Mr. Driscoll has 
had the ffreat misfortune to lose both his 
hands, and has worn two artificial hands for 
eleven years. Though of the best construction 
says the Providence Journal that he could 
obtain in this country, ihey are very imperfect 
compared with the artificial arm referred to 
in the Paris paper, and which we doubt not 
is altogether the beat contrivance that has 
been invented to supply the want of the na« 
tural limb. It will sustain a weight of about 
eight or ten pounds. It enables the man who 
wears it to write, to eat with a common knife 
and fork, to dress himself, using hooks and 
eyes instead of buttons in a part of his dress ; 
to walk with a cane, to hold a book, and in 
many other ways to supply the want of the 
natural organs. The cost for one of thesa 

hands k 600 fhmcs, for two IfMiHuiet ; and 
it is advisable to have two sets^ in ease one 
gets out of order. Thev can be easily t^ 
paired by a common watchmaker. 

New Mode of Making Butter — The fol* 
lowing is from the London sorrespondeoee 
of the Boston Atlas. 

Another discovery has recently beeu made* 
which I ihink it right to mention, as it may 
be perhaps adopted in America with advan- 
tage. It is rather a cnrious idea, certainly, 
for a bishop to become a patent bmUeat maker, 
but so it is. The rignt reveread ftither, 
the Lord Bishop of Derry, has lately discover* 
ed that the old process of churning mav be 
done away with. He sends a stream or at- 
mospheric air through the cream, and the 
oxygen of the atmosphere thus coming in 
contact with it, speedily converts it into but- 
ter, of a better quality and with less labor 
than by the old process. Eleven gallons of 
cream, on one occasion, produced twenty-six 
pounds of butter. This mode of butter 
.making is now becombg generil, and perhaps 
some of your agricuhiuai readers may tave 
the hint. 

To Ottb SuBscaiBBRS. — Those who wish 
to receive the second volume, and have not 
paid for it, are requested to send $1 without 
further delay through the Post-oMister, or by 
mail, without paying postage. 

Those who wish to withdraw their namM, 
are requested to return the last number re- 
ceived, with the name and addvees. It will 
be stoi^i^ed fom|iwith. 

To ILL OUR StmscRiBSR8.-^If oash wtU 
procure one new subscriber, it will be ren- 
dering an important aervios to a new pub- 
lication, designed for eztensije and lasting 



With numerous Engmringa. 

Bdited by Theedora Dwii^t, 4r. 

Ib puhtished weekly, at the ofloe of the New Toik 
£xpreM, No. 112 Broadwi^, at 3 ceott a nanber, (It 
pegtt laige octavo,) or, to snbecrtben receiyiag I* by 
mail, aid peyiof in advinoe, %l a yiisi; 

6 sett tor $& 

Back nnmben can t>e supplied. 

PoataiaHeia are authorized to remit money. 

Enclose a One Dollar Bill, withoot pajrmeat iof poe- 
tage, and iha woik wffl l>e sent for the year. 

** The mfbrmstion cootaiiied in this woric is w»iUi 
more than silver."— iV. Y. Obterver. 

** It should be in every fhmily in the ooantrT-"— 
N, y. Bi^titS Reewdtr, 

The New Yock Methodist Advocate speaks ef it ia 
similar tenns. Also many other papers. 

Editors ot newspapers publishing this ad- 
vertisement fbi 8 months, will be furnished 
with the work for one year. 




NrwVohk, Saturday. Fuhvaht 29. 1846. 


•N/V •' 




The scene represented by our frontis- 
piece is alluded to by several Roman his- 
torians, though with some discrepancies. 
Pliny tells us that, at a certain period, (cor- 
responding with the year 359 before the 
Christian era,) a wide chasm had been rent 
in the earth in the Roman Forum, either by 
an earthquake, or by some other violent 
natural cause, which was so deep that all 
attempts made to fill it had entirely failed. 
The soothsayers gave out, that if the people 
wished their republic to be everlasting, they 
must devote to the Manes, (that is, throw 
into the chasm,) that which constituted 
their principal strength. Marcus Curtius, 
a high-spirited youth, enquired of the 
people,* what was of greater value or im- 
portance to them, than their courage and 
their arms, to which they returned the 
forcible assent of a silent reply, t^urtius 
soon presented himself, completely armed 
and on horseback, on the brow of a rock 
over the gloomy chatm, and calling upon 
others to throw in after him their arrows, 
as an offering to the gods, he plunged, and 
instantly disappeared in the fathomless 

The people collected a variety of ob- 
jects, among others a quantity of the fruits 
of the earth, and threw them down ; in con- 
sequence of which, they were taught by 
their priests to believe that the gods were 
propitiated, and the spot aHerwards became 
the site of a pond, or snmll lake, and sub- 
sequently was filled with earth, so that all 
signs of it were at length obliterated. 
Valerius Maximus, indeed, declares that 
the earth closed immediately ; and we need 
not wonder at this, or a thousand other in. 
credible things recorded by ancient writers, 
especially such as lived long afler the pe- 
riods of which they wrote. Our acquain* 
tanee with the lamentable ignorance and 
superstition of heathen nations at the pre- 
sent day, would rather lead us to express 
surprise, that the mythology and traditions 
of the ancients were not more extravagant 
and foolish than they were. Certainly the 

old Romans were, in some respects, less 
wild in their creed, and less abject in their 
idolatry, than their successors of the pre- 
sent day. Within view of the spot where 
Curtius is said to have taken his leap, are 
several modern buildin'^s, erected to com- 
memorate pretended miracles no less false 
and much less liarmless ; and they are an- 
nually scenes of fanatical excesses, among 
a people who claim to be devotees of Chris- 
tianity, and to walk in the full light of 

The fable told by Valerius, of the imme- 
diate closing of the earth, is entirely con* 
tradicted by the allusion which Pliny 
makes to the Locus Curtiuty or Curtian 
Lake: a small pond which occupied the 
place afier the time of Curtius. And the 
passage in the same writer,(book 1, chap. 
13,) throws strong doubts over the whole 
story of Marcus Curtius : for he there in- 
forms us, that the lake existed in the time 
of Romulusy and bad its name from Met- 
tus Curtius, a Sabine, who belonged to the 
army of Titus Tatius. It is conjectured 
by Burgess, in his Antiquities of Rome, that 
the same chasm spoken of was made by the 
inundations of the Tiber: but, from our 
recollections of the place, (which we have 
often and carefully examined in our youth,) 
that seems very improbable. The lake is 
more like to have been formed by the col- 
lection of the w;ater drained from the Pala- 
tine, Capitoline, Esquiline and Aventine 
Hills, which, in a manner surrounded it 
The celebrated Cloacus Maximus, or grand 
sewer of Rome, extended from this vicinity 
to the Tiber, as is declared by writers, and, 
as is evident from a portion of it which still 
remains in perfect preservation. Tarquin- 
ius Priscus, who constructed it, we are told, 
drained this low tract of land, through it into 
the river. 

The subject represented by the spirited 
sketch, which forms the frontispiece of our 
present number, is worthy of attention in 
several respects : the place and the time, as 
well as the person, are highly interesting. 
The Roman Forum, the centre of ancient 
Rome, is still well known i and, as the tra- 







veliet finds with much iMitis&ctioD, is an 
open, unoccupied piece of ground, clearly 
marked out by the remains of many ancient 
edifices, which formerly surrounded it, and 
Ibrmed its boundaries. 


CapUiin Fremoot describes this avenue 
to the Oregon Territory as one of easy 
access and gradual elevation. It is situ- 
ated not &r north of the forty-second par- 
allel, which is the boundary between our 
territory and that of Mexico. << About six 
miles from our encampment," says Capt 
Fremont, '^brought us to the summit — 
The ascent had been so fipradual, that with 
all the intimate knowledge possessed by 
Carson, who made this country his home 
for seventeen years, we were obliged to 
watch very closely to find the place at which 
we had reached the culminating point— 
This was between two low hills, rising on 
either hand fifty or sixty (bet. When I 
looked back at them, from the foot of the 
intermediate slope on the western plain, 
their summits appeared to be about one 
hundred and twenty feet above. From the 
impression on my mind at this time and 
subsequentlv on our return, I should com- 
pare the elevation which we surmounted 
immediately at the Pass, to the ascent of 
the Capitol hill from the Avenue at Wash- 

The width of the Pass is estimated at 
about nineteen miles. It has nothing of the 
gorge-like character and winding ascents of 
the Alleghany passes — nothing resembling 
the St Bernard and Simplon passes of the 
Alps. For one hundred and twenty'miles 
the elevation is regular and gradual. It 
presents the aspect of a sandy plain : and 
the traveller, without being reminded of any 
change by toilsome ascents, suddenly finds 
himself on the waters that flow to the Pa- 
cific ocean. 

The importance of this Pass is immense. 
It opens the way into the Valley of the Ore- 
gon, and is the only avenue to that country 
from the interior for a long distance. By 
observing the map it will be seen that three 
great rivers take their rise in the neighbor- 
hood of the Pass — ^the Platte, the Columbia 
and the Colorado. The first is a tributarv 
of the Missouri ; the second, draining all 
Oregon, discharges all its accumulated wa- 
ters into the Pacific ; the third flows south- 
wardly and empties into the bay of Califor- 
nia. From the South Pass, then, as a cen- 
tral point, three great valleys are command- 
ed. It is the key to California ] it opens 

the whole Oregon country from the Rocky 
Mountains to the Western ocean ; and it 
subjects both of these great regions to the 
control of the Mississippi Valley. 

As the South Pass is within our undis- 
puted territory, its importance will doubtless 
attract the attention of^the Covemment. 

Bait. Amer. 

Mb. Dwiort, Jr. 

Dear Sir— The favor with which you re- 
ceived an arlicie of mine on Wilberforce, has 
made me desirous of offering to you, at times, 
other communications, in the hope that they 
may be acceptable to the editor, and bene- 
ficial to the readers of the American Penny 

Having, a few years ago, written a college 
speech upon Howard, the Philanthropist, it 
occurred to me that this would be a very 
good and proper subject for an article for 
vour ma|^De. I therefore read again the 
life of this good man, and prepared the fol- 
lowing article, which I now place at your 
disposal. A few words concerning it. And 
first, let me say, that several times during 
the copying of it, I have hesitated about 
sending it to you, on account of its length. 
But the manner in which I have taken up 
the subject admitted of no alternative. My 
object has been, not to write a dissertation 
upon the character of Howard, but simply to 
give a sketch of his life ; and m]^ desire to 
present a complete sketch of his travels, 
without at all breaking the narrative, by 
omitting here and there, has led me to this 
length. Many interesting things I have been 
obliged to leave out altogether, for want of 
^space ; and, in doing this, I hope T have not 
ffone to the other extreme, (which I have 
feared and endeavored to guard against,) and 
offered a mere skeleton of a narrative, devoid 
of all interest. I have inserted in different 
places what I thought would both serve to 
exhibit the true character of the subject of 
the sketch, and keep up the interest of the 

An article of biography, written as I have 
written this, affords very little opportunity to 
the author of originality, or even of expres* 
sing his own thoughts and opinions : but, in i 
lliis communication, I do not even take as 
much credit to myself as I could have done: 
for the main body of the piece has been ex- 
tracted, or, to be more correct, has been ga- 
tiiered together, and arranged from Mrs* 
FarrarV beautiful Life of Howard ; and it is 
only now and then, that I hare put in any* 
thing of my own. Notwiibstanding (his, It 
may be due to myself to say, that this gather- 
ing together has cost me no little time and 

In the hope that my endeavors may prove 
acceptable, and that 1 may have it in my 
power to be of funher service to you in your 
magazine. I remain. 

Yours respectfully, G. A. C« 






CommumieaUd far tk» Amsrietm Ptnwy Magmnne. 



In reviiwiiig the cbaracter of those meD, 
who, in past times* have devoted their lives 
to the good of their country, and their fellow 
beings, our thoughts turn involuntarily to one 
whose name siands conspicuous on the list 
of his country's benefactors. — Not one whose 
fame was acquired on the battle field, amidst 
the roar of cannon, and the shrieks of the 
dying and the wounded : his fame was not 
purchased at so terrible a price as the blood 
of his fellow beings.— Nor, agam, one, who, 
standing up in her Legislative Elalls, made 
his duty to his country subservient to his 
towering ambition. He was a person of too 
much disinterestedness to stoop to anything 
•o dishonorable. But one who, denying to 
himself all earthly pleasures and comforts,, 
was willing to devote his Ijfe and fortune to 
the relief of suffering humanity. That one 
is Jokn Howard : or, as he is generally called 
Howardt the Philanthropist. And, if the 
reader will bear with me patiently, I propose 
to give him a sketch* of the life of inis ex- 
cellent man ; which, it may be honed, will 
be the means of doing him good, ano inciting 
him to lead a charitable» Christian life. 

John Howard was bom about the year 
1727, at Clapton, in the parish of Hackney, 
a pleasant village adjoining London^ whither 
hit fiither had retired, after having acquired 
a conaiderable fortune as an upholsterer and 
carpet dealer in the city of London. After 
having received an indifferent education at 
two different boarding schools, he was ap- 
prenticed to a grocer in London : but, uoon 
the death of his father, he purchased wnat 
remained of his time, and so freed himself 
from the duties of a situation that had 
always been distasteful to him. While still 
a young man, he went abroad, and travelled 
In France and Italy for the benefit of his 
health ; and, on his return, spent his time in 
improving liia mind by atuay, endeavorinff» 
by aelf-instruction, to make up for the defi- 
ciencies of his early education. Among other 
things he studied the theory of medicine, 
/Whicn proved a very valuable acquisition to 
him in after life. Having no taste for gay 
and fashionable tocieiy, — (be had been blessed 
with pious parents, and the sentiment of piety 
was strong within him,) — he employed his 
time, not onlv in improving himself, but also 
in deeds of charitv and benevolence to those 
around him. Ill-health returned ; and he was 
compelled to make several excursions to the 
Bristol Hot Wells, and also to visit other 
parts of the kingdom. His complaints were 
supposed to be of a consumptive nature, and 
he was put upon a very strict, low diet, which 
laid the foundation of that extraordinary ab- 
stemiousness and indifi*erence to the gratifi- 

* The main part of this sketch is taken 
from Mrs. Farrars beaotiful Life of Howard. 

cations of the palate, which ever after so 
much distinguished him. 

Returning from one of his excursions* he 
was attacked with a severe illness, during 
which he needed all the friendly attentions 
V7hich were liberally bestowed upon him by 
his landlady ; and the contrast between her 
character and that of the person with whom 
he had formerly lived iand whom he had 
left, because he did not find in her that sym- 
pathy and kindness which as an invalid he 
both needed and expected) was so striking, 
and produced such lively feelings of gratitude 
on his part, that, on his recovery, he offered 
her his hand in marriage. The lady, being 
of twice his age, did not at first believe him 
to be serious in his proposal ; and, on being 
convinced of his being in earnest, remonstiateu 
against so unequal a match. But he was 
firm to his purpose, and the marriage took 
place when he was in his 25th year. The 
union was considered a strange one by the 
friends of both parties : but it promoted the 
happiness of those most nearly cooeemed, 
and afforded to Mr. Howard the society of an 
amiable, sensible and pious woman; and 
when, two years afterwards, the tie was 
broken bv her death, he was a sincere mour- 
ner. Indeed, he was so much affected by 
it, that his health suffered, and he was, in 
consequence, advised by his physicians to 
tnake an excursion to the continent. 

The Earthquake at Lisbon having happen- 
td about this time, a strong curiosity was ex- 
cited in hia mind to see the ruins. He 
therefore embarked, with this inteatioo, in a 
Lisbon packet ; but the vessel, instead of ar* 
riviiu^ safely at its destined port, was cap- 
tured by a French privateer. Th^prisoners, 
instead of being treated kindly, as prisoners 
of war, imderwent sufferings and privations 
too bad for felons. They were carried into 
Brest, and lodged in a 'filthy dungeon, with 
only k little straw to protect them from the 
damp floor. After being kept without food 
forty hours, a piece of mutton was thrown 
in to them, but without knife or plate, or any 
decent means of dividing iu In this situa- 
tion they remained a week. Mr. Howard 
was then removed to Carpaix, where he soon 
won the confidence of his jailor, who allowed 
him, merely on giving his word of honor that 
he would not iutempt to escape, to live where 
he pleased in the town. At the end of two 
months, he obtained leave from the French 
Government to cross to EIngland, and see 
whether he could not effect an exchange of 
himself for some French officer taken by the 
English. His friends received him with joy ; 
but he begged them to wait the result of his 
missioo, for he might be obliged to return.^ 
It happily proved successful, and he was at 
liberty. As soon as he was free himself, he 
set about to procure relief for his countrymen, 
who were still prisoners, and who were suf- 
fering from great cruelty. Many hundreds 
had died from ill usage, and 36 had been 
buried in a hole in one day. In this benevo- 







lent effort he was also successful. It was 
this slight experience that first turned his 
miad to the prisoner, and enabled him to 
sympathize with him, when other circum- 
stances directed his attention to the subject. 

After this unsuccessful attempt to visit 
Lisbon, he gave up the idea or travelling 
abroad ; and, settling down at Cardington, 
he devoted his time to the improvement of 
his estate. A part of it was divided into 
farms, which he rented io different tenants, 
who fbond him a kind, generous landlord, 
ever doing what he could tor their comfort. — 
The poor of the neighborhood also, had rea- 
SCO to bless the day when he came to live at 
C^rdingtoQ : for his purse was always open 
to their wants, and his good advice and judi- 
dons assistance, often put them la a way of 
providinf for themselves, which is a much 
greater kindness than merely giving alms. — 
Havtog now fixed his residence, Mr. H. was 
indmed to seek for a partner who would be 
both a congenial friend and a true helpmate, 
m the importtnt duties of life. All the Qua- 
lities he most valued he found combined in 
the amiable and accomplished Henrietta 
Leeds, the daughter of a gentleman of for- 
tone and one of the King's sergeants at law. 
A matual attachment srew up between them, 
and thqr were married on the 25ih of April, 
1759. While at C, Mrs. Howard cheerfully 
€<M>perated with her husband in all his bene- 
volent labors, visiting the sick, inquiring 
personally into the wants of her poor neigh- 
bocB, and relieving them with a liberal hand. 
Her iMith being very delicate, they removed 
to ttte New Forest, Hampshire, where they 
parcbaaed a house, and a small estate called 
w ateotnbe. Here they lived for three or four 
years in perfect security and harmony, among 
a set of people against whom his predece^ 
SQfs in the house had thought it necessary to 
use spring-guns, man- traps and the like. — 
The secret c^ this was the spirit of love and 
kindness in which he went among them. 
The change of residence not benefitting Mrs. 
H.. they returned to Cardington, which now 
became their fixed rssidence. Here Mr. How- 
ard continued to employ herself in labors of 
love to the poor. He built several small cot> 
tages, which he rented to them at a moderate 
rate, on condition of their keeping them in 
good order. In all these acts he had a ready 
assistant in his wife. Once, when he wss 
settling his accounts at the close of the year, 
he found a balance in his faiTor, snd offered 
to use it in any way that wonld most gratify 
his wife, proposing at the same time a jour- 
ney to London, as something that' would be 
agreeable to her. " What a pretty cottage 
it would build r* was her reply; and the money 
was accordingly disposed of for that purpose. 

Thus did this truly united and happy couple 
live for abont three years, when an event oc- 
curred, which, tboQgh a severe blow to Mr. 
H^ was nevertheless the cause to which we 
■T» bdebted idr' the life of true usefulness 
and unsurpassed benevolence, which he 

thenceforward led. Mr. H. became a father, 
but the blessing was purchased at a dear 
price. The birth of the son occasioned the 
death of the mother ; and his joy at the for- 
mer, was soon turned into mourning by the 
latter. His grief affected his health to such 
a degree, that he was persuaded by his 
friends to try the effects of a change of scene. 
He therefore made a visit of a few weeks to 
Holland, but soon returned to take care of 
his child, the dearest memorial of his be- 
loved wife. With the exception of a few 
short absences from home, for the benefit oif 
his health, he spent the first year of his 
second widowhood at C, carrying on his 
works of benevolence in the neighborhood, 
and watching over the infancy of his child. 
As our attention will be chiefly directed 
to Mr. H.'s travels from this time, I will uke 
this opportunity of saying a few words re- 
garding his son. After Mr. H. had been de- 
prived ot his wife, all his thoughts and affec- 
tions were naturally centred upon his boy, to 
whom he endeavored to make up the loss of 
a mother, by his own coftetant and watchful 
attention. He procured an excellent and 
pious woman, to take charge of his domes- 
tic concerns, and also to watch over his in- 
fant ; but he always took the government of 
it into his own hands, using that course of 
treatment which he thought would, not for 
the moment please or gratify, but in the aid 
benefit it He was governed by a sense of 
duty, rather than by his natural feelings; 
and, though his manners were extremely 
gentle, he failed not to render his child 
obedient even in its infancy. But, although 
he did what he always thought was for the 
best, he could not supply the place of that 
tender parent, of whom his child had been 
depriveo. A father has his proper place in 
the training of a child ; but there is a place 
which can alone be filled by a mother ; and 
there are holy influences which she exerts, 
of which, without her, the child must be 
deprived. 1 cannot say to what extent the 
loss of its mother may be looked upon as a 
cause of the child*s unhappy course, oAer he 
had arrived at the age of responsibility. 
There were other influences which had a 
conspicuous part in bringing this about ; and 
perhaps the first had no efiiect whatever. 
No doubt many, who have never known what 
it was 10 have a mother's love, have become 
good and true men ; and surely no one ever 
more faithfully tried to bring up a son in the 
paths of virtue than did Mr. Howard. But, 
be these things as they may, he was sadly 
disappointed. During his absences from 
home, his son was left in compffny with a 
favorite, but a wicked and hypocritical servant, 
who completely counteracted, by his evil 
character and example, all the father's ex- 
ertions for his son's good. He became pro- 
fljnte and dissipat^; his intellect was 
affected, and he finally became an inmate of 
a kmatie asyhittr - '---' 

{To he continued*) 

••* >* -^ ••>%,-~,^ * , ^^ 







Farther Devi'Inppmenfi of Mormon Inlqiitty. 

Daring the laM week, twelve bills of in- 
dicttneat, for counterfeiting Mexican dollars, 
and American half dollars and dimes, were 
found by the Grand Jury and presented to the 
United States Circuit Court, in session in this 
city, against different persons in and about 
NauToo, embracing some of the '* Holy " 
TweWe, and other prominent Mormons, and 
other persons in league with them. From 
incidental remarks made hy some of the wit- 
nesses in prirate conversation, (not before the 
jury,) we are led to believe that a large 
amoont of counterfeit coin of the above de- 
scription, is, and has been for a long time 
past, circulating in the Western countrjr — as 
the facilities for its manufacture are said to 
be quite unequalled. The manner in which 
the money was put into circulation, was 
stated. At one mill, 1500 dollars of this 
specie were paid out lor wheat in one week, 
whenever a land sale was about to take place, 
waggons were sent off with the coin, into the 
land district where such sale was to take 
place, and no difficulty occurred in ezchsngine 
off the counterfeit^oin for paper. It was said 
that the Mormons had three presses for coun- 
terfeiting the coin named, and that Joe Smith 
worked most industriously at the business. — 
In fact, Joe used to boast of his ** minu" A 
•hort time previous to his death, in speaking 
<k the power of his establishment to imitate 
the com above named, lie was repeatedlv 
heard to sav, that *' it would beat the mint,^' 
and seemed with others of his confidential 
advisers, to exult at their ability to manuiac- 
tore ''land office money,"— that being the 
term by which the better quality of their is- 
sues were distinguished. 

There are said to have been three qoalities 
of the spurious money manu&etured, which 
were aold foi 75, 50 and 25 cents for the dol- 
lar. That, for which the highest price was 
asked, is said to be so perfect as to escape the 
most rigid scrutiny of the eye— the outer coat 
being of pure silver, and the allojr so com- 
pittely covered as to prevent detection in any 
other W9LJ than by cutting. In receiving 
coin of this description our friends had best 
beware, or else they may have more cause 
to denoance the Mormons than. would be de- 

Some other disclosures are talked of as 
having been made: the manner in which 

rions are disposed of, who are supposed to 
enemies of the leading Mormons. They 
are seized by some members of the Dantic, 
or other band, a leather strap is placed around 
the neck, so that if the least resistance is 
made, they are choked ; and in this condition 
tbey are taken to a skiff, carried to the mid- 
dle of the river, their bowels ripped open, and 
their bodies sunk. This is what it termed 
*' makinff cat-fish1>ai:" of their enemies. It 
IS said that quite a number of persons were 
disposed of in this manner. 

Jt is also said that the business of stealing 
is redueed to a rc^lar system ; that there 


are three parties concerned in the matter — 
one of which ascertains the names and loca- 
tions of persons in want — another is directed 
to procure provisions, which, when procured, 
are to be deposited in a certain place — and a 
third parly deals out provisions to the desti- 
tute. So that unless^ the goods are found in 
the hands of those who first take them the 
true thieves are not at all likely to be dis- 

So soon as the indictments were found, a 
request was made by the Marshal of the 
Governor of this State for a posse, or the as- 
sistance of the military force stationed in 
Hancock count), to enable him to arrest the 
alleged counterfeiters. Gov. Ford refused 
to grant the request. We are not apprised 
of the reasons for this refusal. They should 
be strong to justify the act. An officer has 
since been sent to Nauvoo to make the ar- 
rests; but we apprehend there is no proba- 
bility of his success ; — for, whatever crimes 
these Mormons commit, the rest are ready and 
willing, if not bound by an oath, to secrete 
the culprit, or aid his escape, either by fraud 
or force. The Court, >lt is understood, will 
continue in sessioa this week, — to give time 
to the Marshall to make his return. If those 
indicted are brought before the Court, they 
will probably be tried the present term ; 
if not, they will be likely to go "unwhipt of 
justice."— Jlfw#. Pap. 

A Problem for Sentimental Young Ladies, 
— ^Perhaps some of our own "sentimental 
young ladies" can solve the following prob- 
lem : — 

'I It is said that there are 20,628 stiches in 
a single shirt. While you are moving down 
the giddy dance to the voluptuous strains of 
music, and light of diamonds is flashing from 
your laughing ejr^s* there are thousands of 
your^ sex and sisters who are making shirts 
at ninepence a piece. And the nights are 
cold and long ; and there is such a thing as 
frost in the novels of the p6or, and himger 
that eats through stone walls, and preys upon 
the hearts of women. Believe it, though an 
unromantic incident in the human condition — 
there are thousands of delicate females, with 
womanly hearts in them, full of womanly 
affections, now plying their benumbed fingers 
Hit the rate of sis mills for a thousand stiMes, 
to buy coarse black bread to keep them 
alive, to hire a pillow on Which to lay their 
heads and obtain a few hours of merciful 
oblivion of their pitiful destiny. And these, 
but for circumstances beyond their control or 
accountabilily, would have vied with you icir 
grace or beauty in the parlor or in the hall, 
and have shone like jewels of the first water 
in the diadem of human society. Now sup- 
pose you take an inventory of all your enjoy- 
ments, of all the articles of your dress, fur- 
niture, food, fuel, &c, and see how man^ of 
'hem you could buy with the money paid to 
a seamstress for taking twenty thousand 






stiches 00 a shirt. Begin, if yoa please, with 

I oar boa, muff, bonnet or shawl, and 6nd how 
ong it woald take to pay for one of these at 
the rate at which thousands of your sisters 
are compelled to labor. Especially when 
you are out shopping, with papa's purse in 
your hand, remember this calculation. — 
Have yon purchased a boa for $18. and re- 
turned delignted with your glossy treasure 1 
Take four pencil and solve this problem: 
if a seamstress takes 3000 sliches in a seam 
oi ooe yard in length for two cents, what 
would be the length of a seam she would 
bare to sew to buy a boa at $18 ? Problems 
oi this kind would cultivate a lovelier senti- 
mentality in the hearts of susceptible young 
ladies,* than all the tearful novels in the 

Potato Flour. — Potatoes which are un- 
soand may be converted mto starch, and thus 
saved from total loss. In England and Ire- 
land, where the ravages of the potato dis- 
ease have been seriously injurious, it has been 
attempted to preserve the valuable properties 
of the root by extracting the farina or flour, 
by various processes. It is converted into 
^ British arrow root," which is nothing more 
than starch in a nice form. The Farmer's 
Magazine gives the following as the most 
perfect process of obtaining the flour: 

1. Thoroughly wash the potatoes. 

2. Peel away the skin without cutting off 

3. Grate the peeled potatoes finely into a 

4. Place the pulp on a hair sieve, pour 
water over it, stirring it about well, till the 
water ceases to pass with a milky appear- 

5. The pulp left on the sieve may be 
thrown away, (or given to animals) and the 
milky water set aside to settle. 

6. When the particles of starch have all 
settled, the water sliould be poured off, and 
fresh water added ; the whole stirred up 
afresh and allowed to settle again. 

7. Those washings may be repeated four 
or five tiroes, when the starch will have as- 
sumed the character of arrow-root, and will 
have become white as snow, whilst the 
water will now be perfectly clear. 

8. The prepared flour must be thoroughly 
dried, and may be kept for any length of 
time in jars or casks. 

The flour or starch' may be dried by being 
spread on a cloth and laid on a board in the 
sun, or it may be dried in stoves or ovens. 
Prepared in the manner described, the flour 
may not oalv be used as starch but may be 
osed with wheat flour for making bread, pud- 
dinsrs, &c It is also used as arrow root, and 
is a delicate food for weak digestions, for 
children, and for the sick. — Cultivator, 


Swallonoinf^ Pins. — On Saturday a young 
lady pat five or six pins into her mouth, and 
forgetting them, they got mto her throat, 

and in gagging she threw them all up but 
one, which remained across the passage. 
She became very much alarmed, and im- 
mediately made application to a physician. 
The pin was firmly fixed across the lower 
portion of the OBSophagus, or about two 
mches above the cardiac orifice of the sto- 
mach, and in that situation it was impossible 
10 bring it up by the mouth. The doctor 
therefore tied a bit of sponge to the end of 
a piece of whalebone, and after bending it to 
the shape of the passage, pushed the pin 
into the stomach, which gave instant relieL — 
N. Y. True Sun. 



" Story ! I have none to tell,^^ 

** Come mother ! sit beneath the vine 

Here by our open door. 
And tell me who my fathers were 

In the glorious days of yore. 

I've read to-day of glowing tales — 

Wondering o'er every line — 
Of the knights who fought for the holy crosa^ 

In the wars of Palestine — 

Of their prancing steeds, and flashing speans 

And their pennons waving out, 
And the clarions mingling on the air 

With the stirring battle shout — 

Till I seemed to hear the rush of fight. 

The Moslem's rallying cry. 
The Christian charge, and the Paynim rout^ 

And the shouts of victory ! 

And were my sires bold warrior knights ? 

Oh ! brave in their array ! 
Dear mother ! I am old enough — 

Tell me the tale, I priy !" 

*' I have no tales like these, my boy, 

In thy young ear to pour — 
Here, where we dwell, thy grandsire dwelt, 

As his grandsires did before. 

With the healthful flush of manly toil. 
And the sweat drop on his brow ; 

They won these fields from the wild and 
By the mattock and the plough. 

They were the soil's true conqueror - 

A spotless name theic shield ; 
And their banner was the wavip/ ; i^.i 

Of the ripened harve.'^t Held. 

Seek not to deck thy fair youii;; bruw 
Wiih mouldering wreathes of faiiie; 

But onward ! girt in manhood's might, 
And will ihybelf a name ! 

Gaard well ihy faith— keep uuo ihy heart — 

Hold thou thine honor tlist ; 
Thus be the lustre of thy worth 

Back upon fathers cast." 




&>n»e of (he mMi inlemtiDg Bights which 

■«:»ir offm, i„ .11 i„ „„„ „j ,1^^^. 

maca, an ibon of go,„„, r,„,,, f„^_ 

'If. ^'^ I""'' " rooih, or »n io 
chiloiood, u ,h,, K,i,„i„„ ,„. ,„ ^ 

«uh Jnm, ud Mid„„ oil daih. . w.rm 
•nJ mce,. .ii,chn„i h«w,m two r.mtlo. 

. » mtnr iniu lo iMonmeiid ii to alteo- 
i™, .ppiol).iioii ud idniiailoo, ihii Ic 
•«m< »ood.,n.| ,h, poeu !,„, „, „„^ 
fi»li.o,ll, ,o.d, I, . ,„i,j„ „, ,i„i, 1.^ 
8l»k.p„,. !,„ t^MtMy .ketthid ih. fnl- 
io«. of ,och friradi, .1 th, p,o,p,oi of .,». 
""on, ,0 hi, cb.r.cim of il.len. ,M S,,. 
»^.h,oh o«rd„,i;,, ,„ j„i„,j ,„ 

.'.' ,?"'*o l"VBtog«h« trwled o 
Up«i ooe Mmpl«r, gittuig on a^ 
E»eii in a bsTbarous o 

"" or aarage rtate ot to- 

o«lr, Ih. fmal, ,h„,„,„ b„ ,„„|„, 
»hih,i,d trail. »o,ib, ofadoiiratroiii bot 
duoatrf a. our dangbim are a, ,b, pre,„i thi tniditof the circuBuaoe,, ,„,. 
aunding them in- biir frW Md-Protestani 


ooontry, w. ma, tod m«,, oppontmiii™ ,„ j 
on.ooi.go and dir«. the bodding a.d growth ■ 
of <noh fnonddtipk aa mar ban tb. nan ' 
inportan, .„d ,„.„«, („,„„„ „ ,|_^._ , 
ob.mol„. ..d li,,.. „ ,^j ^ ^.^^ , 

PW.. Itko lb... ,0 „pr,„ .11 ,b^ ,i„; ; 
lacl. and mggo.tion^ wbloh w. conid wi.h [ 
to prtnt and la, biior, „,, ,„d„ „ ^ < 
Tor, ini.t,«b,g ,nbi„^ w, „„„„,, b„,. ' 
"w d„„|, i, ,|n„„ „„„i,,„j^ ,^„ „^j ; 
aitacbraenta are often eapooed to being it 
rapted and broken b, ebange^ real or „„. < 
po»d, braderoiion to the req„ire,.„t. of ■' 
faahton, by a Ji„|. coldne.. on one h.nd, or i 
i> little anepielon on the other, i> well ae b, ' 
change of place, rel.tion^ .e,„a|.,ance; i 
So. But ,b, parent dionld think it a dnir^ I 

ind T "'^''~ " "*' '■"""•'IP 

wit,? "T"" "'" " ■" ''"'"'■•ioo. of 
woalib, circle, taate and hibiti. When once 
formed, let noibiog he .p.k,n or tbongbt „1, i 
ll,«0l«,gMi,|,j„.i„3„j,^. ". 



W« heu M moch of Arabian litoatiue in 
put mgea, and of i1m book*, nntbore, librae 
rial nod otbei inatiratictu of the Moon in 
Sptin and Africa, thai we DBiurally ferl a 
ODontj lo become acqaainiod witb ibe pi^ 
mi atnte of learning amoDg (beit daaeend- 

A large librair of Anbfc mannacripta ia 
■dU preaerred in the celebral«d palace of Al- 
hanbta. bat little haa jrei becm made known 
of ita coQ'enta. In modarn tiniea ao few Ara- 
bian worka faare beat Iranalated, ibat we 
bare few maleriala of which to form opin- 
Some trarellers in Egypt bare recent- 
Ij pobtlihed anch aoeoonia, however, aa majr 
affi»d tba iaqnirei a genenl knowledge of the 
■■Ijeet; and the following exlracte, which 
we make ftom lite Kct. Michael BntKl's 
Hitioiy of ihe Barbary Stalea, may be inlei>- 
fating to eome of one readera. 

The timple little building repreaented in 
oar print, we would first remark, ao pleaaani* 
ly ninated, nnder Ihe abade of tree* of Ta- 
riona fidiage, ataada in the rilhge of Byrma- 
draiSt in Barbary ; and contaios both a school 
and a Coffee-hoase. To thoae who ar« ac- 
quainted with the batuia of ibe HuaelniaD, 
this will be snffideni to show that edncatioo 
is macb needed : fbr a coffee-house is the 
KodexTooa lor idlers, and especially ot pro 
feaacd atory-tellers and their bearers. 
A Sketch of Archie and Moorith Liltraturt. 
As the Uuolaey.of Mobammedanitm is not 
dosdy eoDnaetea witb liierature il is in vain 

rimed Ihe Western CaKpba.e^erec«ifi«d , 
10 the elucidation of iheir sacred books, be 
laws enjoined by their prophet, "J " ""e ■ 
the wUTvation o/ poetry ; tb.J last be'ng the 
amnsemmitortbeUor of aU mde tnb«.- . 
When, however, ibeir civil ^•"V'^3^ 
to an end. the Moslem, andei the dwmmoo \ 
ofibeAbba«ide«,acqnifrfau«tefoT»eiMee. , 
espedally for those br wshes of it '"»«5^ 
ttibnte to ihe ancc.« of Asironwny- Alma- 
moan, Ibe seventh of that dynasty, wraomg ) 
Ibe path which had been marked »» ™ Jl™ \ 
by bto predeceswrs. employed ««fi*2';« < 
agents in Armenia-Syriaand Egyni. locollert 

the works of the Greek P.'"'»=«'P''"^ "'^™ 
he also ordered to be translated mwiteian- , 

gnage of Arabia, and Ulnstrsted by «^« "^I ! 
Skilful interpreters. Homblmg.h.msdfso ftr 
as to become a pupil to the nation whom his , 
»nns had aubdoed, be set an «»"'^'l^ ' 
ridnoM application »« ^is subjects, "Aoru^ ■ 
them 10 pursue with atieoiion 'he mstrMUve , 
writings which be had procured PW t»«» . 
leaminir, and M make themselves masiew oi < 
the rarl wisdom which had eialied the oouD- , 
irymen of Plaio and Euclid. "Hewaanoi . 
imorant." says Abulpharagins. " that inw ; 
are the elect of God, his best and most nadul , 
servants, whose lives are devoied 10 the im- j 
provement of their intellectual Jacnlties. The 
mean ambiiion of the Chinese, or the Turks, , 
may glory id the industry of their handa, or i 
the indulgence of their sensual propenstiies i | 
though these dexterous anists must view witn , 
hop^ess emulation the hexagons and pyra- . 
raids of a beehive, and acknowledge tbe sn- ^ 
perior strength of lions and tigers, ina , 
teachers of philosophy are the real lumina- 
Ties of the world, which, wUhoui tn«f "'«• , 
would again sink inla igaorance and. haibar- , 

dosdy eoDnaeted witb literature it is in vain J lam. . j j ;,„if .„ 

that we look fov any fruits U. profasaioaal The ardor of Almamoon exlMded ilselt to 





the Faiimites ot Africa, who now deemed it 
an honor to become the patrons of the learn- 
ed. The emirs ot provinces were smitten 
with a similar emulation, ' and science .met 
with an ample reward in all parts of the Mo- 
hammedan empire. The royal library is said 
to have consisted of a hundred thousand 
manuscripts, elegantly transcribed and splen- 
didly bound, which were freely lent to the 
'students in the capital, as well as atKairwan 
and Alexandria. In every ciiy the produc- 
tions of Arabic literature were copied with 
much industry and collected with great care. 
The treasures of Africa, however, were sur- 
passed by those of Spain, where the Ommia- 
des had formed an establishment containing 
six hundred thousand volumes. Cordova, 
with the adjacent towns of Malaga, Almeria 
and Murcia, could boast of having produced 
three htmdred authors ; while, in the kingdom 
of Andalusia, there were, it is said, no fewer 
than seventy public libraries. Nor was this 
zeal for the promotion of science confined to 
one family or one ase. On the contrary, it 
continued to adorn the ascendancy of the Ara- 
bians about five hundred years, when it was 
terminated by the great irruption of ihe Mon* 
j^s, who sueceeddl in spreading a cloud of 
Ignorance and barbarism over a large portion 
of Asia and of the West. This period of 
light in the several caliphates or Bagdad, 
Egypt and Spain, beginning in the eighth 
aM ending in the fourteenth century, coin- 
cided with the darkest and most inactive 
ages of Europe ; but since the sun of know- 
l^lge rose again in the latter division of the 
globe, the shades of intellectual night appear 
to have fallen with increased obscurity upon 
all the kingdoms of Northern Africa. 

It is not undeserving of remark, that some 
treatises, of which the Greek originals ar<i 
loet, have been preserved to us through the 
medium of Arabic translations. As mathe- 
matics, astronomy and physic, were the fa- 
vonte subjects of investigation among the 
learned Mohammedans, it is not surprising 
that there should have been found in their re- 

C'tories regular versions of Euclid, Apol- 
iis, Ptolemy, Hippocrates and Galen. 
In the department of Metaphysics, as also in 
that of the law of nature and nations, great 
value was attached to the speculations of 
Plato and Aristotle, those disunguished mas- 
teia of reasonioff and founders of the most 
celebrated schools in Greece. The Arabians, 
whose ingenious spirits inclined them to the 
study of dialects, preferred the philosophy of 
the fatter ; and, as it afiorded a plausible in- 
strument for conducting debate, and more es- 
pecially for methodizing the conclusions at- 
tained by argument or observation, it was 
adopted generally in the seminaries establish- 
ed by the Saracens. Useless when applied 
to the interpretation of physical phenomena, 
it afforded no aid to those who wished to de- 
tect the principles by which the movements 
of the material universe are regulated ; and, 
as in all respects it was better calculated for 
the detection of error than for the investiga- 

tion of truth, it is not wonderfuf, that, upon 
the revival of learning in Europe, the natural 
sciences should have presented themselves in 
nearly the same imperfect state in which they 
had been left, many centuries before, by the 
sages of Athens. 

The climate of Africa, as well as the habits 
of the oriental people who now inhabited the 
upper coast, encouraged the pursuits of prac- 
tical astronomy — a species of knowledge 
which was supposed to confer upon the 
adepts in its profound er mysteries an acquain- 
tanite with the destination of individuals and 
of nations. The most costly apparatus was 
supplied by the Caliph Almamoun, and he 
had the satisfaction to find that bis mathema- 
ticians were able to measure a degree of the 
great circle of the earth, and to determine its 
entire circumfererco at twenty-four thousand 
miles. But it was in chemistry that the Sa- 
racens made the greatest advances, and con- 
tributed most to the progress of modem sci- 
ence. They first invented and named the 
alembic for the purposes of distillation ; ana- 
lyzed the substances of the three kingdoms 
of nature; proved the distinction and the af- 
finities of acids and alkalis; and converted* 
the poisonous minerals into salutary medi- 
cines. It is true, no doubt, that the objects 
of their most eager research were the trans- 
mutation of metals, and the elixir of immor- 
tal health ; and that their secret processes 
were aided by all the ^powers of mystery, 
fraud and superstition. But it was equally 
certain, that the results of their numerous 
experiments tended to widen the breach of 
real knowledge ; to suggest methods of man- 
ipulation; and finally, to open a path into 
those spacious fields where man has reaped 
the most abundant fruits of ingenuity and 

It must be acknowledged that the protract- 
ed domination of the Turks in Africa, and 
the destrubtioD of the capital so long occupied 
by the Commanders of the Faithful, have 
occasioned the disappearance of the greater 
part of those monuments by which the scien- 
tific triumphs of the Arabs are elsewhere 
perpetuated. The catalogue of the Escurial 
still bears testimony to the extent of their 
labors, both as commentators and translators ; 
while lists of works, edited or composed by 
the scholars of Bagdad, prove that the court 
of the Abbassides was not less auspicious to 
the enterprises of literary zeal. But of the 
distinction which belonged to Kairwan in this 
respect, no traces now remain in the savage 
country of which it was once the ornament 
and the defence. The fame of that city, at 
one time filled with palaces and schools, is 
only to be heard in the form of an echo from 
contemporaneous writers, who flout ished in 
Spain or Italy ; and is, in our days, faintly 
resounded in the compilations of Abulphara- 
gius, Renaudot, Fabricius, Asseman, Casiri, 
and the learned D'Herbelot. 

(To be continued J) 




(Canimued from Vol. 1» page 45.) 

Napoieoo may have bad more natural ai^ 
feetion and fneDdlineaa of character than 
some of his eoemies hare acknowledged : 
bat certainly there are but few iDstances re- 
corded, even by his friends, which afford evi- 
deDce of anything more than common hu- 
manity in his heart. The scenes of carnage 
which be witnessed appear to haye but sel- 
dom excited his sensibility. We recollect 
the feelings with which we were affected, in 
reading a description, written by one of his 
officers, of Napoleon's passage over one of 
his fields of battle, on the morning after the 
eagagemenu He made few remarks on 
the shocking objects that met his view, and 
went on with his staff, not only among the 
slaioy bat over and upon them. He was ra- 
ther grave and taciturn: for the mangled 
limbs and bodies which were yesterday striv- 
mginlus cause and obedient to his command, 
■any of them moved by hearts enthusiastic 
ia his favor, were now trampled upon, and 
siiU more mangled by his horse's feet. But, 
the writer informs us, he had a feeling heart, 
he did exhilHt some emotion : for at length 
he heard a sadden shriek from the ground 
beneath him» and saw that his horse had 
trodden on a wounded soldier, who was not 
quite dead. He reined in his steed, made him 
step off from the poor creature, and gave or- 
ders that he should be sent to the hospital, 
and then pursued his way. This may have 
been a great stretch of humanity for a cob- 
qucror : but, instead of praising it, we say, 
God protect the poor and hdpless of our 
face — the women and children, at least-^ 
from sympathy and coinpassion like this ! 

But now approached the closing scene. — 
The curtain at length began to fall. The 
long tragedy was near its end. Two mighty 
powers remained to be conquered, one of 
which he once had humbled. It remained 
but' to humble them as he had humbled 
the others, and all would be — what ? What 
was probably in the anticipation of that mind, 
when it looked forward to the subjugation of 
Bossia and England f Can we be justified 
in supposing that his aims and his hopes 
were on the introduction of a state of things 
more beneficial to the people of Europe ? If 
any one can form any plausible conjecture of 
that nature, we might well feel curious to 
know it What men would he have crowned 

kings of Russia and England; and what 
principles would he have chosen to dictate 
to them and to the continent ? Then, in 
what position would he have placed him- 
self? What would have been the results to 
our age and our country ? Let thqse who va- 
lue p^ce, national freedom, personal liberty 
and religion, meditate on questions like these, 
and they may perhaps become better qualified 
to appreciate the blessings reserved to us, 
and the virtue and foresight of the men in 
this and other countries, who disinterestedly 
opposed the progress of Napoleon. 

Great preparations had once been made for 
the invasion of England, in small vessels and 
rafts from the French coast ; and experiments 
were made which countenanced the idea, 
that such means might be relied on in fiivo- 
lable weather. But the attempt was never 
made. In the year 1812, Bonaparte invaded 
Russia with a large army ; and on Sept. Uth 
they reached Moscow. There they designed 
to spend the winter, in comfort and abun- 
dance, and, in the Spring to proceed to P»- 
tersburgh, when the immense empire would 
be Napoleon's. When, in 1776, Lord Howe 
was about to enter New York, it was pro* 
posed, in a council of war, to our officers, to 
bum the city, and thus render it untenable. 
The plan was rqected; and New York became 
the head-quarters of the enemy, with vast 
injury to our country, tmtil the close of the 
war. The Russian Emperor and his council* 
lors made an opposite decision, and took such 
a step as had been declined by Americans* 
The first night had hardly set in, after Na* 
poleon's army had entered Moscow, and their 
shouts of exultation had scarcely ceased, 
when fires burst out in all parts of the city, 
and in a few hours the victors were leh 
houseless and starving, in sight of the ruins* 
The winter set in with luusual severity ; and 
a man of humane feelings can hardly endure 
to read one of the simplest accounts of the 
sufferings df the army on its retreat. <* La- 
baume's Campaign in Russia " may be one 
of the most convenient to many of our read- 

But did the leader suffer with his follow^ 
ers ? Ah no ! The same selfishness which 
makes a conqueror willing to sacrifice his 
fellow creatures to himself in one case, may 
be expected to do it in another, especially the 
most preasiag. Bonaparte travelled to Paris 
in a coach, which contained a bed, a little 






kitcben» a store, taUe snd talMe-set, serrant 
provisions, &c., and was drawn by the best 
horses, day and night, without stopping, 
leaTiDg bis soldiers to freeze, to starre of 
to be killed by the Cossacks. 

In April, 1813, he raised another army, 
maicbed into Prussia, gained the victories of 
Bwntzea and Wartzen. But the Austriant 
and Bararians joined the confederacy against 
him; and, while at Leipsic, he found his 
enemies upon htm, and he was dnren to 
Ments, and abandoned all bis conquests in 
Germany. The following year, 1614, the 
ooafedecatet crossed *the Rhine: tfid, after 
Mfeml battlet, entered Paris. The wild 
horses fvom the Do« and the Volga weve tied 
by Iheir Cossadi nimn tm the trees in* the 
Gaidett tA the TuHenes;;: maft he wbo had 
brought an incursion of barbaitans into the 
proud d^tal of Fcanoe, signed a treaty at 
Fontainbleau, and retired to the iidand of El- 
ba, to trouble the nations no longer. But in 
Mareh, 1816, he landed in ProTsnce, in the 
south of France, and, proceeding to Paris on 
the aOth, was reeeired with new enthusiasm, 
and soon defeated General Blucher and 33,000 
men,an the frontier of Belgiom. 

On the 18th of June was fought the awful 
battle of Waterloo, about 14 miles fVom 
Brussels. He had attempted to reach that 
eity by a forced march : but Lord Wellington 
at the head of the confederates, stopped him 
at a range of high ground, by occupying a 
higher range in his fhmt ; and, on the smooth 
and gentle decUrities berween them, was 
fought the last battle of Napoleon Bonaparte. 
The ** corered way ** still remains, from which 
he viewed the field and sent his orders, be- 
tween two elevations of ground which protect- 
ed htm from the shot ; and opposite are seen 
two large square spots, where in 1831, the 
wheat grew three shades greener than any- 
where else: there were buried 13,000 of his 
•* Inrtncibles," his favorite troops, who lost 
their lives in obeying his command — "On- 
ward ! Cut the way through to Brussels !" 
*« Tout est perdu ! Sauvons nous /" 
(All is lost.--Let us save ourselves !) 

These, said his guide, (who was our guide 
dso to the field in 1831,) these were the only 
words he uttered, when, afler observing the 
destruction of his last hope, he spurred his 
his horse, and fled for safety. 

fie-veaohedPam^m tke^etlr^-Juln^B^ 
on the 15th surrendered himself to the En- 

glish at Rochefort. He was sent to the island 
of St. Helena, and confined there until ht^ 
death whkh occurrsd May 5th, 1831. On 
the 7th of Jnly, 1840, his remains were de- 
ponted in the Hospital of Invalides, hi P^ris, 
wkh public honors. 


It has been ascertained froni data believ- 
ed to be eerrect, that the oonsnraptioQ of 
intoxicating liquors of all kinds in the 
United States yet amouota to over five gnl- 
Ions per annum to each man, woman and 
child. At this rate, and taking our popu- 
lation at twenty millions, the consumption 
would be one hundred miUiens of gallons 
yearly. (England consumes over fifly 
millions of gallons of strong beer alone 
yearly.) This quantity at the retail 
price of three cents per glassy would coet 
tlM ceBSunienr two hundred millions of 
dollars yearly. 

Let us see what llie expendituree of 
this sum would do provided tippling wooM 

It would fbmisb every family on the globe 
with a Bible. 

It would build and endow one thousaad 
seminaries of laammg at 9100^000 each, 
or ten thousand at $10,000 each. ZIZ^ 

It would build five hundred thousand 
miles of magnetic telegraph at $200 a mile, 
forming a perfect net-work for instanta- 
neous communication with all parts of the 

It would m a single year build a city 
of fifty thousand tenements at a cost of two 
thousand dollars eaeh, and accommodate 
tkree hundred thouaand inhabitaQt»-^iz to 
each house. 

It would be five dollars to eaoh iadi. 
vidual, and twenty-five dollars to each &m. 
ily in the Union. 

The First Snow,—Biey. Mr. Dean, Bap- 
tist Missionary, who, in company with the 
young Chinese convert, A-Bak, is visiting 
the various Baptist churches, was over- 
taken by a snow storm at Tremont, in Mich, 
igan. It was expected that the j'oung fo- 
reigner would be amused and his curiosity 
exeited by this, to him, novel freak of na- 
ture. The reverse, however, was the casa 
A-bak was so much afifected by it, that 
serious apprehensions for his health were 
entertained by his friends. On the following 
day he so fer recovered as to warrant a 
'joifrney soiifhivard, fn* iVe hope of Ending 
the chmate milder. 









At Um l^>pToabh <^ Spring we liave the 
pIcMuig anticipatioa of woan being able to 
mj :— 

** The time of the tingiog of birds has 
eomei and the voice of the turtle is beaid 
in OUT land.'' 

Ve shall soon be cheered by the appear- 
anceof - 

^ First the blade, then the ear and after 
that the full com in the ear.'* 

Tes. soon that annual wonder is to be 
repf^ated in our sight, which the wisest of 
men still find wholly beyond their compre- 
hcDsion, the budding and growth of the 

There are a few fiicts connected with 
roots and buds, howerer, which are well 
asoertatned, but not generally understood. 

First Plants grow only from seeds and 
buda It is common to speak of them as 
growing £rom roots : but, strictly speakingi 
in the language of botanists, they neyer 
grow from the root No. 1, above, repre- 
sents a root* with a bud puUing out between 
two leaves: but the \)ud is not considered as 
belonging to the root: for a proper root 
never has a bud in it, even if the bud lie 
under ground. No. 2 is a creeping plant 
Ofily the little fibres of it are called its' 

roots, because the horizontal part contains 
buds. That is considered as the stem, 
which may contain buds. No. 3 is a lum- 
py root, but the roots are not like the po- 
tato, for they have no buds. What are 
commonly called potato roots, which we 
eat, are properly the stems : for they eon- 
tain buds.. Only the little fibres then are 
roots. No. 4 is a soaly bulb, like a tulip 
root It grows under ground, but is pro- 
perly a stem, for it contains the bud. — 
The buds of the horse-chestnut and other 
trees, already swelling, difier only in the sit- 
nation, being placed at the axils of the leaves, 
or between the stem and the leafstalks. 
Nofl. 5 de 6 are buds cut open and magnified. 

These simple facts are easily proved and 
understood, and should be explained to all 
the young as the season advancea How 
the buds grow is a most curious subject of 
inquiry, and admirably adapted to raise our 
grovelling minds to the contemplation of the 
great and glorious ^mg who is continually 
performing his wonders on every hand 
around us. 

Coloring Matter, — ^A process for restorinff 
decayed writings, recently given, is as fof 
lows: — Cover the letters with prussic al- 
kali, with the additioD of a diluted mineral 
acid, on the application of which the letters 
change very speedily to a deep blue color of 
great beauty and intensity. To prevent the 
^reading ol the color, which by blotting the 
parchments detracts greatly from the lesibil* 
ity, the alkali should he put on first, and the 
diluted acid added upon it. The method 
found to answer best is to spread the alkali 
thin with a leather. Though the alkali 
should occasion no sensible change of color, 
yet the moment the acid comes upon it, every 
trace of a letter turns at once to a fine blue, 
which soon acquires its full intensity, and is 
beyond comparison stronger than the original 
trace. It then the comer of a bit of blotting 
paper t>e carefully and dexterously applied 
near the letters, so as to imbibe the superflu- 
ous liquor, the staining of the parchment 
may be, in a great measure, avoicfed ; for it 
is this superfluous liquor which, absorbing 
part of the coloring matter from the letters, 
becomes a dye to whatever it touches. Care 
should be taken not to bring the blotting 
paper in contact with the letters, because the 
coforinff matter is soft while wet and may 
easily be rubbed off. They should be so 
much reduced as not to soil a matter of 
much nicety.— i9i/sclstf. 





Esctraetf Urom our Correspondence* 


2b the Editor of the Am. Pinny Magazine 

Dear Sir : — Enclosed is one dollar, the 
torn you lequired for the Ailanthus seed 
■BLt me. The object is a good one nnd 
praiseworthy. I nave sold them in small 
parcels for that sum." 

« Ohio. 

A notice in a recent number of the New 
York Observer, respecting your enterprize 
for the * General Propagation of Ornament- 
aV Trees,' led me to look up your advertise- 
ment ; and, as the result, I send you the 
enclosed two dollars, as a friend's subscrip- 
tion for Volumes Ist and 2nd of your Mag- 
azine. Please send me a few of your se^, 
I wish some more particularly for the Col- 
lege Qreen connected with the institution 
of which I am a proiessor." 

"—New Haven, Conn. 

I am reminded at New Haven of your 
excellent and philanthropic plan of dis- 
tributing the seeds of beautiful shade trees 
over the country, making them, like the 
the beautiful arrangements of Providence 
with respect to some minor seeds, * winged 
messengers/ to carry shade and beauty, joy 
and gladness in iheir train. May you, in 
a green old age, and your children after 
you, sit under their future boughs ; and « 
your ears be delighted with *tbe charm 
of earliest birds,' which there shall miake 
their homes. 

" Often have I thought while riding un- 
der the shade of that unrivalled avenue 
of elms in East Hartford, that I would 
rather look upon those trees as of my 
plantings than be the inventor of ihe dead- 
liest engines that ever desolated humanity. 
I doubi not that if you should pledge the 
fair songstress of Hartford in a gla^s of pure 
Croton, with — 

«* Then here's to the Elm, the beautiful Elm!" 

She would produce a song worthy of the 
subject. But here 1 am in the city of Elms : 
and how appropriately they are associated 
with the Groves of Academusl It might 
S be in better taste to write an essay on their 
merits in the day when the Dog star rages, 
and we are fain to cry out 

"All-conquering heat ! Oh, intermit thy wrath, 
••And on my ihrobbing temples potent thus 
" Beam not so 6erce." 

Yet they are beautiful now ; and, as the 
wind whistles through their giant branches 

on a winter night, to me they < discourse 
most eloquent music' 

Qo on, my dear Sir, with your exertions; 
and rest assured, that although every one 
will not remember the advice of the honest 
Scotsman to his son : 

< Aye be putting in a tree, Jock ; Hwill 
be growing when youVe sleeping, mon,' 

Yet enough will be done to make you 
feel that you have not labored in vain.'' 

«' Ohio. 

Dear Sir: — You will please to send 
me such seeds as you judge most congenial 
to the southern parts of this State, particu- 
larly the Ailanthus, with directions to plant 
and rear. I hope to be found on your list 
of subscribers, as long as you publish or I 
shall live." 

•< New York 

" You have sent your seeds to the right 
place. I have a handsome farm^ which I 
wish to stock with various trees." 


The new Parliament was opened on the 
22nd of January, by the dueen in person, 
who, in her speech, used the following dig- 
nified and noble language towards oar 

'* I regret that the claims of Greet Britain 
and the United States, in respect to the ter- 
ritory on the North-western coast of Ame- 
sica, although they have been made the 
subject of repeated negotiation, still remain 
an unsettled point. You may be assured 
that no effort, consistent with national honor, 
shall be wanting on my part to bring this 
question to an early and peaceful termina- 

We regard these expressions with the 
greatest satis&ction. Our President had 
forgotten the proper dignity of his office, 
as well as his courtesy a3 a gentleman, so 
far as to use threatening language towards 
England, and contemptuous, insulting ex- 
pressions towards the Sovereigns of the 
Continent. We participated with many of 
our countrymen in the regret and shame 
which his words too justly inspired; and 
felt humiliated in the humiliation of our 
country, by the violent, inhuman and de- 
graded Isnguage used by certain members 
of Congress. It is gtatifying to hear such 
expressions used at this moment by the 





Q,ueen of England, when one single word 
of contempt, menace or passioDi would 
have served as a pretence for our violent 
and dangerous war-partizans tot keeping 
up the excitement, from wl)ich they may 
hope for some personal advantage. Hap- 
pily there is no shadow of any such pretext 
in the speech of the dueen. Thanks to 
her and to her councillors, it breathes 
nothing but peace; and, in our opinion, 
oar nation owes, her a debt of gratitude — 
We should be well pleased to see our la- 
dies taking some means to express their 
obligation : for perhaps, (may we not say 
probably,) to her they owe the lives of 
many they hold dear to them. A word 
might have led to a war; and war, like a 
(avenous beast, must feed on human flesh. 
Fathers, brothers, husbands and sons are 
its victims. She, who has done and who 
will do all in her power to avert that threat- 
ening, that dreadful vision which we have 
been seeing before us, day and night, for 
two months — that mournful procession or 
widows and orphans, wailing mgthers and 
grey-headed sires— she has acted the part 
of a friend to our country. A friend in 
need is a friend indeed ; and, as such> iode- 
p^ently of other considerations, she merits 
our regard. 


(Continued from Vol. 2d. p.) 

Beauty and gracefulness are charac- 
teristic of the Oak in its youth ; strength 
and dignity in its middle life* increasing 
%nih the advance of age, sometimes even 
to what might be called stern and awful 
majesty. As an object that is exposed to 
the deliberate contemplation of every pas- 
ser-by, and one affected by the changes of 
season and of weather, as well as those of 
light and shade, it &ils nOt to strike the eye 
of childhood with its due impressions. 
When, in the course of an advanced edu- 
cation, Blair or Allison appeals to our own 
consoiousness, for the existence within us 
of sensations theyv call beauty and sub- 
lanity, who has not recurred to the green 
tntf shaded by a venerable oaj^t and 

sprinkled with its acorns, where we first 
experienced them ? 

The wood of the oak has bemi one of the 
chief aids of civilization, afforded by the 
vegetable kingdom. From the time when 
Abraham sat beneath the /shadow of one 
on the plains of Mcunre, up to the present 
day, it has sheltered and protected millions 
of the human fiunily, from infancy to old 
age, with its firm and enduring branches, 
either in their natural connection with* the 
trunk, or separated, and hewn and placed 
by art in the form of a habitation. The 
bark is used in vast quantities in tanningf 
as it contains a large portion of tannic 
acidy which forms an insoluble and im- 
perishable substance with the glue in skins, 
and thus converts them into leather. Nut- 
galls, those little excrescences formed on 
some oaks, around the wounds made by an 
insect to deposit its eggs, are still more 
abundantly supplied with tannin, and for 
that reason are ground and mixed with 
copperas, (sulphate of iron,) to make ink- 
powder. The leaves and sawdust are em* 
ployed in dicing and sometimes in medicine. 
Oak makes excellent charcoal which is so 
peculiarly free from grittiness, that it is 
used by the engravers to polish copper 

The Romans were acquainted with the 
use of charring wooden posts, as is proved 
by the piles recently taken from the bed of 
the river Rhine, which were driven by 
Julius CsBsar, to support his bridge, 

Oak wood is preferred in many countries, 
when it can be procured, for the timbers 
and floors of houses, for ships, for the 
handles of carpenters' tools, &c. Acorns 
have been much used by some naiions, as 
food, particularly the ancient British. In 
Silesia, the oil is pressed from them, which 
is made a substitute for butter by the poor. 

The European Times expresses the 
opinion that ere long the line of steamers 
between Liverpool and Boston will be 
made to leave the respective ports once a 
week during the eight summer months, and 
once a fortnight in winter. 







By Professor W. 


JFhr the Amenean Pmnf Migastusi 

The exile lon^ to reach his hoBie> 
The wounded bird her nest : 

80 10 thy presence, Lord, I come-* 
Thy pres^ee Boakes me blest. 

There never-ceasing quiet dwells. 
There, peace overspreads the mind ; 

The world has broken all her spells, 
And lost her power -to blind. 

Pride'-4kat destroyer of my biiai, 

And self— that deadly foe, 
Forsake the mount where Jesus is. 

And haunt the yales below. 

Ah, mighty sorcerers of the soul ! 

They steal our life from God : 
One Mf we wmnder from the goal, 

The rest inquire the road. 

Sin and Repentance reign by turns. 

Maintaimnff doubtlbl fight ; 
And still the heart for follies bums, 

And still it loves the right. 

Oh ! Why are momentary Joys 

To erring mortals given f ^ 
Why must we stay for earthly toys 

Upon the road to heaven ? 

Why stands the soul in doubt, to choose 
The world, or choose iu prize : 

Attd still its onward way pursues 
With half-averted eyes I 

The man whom earth allures in vain. 

He, he alone, is blest ; 
Time cannot turn his joys to pain, 

Or guilt disturb his breast. 

He sends no empty thouffhts abroad. 

In search of vain delight: 
But, through the desert walks with God, 

Still keeping Heaven in sight. 

Noble course of the British Ministry. ^^ 
Sir Robert Peel said in Parliament, at its 
opening, I never entertained the slightest 
apprehension that any contrast between the 
language employed in her majesty's speech 
in reference to those unfortunate disputes 
that still prevail between this country and 
America, and ^hat which has been used by 
the chief magistrate of the United States, 
would have been made in this House. I 
never thought that that could be mistaken 
or misrepresented. We have no hesitation 
in announcing our sincere desire for the 

interests of the United States, and for the 
interests of the civilized world, in con- 
tinuing every effort which is consistent with 
national honor, for the purpose of amicably 
terminating those -disputes. (Hear.) I 
never had any apprehension that our inten- 
tions of our language would be misrepre^ 
sented ; and the speech which the hnn. gen- 
tleman, fMr. Hume,) the uniform and con- 
sistent aavocate for the strictest economy, 
has just made, confirms me that my anti- 
cipations will not be disappointed. (Cheers.) 
And if any proposal which her Majes- 
ty's Qovernment may feel it their duty to 
make for the maintenance of their essential 
rights, or of the national honor, shall be 
responded to and supported by this House, 
then, let me not be mistaken. I think it 
would be the greatest misfortune, if a con- 
test about the Oregon between two such 
powers as England and the United States 
could not, by the exercise of moderation 
and good sense, be brought to a perfectly 
honorable and most satis&ctory conclusion. 

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With numerous Engravings. 
. Edited by Theodore Dwight, Jr» 

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The New York Methodist Ad irooate speaks of it in 
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BMm BT TwtooatM Dvnawr, Ji., 1 


Vol. 1L Kxw Yobh, Satukdat, Mabck 7. 1S46. 

No. & 

= a .J frg » 

2 S " gr^ -S a" 
S-g a *^ go 

a »; 6 

£ B " i 

..■=50., i^ 
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= iilllli 

5 llialli 

2 c 9 0.2 S .. 



offering a most convaalent oommunicatioQ 
with the city. Contrasted with the for- 
bidding, and often disgusting wharves o& 
other ports, the first impression of that city 
is highly favorable. 

As the gauts are usually accessible at 
every change in the level of the water, 
they are generally useful ; and in populous 
places, they are daily the scenes of mu(ih 
busy activity, where the stranger has oppor- 
tunities to observe the varieties of Hin- 
doo costumes and other peculiarities. But 
the religious superstitions of the people 
often devote those places to scenes mtfte 
striking, but far less gratifying than those 
of commerce. There crowds assemble on 
some of their days of sacrifice and ablu- 
tion ; when from the pressure of lAasset of 
pilgrims, or the heat of the climate^ many 
lives are sometimes lost by crushing, suffo- 
cation, or drowning. On some occasions, 
and in certain places, thousands of little 
ofilerings are thrown into the stream, which 
is held sacred, and supposed to be under 
the special care of one of the principal 
gods. Sometimes multi.udes of persons 
wade into the water at the risk of life ; and 
sometimes infimts are thrown in as offer- 
ings, and the aged and poor, who are deem- 
ed useless, are lefl on the steps of the gaut, 
to die of exposure and starvation. 

The following fects relating to the River 
Ganges, we extract from the History of 
British India, by Hugh Murray, Esq., Vol. 
III., Chapter IX. 

From its elevated source, nearly 15,000 
feet above the level of the sea, the Ganges 
winds throuffh mountainous regions for 
fully 800 miles, and issues into the open 
country at Hurdwar, in latitude 30^ north. 
Durinff the remainder of its course to the 
sea, which is about 1350 miles, flowing as 
a smooth navigable stream through delight- 
ful plains, it receives eleven great rivers, 
'some of which are equal to the Rhine, and 
none smaller than the Thames, besides as 
many others of less magnitude. It is 
owing to this Irast influx of streams that the 
Gances in point of magnitude so greatly ex- 
cels the Nile, while the latter exceeds it in 
length of course by one-third. Like the 
Nile, it has a vast delfa, which exhibits the 
usual characters of such alluvial forma- 



tions. To the natives the inundations of 
this river are equally objects of interest, as 
are those of the Nile to the Egyptians. 
These annual overflowings of the Ganges 
are owing as much to the rains and to the 
melting of the snow among the mountains 
beyond Hurdwar as to the rains that fall in 
the plains ; for at the latter end of June 
the rivar has risen flfWen feet and a half^ 
out of thirty-two, the sum total of its rising ; 
and it is vf^ll known that the rainy season 
does not begin in most of the flat countries 
fill about that time. In the mountains, the 
rains commence early in April, and fiear 
the latter end of that month, when the rain- 
water has reached Bengal, the rivers begin 
to rise, but by very slow degrees ; for the 
increase fs only about one inch per day 
for the first fortnight. The increase then 
gradually augments to two and three inches^ 
before any quantity of rain falls in the flat 
countries ; and when the rain becomes gen- 
eral, the increfise on a medium is five inches 
per day. Before the end of July all the 
lower parts of Bengal contiguous to the 
Ganges and Brahmapoutra are overflowed, 
and form a lake of more than 100 miles in 
breadth; nothing appearing but villages 
and trees, excepting very rarely the top of 
an elevated spot, or the artificial mound of 
some deserted village rising like islands in 
the flood. 

The inundations in Bengal differ from 
those in Egypt in this particular, that the 
Nile owes its floods entirely to the mins 
that fall in the mountains near its source ; 
but in Bengal they are as much occasioned 
by the rain that falls in the country itself 
as by the waters of the Granges ; and as a 
proof of this, the lands in general are over- 
flowed to a considerable depth long before 
the bed of the river is filled. It may be re- 
marked that the ground adjacent to the 
bank, to the extent of some miles, is con- 
siderably higher than the rest of the coun- 
try, and serves to separate the waters of 
the inundation from tnose of the river un- 
til it overflows. The high ground is in 
some seasons covered a fS>t or more ; but 
the depth in the lower country varies of 
course according to the irregularities of the 

f round, and is in some places twelve feet 
)ven when the flood becomes general, the 
river still shows itself, as well by the grass 
and reeds on its banks as by its rapid and 
muddy stream \ for the water of the inun- 
dation acquires a blackish hue, by having 
been so lonff stagnant among grass and 
other vegetables ; nor does it ever lose this 
tinge, which is a proof of the predominancy 



of the rain-water over that of t^e river. 
The slow motion oi the inundation, which 
does not exceed half a mile per hour, is 
owing to the flatness of the country. 

There arc certain tracts of lalid which 
require less moisture than others, from the 
nature of their productions ; these are de- 
cided from the floods by vast dikes, which 
are kept up at an enormous expense. One 
branch of the Ganges is thus confined to 
the breadth of the Thames at Battersea for 
an extent of seventy miles ; so that when 
the river is full, passengers look down on 
each side as from a lofty eminence into the 
subjacent country. Ehiring the swollen 
state of the river the tide loses totalljr its 
eSktm in counteracting the stream, and in a 
great measure its ebbing and flowing, ex- 
cept very near the sea. The following is 
a table of the gradual increase of the 
Ganges azid its branches, according to ob- 
servatkms made at Jellinghy and Dacca : — 

AtJellinghy. At Decca. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

la May it rose 6 6 ..24 

June . • 9 6 . • 4 6 

July . . 12 6 . . 5 6 

The 1st hi of Aug. 4 . . 1 11 

82 6 

14 3 

These observations were made in a sea- 
son wbai the waters were higher than 
usual ; so that we may take 31 feet for the 
medlom of increase. The inundation is at 
its height, and continues without diminution 
for some days before the middle of August, 
when itbegms to run off*; for although great 
quantiiies of rain fall in the flat countries 
during August and Sq)tember, yet by a 
partial cessation of the rains in the moun- 
tains there happens a deficiency in the ne- 
ceaaary supplies. The quantity of the 
daily decrease of the river is nearly in the 
following proportions:— During the latter 
half «f August and all September, from 
three to four inches ; from September to the 
end of NoveiAber, it gradually lessens from 
three inches to an inch and a half; and from 
NoTember to the latter end of April, the 
decrease is only half an inch per day at a 
medium. These proportions must he un- 
derstood to relate to such parts of the river 
as are removed from the influence of the 
tide 8. The decrease of the inundation does 
not always keep pace with that of the river, 
by reason of the height of the banks ; but 
after the beginning of October, when the 
raio has nearly ceased, what remains of 
the water is quickly evaporated, leaving the 
liuids highly manured, and in a state fit to 

receive the seed after the simple operation 
of ploughing. 

The quantity of sediment contained in 
the water of the Gkinges, according to 
Rennell, is truly astonishing. <<A glass 
of water," he says, << taken out of this river 
when at its height, yields about one part in 
four of mud. No wonder, then, that the 
subsiding waters should quickly form a 
stratum of earth, or that the delta should 
encroach on the sea." Rennell also com- 
puted the mean quantity of water dis- 
charged into the sea by the Ganges through 
the whole year to be 80,000 cubic feet in a 
second. When the river is most swollen, 
and its velocity much accelerated, the 
quantity is 405,000 cubic feet in a second. 
Other writers agree that the violence of 
the tropical rains, and the fineness of the 
alluvial particles in the plains of Bengal, 
cause the waters of the Ghinges to be 
charged with foreign matter to an extent 
wholly unequalled by any large European 
river during the greatest floods. The 
Ganges frequently sweeps down large 
islands, and Colebrooke relates examples 
of the rapid filling up of some branches of 
this river, and the excavation of new chan- 
nels, where the number of square miles of 
soil removed in a short time was truly as- 
tonishing, the column of earth being 114 
feet high. Forty square miles, or 25,6i00 
acres, are mentioned as having been carried 
away in one district in the course of a few 
yeara If we compare the proportion of 
mud, as given by Rennell, with his compu- 
tation of the quantity of water discharged, 
very striking results are obtained. If it 
were true that the Ganges in the flood sea- 
son contained one part in four of mud* we 
should th^ be obliged to suppose that there 
passes down every four days a quantity of 
mud equal in volume to the water which is 
discharged in the course of twenty-four 
hours. If the mud be assumed to be equal 
to one-half of the specific gravity of gran- 
ite (it would, however, be more,^ the weight 
of matter daily carried down m the flood 
seasons would be equal to seventy-four 
times the weight of the Great Pyramid of 
Egypt. Even if it should be proved that 
the turbid waters of the Ganges contain one 
part in 100 of mud, which is affirmed to be 
the case in regard to the Rhine, we should 
be brought to the extraordinary conclusion, 
that there passes down every two days 
into the Bay of Bengal a mass about 
equal in weight and bulk to the Great 











When his son had nearly completed liis 
5th year, Mr. H. began to think of sending 
him to school ; and, as it was not the cus- 
tom of the countrv to have day schools 
for gentlemen's cnildren, he was com- 
pelled to send him to a boardmg school. By 
placing his son at school, Mr. H. lost the 
most cheering influence which remained to 
him at Cardingtoa ; but, as it was for the 
child's good, he endeavored to reconcile him- 
self to it. It was a severe trial ; his home 
seemed now doubly desolate, and his health 
and spirits were so much affected, that it be- 
came absolutely necessary for him to change 
the scene. He therefore made his preparations 
for an extensive tour through France, Swit- 
zerland and Italy. As nothing particularly 
worthy of note took place during this tour, 
we will not accompany him in it. He then 
returned home, where we will leave him for 
three years, still engaged in acts of benevo- 
lence and love to his poor neighbors, and pass 
over to the year 177o, when he was chosen 
to the honorable and responsible office of 
High Sheriff of the county of Bedford. This 
office, in England, is generally held by some 
rich and conspicuous person, who takes all 
the honor and agreeable duties of the situa- 
ation, but pays a deputy for doing all the 
drudgery. But Mr. H. did not so. He was his 
own deputy, and personally investigated the 
state of the jail under his control. He looked 
mto the defects in the construction of the 
building, the abuses in the management of 
the prisoners, and the extortions to which 
they were subject ; and then set himself to 
work earnestly to procure a reformation. The 
state of the Lnglish prisons at this time was 
truly horrible. They were generally too. 
small for the numbers they contained, and 
had so few, and small windows, that the in- 
mates were deprived even of firesh air. They 
were so insecurely built, that the prisoners 
were loaded with chains that they might not 
escape. The sleeping apartments were damp, 
unwholesome dungeons, many feet under- 
ffround ; and, in many places, not even were 
bed and bedding, nay, more than this, not 
was stnw furnished: nothing but the moist 
earth was there to lie down upon. There 
were no drains and sewers to carry off the 
filth; and the cells and dungeons were, in 
consequence, so offensive, that the bad air 
produced a fever peculiar to prisons, known 
as the jail-fever, which frequently carried off 
jnore prisoners in a year than were condemn- 
ed to death. It was of the most infectious 
and malignant character, spreading as rapidly 
as the yellow fever, and often was as fatal.— 
When it appeared in a prison, the situation 
of the prisoners was pitiable in the extreme ; 
for, from fear of ihc infection, attendance was 
denied them, the physicians would not enier 

the cells, and they were shut up to perish m 
their misery. But there was another griev- 
vance existing in the prisons ; and this it was 
that first stirred up the benevolent spirit of 
Howard. The jailers, in many places not 
having a regular salary, dependea for sup- 
port upon the fees they received frum the 
prisoners; and, when they could not pay, 
they were sent back to their cells till they 
could. It is sufficiently hard for one to be 
imprisoned upon a charge of which he is af- 
terwards proved innocent : but what must be 
such a man^s feelmgs, when, thinking him- 
self now free, he is told that unless he csn 
pay heavy fees to the jailer and turnkey, he 
must return to his loathsome dungeon? — 
Howard first thought this evil peculiar to the 
jail under his care ; but he soon found that 
it was a very general custom. 

Such was the state of things wh^ Howard 
entered upon the duties of his office. Enough 
was there to excite the indignation of any 
feeling man ; but how much more must this 
lover of his race have been moved ; bow 
must he have felt at such unjust and cruel 
sufferings? But he did not only feel. He 
immediately set himself to work to do what 
was in his power, to correct these wrongs, by 
making such representations to those in 
power, as would lead to a radical reform. 

In November, 1773, he began his first phil- 
anthropic toUr through Engrand, for the pur- 
pose ot visiting its prisons ; and, by the fol- 
lowing March, be had visited all the county 
jails on the island, and had collected an iiu- 

fiortant mass of information concerning them, 
n some instances he visited the same jail 
several times, in order to be more accurate 
in his information concerning them ; and, 
nothing; daunted by the horrible state of the 
cells, the miserable condition of the prisoners, 
and the jail fever. On his return, he was 
examined before the House of Commons, on 
the subject of prisons, and gave such full 
and satisfactory answers to the questions put 
to him concerning their condition, &c., that 
he received, what is considered a great ho- 
nor the thanks of the House. Two bills pass^ 
ed the House that session — the beginning of 
that series of improvements in the treat- 
ment of prisoners, which has since been so 
much extended. 

And now was Mr. Howard's heart fairly in 
the work. Although he had already effected 
much, he seemed to think that he had done 
nothing, while anything remained to be ac- 
complished. We accordingly find him, as 
soon as his examination before the House of 
Commons had been finished, investigating the 
manner of conducting the London prisons. — 
Here great sufferings and shameful abuses of 

Euwer were brought to light. His first visits 
ad been confined to county jails; but, in the 
general tour of England and Wales, which 
he had now commenced, he extended them 
to the city and town jails and houses of cor- 
rection, in all of whicn he found much that 
needed reformation. In all these visits he 












was continaaUy exposed to the infectious air 
of dnogcons. and frequently conversed with 
ihe victims of the jail-fever : but his earnest 
purpose of doing good, and his strong feeling 
ior the sufferinffs of others, carried nim un- 
harmed througn all danger. After laboring 
almost incessantly for nearly a year in this 
painful and hazardous business, Mr. H. re- 
tvraed to Cardington for a short respite. 

Wherever he went, he took notes of the 
existing state of the prisons, and also of their 
abases. These he mtended to arrange ior 
publication in the Spring of 1775 : but it oc- 
carred to him, that, if to this mass of informa- 
tion, relative to the existing defects of Eng- 
lish prisons, he could add suggestions for 
remedying these evils, he might do much 
good. To qualify himself for the task, he 
thought it necessary to see, with bis own 
eyes, what had been done by other enlighen* 
ed nations of Europe. He therefore deter- 
mined to visit France, Flanders, Holland and 
Germany, for that purpose. 

To resolve and to do always came so near 

together with this active spirit, that in April, 

1775, we find him in Paris, busy with his 

philanthropic labors. But here the police 

was so strict, and the government so jealous, 

that it was with difficulty he gained admit. 

unce to the chief places of confinement. — 

The Bastille was inaccessible to all his en* 

deavorst and his attempts at the gates of the 

other prisons would have been also futile, 

had he not availed himself of a law which 

directed jailors to admit ail persons who 

wished to give alms to the prisoners, and also 

to allow them to distribute their gifts with 

their own hands. This law was exactly 

suited to his purpose : for, whilst gratifying 

his benevolent feelings by giving alms, he 

gnined admittance to all parts of the prisons, 

and visited dungeons which had rarely been 

seen by other visitors. He found much to 

approve in the regulation of French prison- 

From France he went to Holland, where 
his diligent inquiries were rewarded by find- 
ing many hints and suggestions for the im- 
proTement of prison discipline in his own 
coantxy. By wiuiessing the efiect of long 
tried Tegulations, he could judge of their use- 
fuloefls ; and, by making capacious notes of 
all he saw, and collecting all the printed 
regulations he could obtain, he amassed ma- 
terials from which he could afterwards select 
what would best meet the wants of his native 
land. Our space will not allow the mention 
of the condition in which he found the pris- 
oners here. Suffice it to say, they were es- 
tablished on plans which gave him much 
fdeasore, as tney aimed at the reformation 
ol the prisoners. From Holland our traveller 
proceeded io Germany. With great difficulty 
^e gained admittance to the prisons there, 
and returned to England in July. 

fie BOW turned his attention to the publi- 
calicm of a book, that would present to the 
public a striking piotute of the dreadful mis* 

ery and mismanagement of English prisons, 
and turn people's attention forcibly to the 
subject. It was necessary that he should be 
very exact in all his facts, and very correct in 
all his statements. He determined, therefore, 
before* he arranged his papers for the press, 
to make another '^general inspection of the 
prisons in the United kingdom of England, 
Ireland and Scotland, and also to revisit 
those on the continent. This he accomplish- 
ed, although in a delicate state ol health, 
exposed for hours in damp, cold cells, and 
iVequently to the most malignant infection. — 
On he went, strong in mind, and sufficient- 
ly so in body, to efiect his purpose. He 
was cheered, and comforted on the way, by 
finding that some abuses had been corrected 
siiice his former visits. 

As^ an example of some of the prisons 
he visited, I will here give an accoimt of 
a prison for debtors in the town of Knaresbo- 
rough, in Yorkshire. He found it in a con- 
dition more wretched and disgusting than 
any which had yet been describ^. ** It con- 
sisted of but one room, difficult of access, and 
having an earth fioor. Do fire-place, and a 
common sewer from the town running 
through it uncovered. Yet in this hole an 
officer had been confined fur a lew days, 
taking with him his dog to defend him from 
the vermin. The animal was soon destroyed, 
and the gentleman's face much disfigured by 
their attacks." 

He now commenced the preparation of his 
book, the materials of which had cost him 
nearly three years of perpetual exertion of 
mind and bodv to collect, and in doing which 
he had travelled more than 10,000 miles. — 
In the Spring of 1777 it was published. It 
was a quarto volume of more than 500 pages, 
illustrated by 22 large copper-plate engravings, 
and with the modest title — *« The State of the 
Prisons in England and Wales, with Prelim- 
inary Observations, and an Account of some 
Foreign Prisons, and Hospitals." It was 
dedicated to the House of Commons, as an 
acknowledgement of the honor conferred on 
him by their thanks, and for the attention 
they had already bestowed on the subject of 
Prison-Discipline. He was desirous that the 
work Biigbt difiuse useful information, and 
was indifferent in respect to any emolument 
from it, that, besides being profuse in his 
presents of copies of it, he insisted upon fix- 
ing the price so low, that, had every copy 
been sold, he would not have been indemni- 
fied for half the expense of the printing and 
the engraving. 

The book produced all the efiect he desired. 
The attention, not only of the Government, 
but of the whole nation, was directed to 
grievances and abuses which had existed for 
years unnoticed and unknown. And not only 
were they attracted to his book. He was 
viewed by all as the reformer of prisons, and 
the great philanthropist of the day. 

( To he continued.) 







From an Old Paper. 

Amonff the Commercial Houses in Europe 
or elsewhere, which from obscure origin, by 
discernment and adrantageously embracing 
the opportunities, equally at the command of 
many others, by their prudent enterprizes, up- 
right proceeding and particularly by con- 
tenting itself with a certain moderate profit 
in their immense concerns, hare become 
great, flourishing and powerful: the House 
of Rothschild certainly stands pre-eminent. At 
the recent death of one, who was thought 
the richest Banker in Europe — (M. V. Beth- * 
mann in Frankfort) when an inventory was 
taken ot his estate, his property did not ex- 
ceed 2,000,000 Dollars ; when from infallible 
sources, the House of R. (or more properly 
speaking the five Brothers^ possess wnollv 
unincumbered 20,000,000 dollars, and through 
their immense influence may command 
40,000,000 more. 

Mayer A. Rothschild, their father, was 
bom at Frankfort on the Maine, in the year 
1743. He lost his parents when 11 years 
old, and being left m very indigent circum- 
stances, he was pat apprentice to a trade, 
in which situation he served some years, 
when he quit it, and commenced trafficking 
in a small way. About that time a lucrative 
prospect opened itself for the connoisseurs of 
ancient coins and medals, wherein' the great 
and the opulent made considerable selections 
and purchases, which induced Mr. R. to ap- 
ply himself to this particular branch, and to 
acquire the necessary knowledge in order to ^ 
make the proper selections. By dint of in- ( 
dustry, he made thereby a decent lividg, and 
from his intercourse with the wealthy, pro- 
cured himself such respectable acquain- 
tances, as proved in the end of great advan- 
tage to him. 

Mr. R. at the same time fixed his mind to 
fldve the necessary knowledge required in a 
Counting-house, which soon obtained for him 
a situation in a respectable Banking-house in 
Hanover, in which he faithfully served sev- 
eral years — and by diligence and strict econ- 
omy, realized a small capital —when he re- 
turned to his native city ; then married and 
laid the foundation of the present establish- 
ment. His activity, knowledge and strict in- 
tegrity, soon obtamed him credit and confi- 
dence; and an opportunity soon ofiered, 
which gave him a chance of extending his 
commercial views, by the Landgrave of 
Hesse, who had become acquainted with him 
by the purchase of ancient coins — and where- 
in he had always proved himself trusty and 
useful — appointing him his court agent In 
this capacit), he subsequently rendered emi- 
nent services to the then Elector of Hesse — 
for while this personage, in the year 1806, 
was obliged to quit his territory, on account 
of the approach of the French army, Mr. R. 
succeeded to secure, but not without personal 
danger, through prudent management, a 

lar^e proportion of the Elector's private funds, 
which would have inevitably become a prey 
to Napoleon, and' conscientiously administer- 
ed them for the benefit of the Elector. His 
affairs now assumed a high standing, through 
government loans — about which time he con- 
cluded a loan with the court of Denmark of 
3,000,000 dollars. 

In the year 1812, Mr. R. died. — Seemg his 
end approaching, he summoned his 10 children 
to his bed side, and after giving them his pa- 
rental benediction, exhorted them under a so- 
lemn promise, never to change their religious 
creed ; and strenuously recommended to his 
sons, to observe amongst each other, an in- 
violable union. And never has a father's 
admonition been more strictly attended to^ 
for it is a very remarkable trait, characteris- 
tic of this family, that its male members, at 
every transaction of consequence, do, as it 
were, consult the words of their departed 
Sire, and very often remind each othei of his 
prudent advice, fostered through wisdom and 
experience, and never utter his name with- 
out reverence. 

The arrangements which the House o£ 
Rothschild entered into in 1813, respecting 
some very extensive money transactions, has 
given it its present standing in the coni- 
mercial worla. Whilst it may be here re- 
marked, that in the course of twelve years, 
thev, through their mediation and interest, 
ana with their own means, entered into con- 
tracts, to furnish by loans and subsidies the 
immense sum of 500,000,000 dollars, to the 
different courts in Europe ; — without taking 
into consideration the by no means incon- 
siderable sums advanced on account of French 
indemnifications. How the honse of Roths- 
child could furnish such extensive means du- 
ring this period, has, no doubt, been a ques- 
tion with many commercial men and poli- 
ticians. When it is, however, taken into 
consideration, that the result of extensive 
operations does not solely depend on the 
chances taken at some favorable moment, but 
in this instance rather on the fundamental 
maxims aiwavs pursued by the house. 

It would then appear, that the great suc- 
cess of their speculations principally hinjp^ed 
on those maxims, which were, as before 
stated, that the five Brothers did conduct 
their business in uninterrupted harmony 
amongst themselves, and with the strictest 
integrUy — which was the golden rule their 
dying parent bequeathed, that thejr jointly 
deliberated upon every transacuon — and 
wherein each enjoyed an equal share. And 
although residing far apart from each other 
for years, this did in no instance, infringe on 
their adopted principles, but must have 
proved in fact, beneficial to all, as it gate 
each hand the undeniable advantage to 
watch the movements of the Court where he 
was located — make the necessary prepara- 
tions for the speculations which were to be 
entered into, and then communicate the re- 
sult to the General Concern. The second 



maziiii which the Hoase of Rothschild took 
into Yiew was, as before stated, to be satisfied 
with a moderate adTance on their opera- 
tiooft— «lwav8 to keep them without certain 
boands, ana so far as human foresight and 
pntdeoce would admit, to be independent ot 
the sport of chance. By strictly adhering to 
such underiatinff principles, t&ev have no 
doubt acquired that lofty station they hold in 
the community ; whilst their merits hare 
been publicly acknowledged by most of the 
European Courts. 

Wab. — ^Allison, in his Principles of Popu* 
lationt gives some awiul facts. 

** Accustomed as we are to the effects of 
war in civilized time, when the most bloooy 
contests are followed by an increase in the 
numbers of the people, it is diflicuit to form 
a eobception of the d^olatlon which it pro- 
duced in barbarous ages, when the void 
caused by the sword was not supplied by the 
impulse of subsequent tranquility. A few 
facts will show its prodigious influence iu 
former ages. It is ascertained, by an exact 
computatioo* that when the three great cap- 
itak of Chorassan were destroyed by Timour, 
4,347,000 i>ersons were put to the sword. At 
the «ame time, 700,000 were slam in the city 
of MoQsul, which had risen in the neigh- 
borhood of the ancient Nineveh; and the 
desolatioo produced a century and a half be- 
fore, by the sack of Genghiskhan, had been 
at least as tpetii* Such were the ravages of 
this mighty conqueror, and his Mogul follow- 
ers, in tne country betwe^ the Caspian and 
Indus, that they almost exterminated the in- 
habitants ; and five subsequent centuries have 
been unable to repair the ravages of four 
years. An army of 500,000 Moguls, under 
the SODS of Ghenghis, so completely laid 
waste the provinces to the north of the Dan- 
iibe, that they have never since regained 
their former numbers; and, in the nimine 
consequent upon the irruption of the same 
barbarians into the Chinese empire, thirteen 
millions are computed to have perished.— 
Daring the great invasion of Timour, twelve 
of the most flourishing cities of Asia, inclu- 
ding Delhi, Ispahan, Bagdad and Damascus, 
were utterly destroyed ; and pyramids of hu- 
man heads, one of which contained 90,000 
skuUs, erected on their ruins.'' 

Those perscms who are always cheerful 
and good humored are very useful in the 
world ; they create an atmosphere of serenity 
and joy around them, which excites cheer- 
fulness in others. 

Canning, being once challenged to find a 
rbyme for ippecacuaua, immediately wrote 
the following : 

** Laughing in a shady grove, 

Sat my Juliana, 
Lozenges I gave my love, 


Thouglito appropriate to the Season* 

In addition to that joy in God which we 
should feel from hour to hour, while we re* 
collect that he is ruling the world even in 
th^ darkest days, the most adverse circum- 
stances, we should have knowledge and taste 
enough to consider the various operations in 
vegetable and animal life around us, and to 
reflect on many of the invisible works of hit 
hands, which science renders so intelligible, 
and so interesting. How little soever the ig- 
norant may suspect it, there are those who 
can see beyond the surface of things, under- 
stand operations in the air, the earth and 
the sea, and predict what will take place, 
and what will appear days, weeks and months 
in advance, not only here, but in distant 
lands. From a glimpse, or a bint, they may 
infer something interesting or important re- 
specting the flight of birds, the migrations of 
fish, or the productions of the fields, not by 
accidental conjecture, but by well founded 
reasoning; while many of us know nothing 
beyond the reach of sense, and are too 
much unacquainted with the sources from- 
which their superior intelligence is derived, 
to know where to seek for the advantages 
and the pleasures which they enjoy. 

A coxcomb, talking of the transmigration 
of souls said, *' In the time of Moses I have 
no doubt I was the golden calf." 

"Very likely," replied a iady, <* time has^ 
robbed you of nothing but the gilding." 


Stranger, for departed Rome 

Falls the anguish of thy tear? 

Look on the moss round this mouldering stone^ 

Stranger ! Rome is here .' 

Look on the destroyer's traces. 
Look upon the crumbling walls. 
Look upon the grass-grown places^ 
Where the echo'd footstep falls — 

There is Rome! though the shield of battle 
Flash not on yon sun-lit hill. 
Her mighty spirit^ giant shadow 
Frowns upon the city still. 

Conqueror of earth and sea. 

At the darkeninjg of whose hand, 

A thousand nations bowed to thee. 

Thy tomb is the dust of thy father-land. 

Lo, on the ashes of the fallen 
Her silent watch the captive keepeth. 
In the stillness of her rubs. 
The dead, the deathless sleepeth. 


, • X W/'^*'^ 



Belig^ons meeiioga in the open air are fre- 
] qucnt in thoie paru of our country, where b 
[ sparae populaiioQ, new settlemenis, or the 
' habiu of (he people have preveated (he 
I erection of Urge buildiDgs. They are neces- 
', tary, from tlie very circumstances of. society ; 

~ either do large public assemblies must 
I be held, or (hey must be collected ia (he 
. wood or held. Interesting oasociations are 
I connected, in the minds of many of our 

tern counirymen, with past scenes like 
I (hat represented above. The sileoce of na- 
' (ur«, interrupted by the solemnities of Chris- 
I tian worship are calculated to make deep 
I impressions on every mind ; and, if the 
\ effect of the maBier-pieces of architecture 
merits a comparison of them with the 
\ oaiaral sublimity of the groves, we may 

lonably claim for the " torest temple" im- 
' pretsioDSof a superior kind and more powe^ 
I ful character. 

We laid by, will) i-reai care, some years 
I ago, a fine poetical description of a religious 
I meeting in a western wood, which we have 
' sought for in vain, lo accompany' the print. 

I are obliged to substitute a few line* of 
I inferior merit, written nearer home, for which 
' ihe reader is referred to page 79,. of this 
) number. 

, MoBMON Affairs.— We team that the 

> firstexpeditioQoftheMonnonsforiheRocky 
5 Moualaine, will take up its line of march 
1 in about three weeks. The first company 
I will consist of about fifty men, with a suf- 

> ficient number of teams, drawn by good 
J horses lo convey the brming utenstis, pro. 
? vender, &c., thay may oeeA They will 
S load ihen" all with grain, at the last set- 

lement, and push ihcir horEes through as 
fast as possible, until they reach the base 
of the mountains, which they say they cau 
do by the time the gross is fairly up. — 
Here they will halt and commence farming 
operations. They will put in as large a 
orop as possible, and remain until the sum- 
mer emigrants come up. The object of 
this exp^ition is to raise something for 
the summer emigrants to recruit on, while 
on iheir joumey. 

Wo learn that on Monday last a very 
serious row occurred in Nauvoo, between 
the followers of the Twelve and those of 
the Wisconsin Prophet. 

As our readers are already informed, 
the new Prophet has made considerable 
inroads mto the church at Nanvoo. Late- 
ly he obtained a new revelation in rela- 
tion to the succession, and sent some mi«- 
sengers to the Holy Cily to read it lo Ihe 

iieople. This (hey attempted on Monday 
ast, but were surrounded by a mob who 
aitempled lo drive them from the city. — 
Whereupon a row ensued, in which clubs 
were used freely. The Twelveites gained 
the victory and drove their opponents from 
the gvoMnd. We look "'iih ansiety for far- 
ther particulars — IVariaw Sig. 

Small Pox in iVaiAua Street. — Last 
week lliere was much alann aboiit the 
prevalence of ibis disease in the above vi- 
cinity, it being currently reported that the 
city crier had been heard ringing his beil 
and proclaiming, "Lola of small pox in 
Nashua street !" A careful citizen, who 
thought this rather an extraordinary pro- 
ceeding, called on Ihal functionary, and 
found that there was a " slight error i' the 
bill," as he had only been crying, " Lost, 
a amall box in Nashua street." — Boston 



There is somethiog uncNnmonly strik- 
ing in a scene like ihis. The ingenuity of 
man, ia all its operations in the animal 
kingdooi, has never brought together in 
such strong contrast the opposite qualiliee 
ofdifiereDt beasts, as when he has mounted 
the colossal, but docile elephant, to assail 
the terrible Royal Tiger of India in his 
own jungle. We might wonder at the 
hardihood of himismen, who would venture 
OD an expedition so hazardous, and still 
more at the taste which should regard it as 
an attractive and bvorile amusement. It is 
not an nncommon thing for British officers 
in India, to form parlies for this species of 
hunting ; and we have occasionally met 
with acconnts of (heir adventures. 

Bishop Hcber informs us, in his journal, 
of a ride he once look with a Rajah, into 
a jungle infested by tigers, in the hope of 
wiinessing an attack upon the savage army 
by a parly of Hindoos. 

Of all that we have ever read on this 
subject, however, the story which gave us 
the greatest astonishment, was one from the 
pen of an English lady in India, which de- 
scribed the operations of a hunting-party 
of which she formed an important member. 
Mounted on an elephant, and provided 
nith a gun and ammunition, she was borne 
\nu> (he midst of danger, started a powerful | 
tiger from his lair, and fired upon him with | 
eflecl ; and then seized her first leisure mo- ' 

ment to write a description of the scene to a < 
female friend in England. < 

The docility, sagacity and sensibility of i 
the elephant, combined with his immense ( 
size and strength, fill the mind with min- 
gled feelings of wonder, interest and fear, 
especially when contemplated from a dis- J 
tance, in a counlry where he is but seldom '. 
to be seen, even as an object curiosity. In j 
Asia, where he is an assistant of man in la- 
bor, where be cheerfully transports his i 
master, and his master's family and effects ; 
upon his back, and becomes a kind of Ja- 
miliar friend, he Is naturally and agreea- 
bly associated with the recollections of ' 
childhood and of home. But when he ] 
rushes with his armed master to the haur 
of the insidious and blood-thirsty tiger, and ' 
lends the protection of his mountain siie 
and unequalled strength to carry on the 
war against the most lerrible foe, he is re- 
garded with trust, confidence and gratitude, 
like a living citadel — a moving forlress, i 
which voluntarily advances into the enemy's 
country, and afTords all the advantages of | 
protection and attack. 

Bishop Heber thus desoribea the appear- ' 
anoe, oapansoa and services of the ele- S 
phanit in hie " Narrative of a Journey \ 
through the Upper Provinces of India, 

" At Barrackpoor I first mounted an cl 
phant, the motion of which I thought fur J 






from disagreeftble, though very difierent 
from that of a horse. As the animal moves 
both feet on the same side at once, the sen. 
sation is that of being carried on men's 
shoulders. A full-grown elephant carries 
two in the <howdah,' the 'mohout,' or 
driver, who sits on his neck, and a servant 
on the crupper behind with an umbrelUu 
The howdah itself which Europeans vs^ 
is not unlike the body of a small gig with- 
out a head. The native howdahs have a 
fiur less elevated seat, and are much more 
ornamented. At Calcutta, or within five 
miles of it, no elephants are allowed, on 
account of the frequent accidents which 
they ' occasion by frightening horses. — 
Those at Barrackpoor were larger animals 
than I expected to see. Two of them were 
ten feet high. That which Lord Amherst 
rode, and on which I accompanied him, 
was a noble fellow, dressed up in splendid 
trappings, which were a present from the 
king of Oude, and ornamented all over with 
fish embroidered in gold, a device which is 
considered here a badge of royalty. I was 
amused by one peculiarity which I never 
heard of before. While the elephant is go- 
ing on, a man walks by his side, telling 
him where to tread, bidding him 'take care,' 
< step out,' warning him that the road is 
rough, slippery, dec, all which the animal 
is supposed to understand, and take his 
measures accordingly. 

The mohout says nothing, but guides him 
by pressing his legs to his neck, on the side 
to which he wishes him to turn, urging for- 
wards with the point of a formidable goad, 
and stopping him with a blow on the fore* 
i head with the but end ol the same instru- 

<* As to tigers," says Bishbp H., while at 
Shakee, in Northern India, in view of the 
Himlaya Mountains, •'though we may po8> 
sibly hear their roars, and see the traces of 
their feet, it is not often that they venture 
the fires of an encampment, or a formidable 
multitude * near which such an encamp«i 
ment as mine presents to them. Still, if a 
tiger shows himself, he will, in all proba- 

bility do it at Tandah ; and though I should 
not dislike to see the animal in its native 
state, I am bound , for the sake of my half 
naked and careless followers, and my nu* I 
merous train of animals, still more than my \ 
own, not to linger twelve hours in a spot j 
of so bad repute. | J 

In the day, at this season, by those who \ 
merely pass along the plain neither lions 
nor tigers are to be apprehended. The Int. 
ter, indeed, on being approached, keep 
themadves in close cover. 

** Mr. Boulderson, the surveyor of the 
district and a keen sportsman, told me, 
that both lions (where they are found,) and 
tigers are very troublesome to the people 
near the forest ; who, having no elephants, 
have no means of attacking them with safe- 
ty. The peasantry here, however, are not 
a people like the Bengalees, to allow them- 
selves to be devoured without resistance; 
and it ollen happens that, when a tiger has 
established himself near a village, the 
whole population turn out with their match- 
locks, swords and shields, to attack him.— 
Fighting on foot, and compelled to drive 
him from his covert by entering and beat- 
ing the jungle, one or two generally lose 
their lives, but the tiger seldom escapes ; 
and Mr. Boulderson has seen some qkins of 
animals of this description, which bore the 
strongest marks of having been fought with 
hand to hand. 

"They were, in fact, slashed all over 
with cuts of the * tulwar,' or short scimitar. 
A reward of four rupees is paid by the go- 
vernment for every tiger's head ; and if the 
villagers of any district report that a tiger 
or lion is in the neighborhood, there are 
seldom wanting sportsmen among the civil 
or military offiicers, who hear the news 
with pleasure, and make haste to rid them 
of the nuisance. A good shot, on an ele- 
phant, seldom &ils, with perfect Safety to 
himself, to destroy as many of these terri- 
ble animals as he may happen to fall in 

(To be continued. ) 

► *s^. 





In 1844 s or a Grael^ Return it 
Ills Viif tJUkiU** 


{Continued frcm VoL IL, page 56.) 

Samo8» coDtimied. — ^History.— Wine. 

Tlie fint inhabitmnu of thif mj naure 
iiknd mre laid to bare been Careens and Le« 
leges ; and tbe wife of tbeir king AnccBos, witb 
a degree of probability eqoal to many otbtr 
ridicalooa traditions of tbe ancients* was re- 
ported to be tbe daughter of tbe Moeander, a 
small stream still flowing in tbe enrirons 
of Smyrna. Her name being Samia, tbe 
island most have derived its appellation from 
ber. A colony of lonians came bere, from 
Epidauros, having been driven from tbeir 
homes by the Argives; bat were soon ex- 
pelled by the Ephesians, who subsequently 
were compelled to relinquish tbe ground to 

Being early distinguished as navigatois* tbe 
gffffiana took su activc part in several wais* 
altbovigb they suffered much under tbe tyran- 
ny ol Polycrates and Mceandrius : but when 
the Persians gained tbe asc^dancy, many of 
them abandoued their island and found a re- 
fuge in Sicily, and dwelt at Calacte and Zan- 
cie. Tbe Persians* however* did not devas- 
tate the island, but allowed the towns and 
temples to stand, making Eaces king. At 
length news arrived of tbe Greek victory at 
Sakmis, when the Samians sent a private 
invitation to their conquerors to aid them in 
putting down tbe tyrant, Theomestan. A 
Spartan fleet soon arrived and fought the suo- 
eeesful battle of Mycale, and Samos joined 
the Qreek confederacy. The Athenians at- 
tempted, some time before the Peloponnesian 
war, to establish a democracy on the island : 
but the aristocratic party called in the citi- 
zens to their aid, and crushed their enemies. 
Samos afterwards became the station for tbe 
Athenian fleet, and for a time was fubjected 
by Egypt, paseing in turn under Antiochus 
and Rome. 

There was an ancient and very celebrated 
temple of Juno, which was filled with tho 
costly presents of visitors, who came from 
distant parts of Greece to pay their devotions 
to the goddess, and to leave gifts, often of 
great price. Few temples are represented as 
having been more generally reverenced or 

more highly endowed. No vestige, however^ 

The same process is still used in making^ 
wine among my townsmen, with which I was 
familiar in my childhood ; and, as it prevails 
throughout ail parts of Greece as far as I 
know, I will descnbe it. The whole business is 
domestic— every cultivator making his own 

The grapes begin to ripen in August, and 
then the vintage begins. It is a rule to go 
through the vineyards daily, and pluck the 
clusters which are found ripe. These are 
thrown into the wine-vat, which must first 
be described. Connected with the house of 
every cultivator is a square room or building 
of stone, about twelve feet high and nearly 
of that length and breadth, plastered smooth 
with a kind of water cement, of a good qual- 
ity, the art of making which is extensively 
known. The floor has a gentle slope towards 
(AC side, where is a small opening, to allow 
tbe juice of the grapes to flow off* and fall 
into a similar vat, of smaller size built below, 
in a bole excavated in the earth. 

The grapes, as they are daily brought in, are 
laid in a heap on one side of the upper vat ; 
and as often as leisure permits, the men wash 
their feet, enter the place, take down a few 
clusters at a time, place them on the lower 
part of the floor, near the draining hole, and 
trample upon them, heaping up the remaining 
part upon a kind of rough grating dn another 
side of the vat, formed of sticks. As these 
operations proceed, the lower vat is gradual- 
ly filling with wine, and the heap of bruized 
grapes is rising, with fresh layers of sticks, 
here and there interposed to keep the mass 
loose. At length, at the end of about six 
weeks, the last grapes have been brought in 
from the vineyard, the first he^p has disap- 
peared, the second heap has attained a great 
height, and is now to be subjected to pres- 
sure, as it retains a considerable quantity of 
wine. No machine has yet been introduced 
for such an operation. Resort is, therefore, 
still bad to a simple process, which is 
doubtless that of primitive times. Large 
stones are placed upon the top of tbe heap, 
until a great weight is obtained, the wine be- 
gins to run afVesh, and the mass to sink, tin- 
til, after some days, the wine ceases to flow. 
The contents of the lower vat are then drawn 
off into vessels, and the farmer seeks a sale 
for the product of his industry. 





But the crushed grapes are yet to be sub* 
jected to another process. They are soaked 
with a large quantity of water and fermented, 
and the fluid obtained from them is distilled 
in the following simple manner. A close 
boiler, containing a quantity of it, has a 
straight pipe attached, which passes through 
a hogshead filled with water. Heat being 
applied to the boiler, the alcohol they contain 
rises in rapor, with a portion of steam min- 
gled with it from the water ; and, in passing 
through the pipe, they are condensed, whence 
they flow into a receiving vessel at the end. 

This liquor is the rakee, so often mentioned 
by travellers in the East. It is the common, 
cheap spirituous drink of those regions. It is 
often re-distilled» and then ukes another 

Among the persons with whom I conversed 
while in Samos, was the brother of one of 
my old school-mates and play-fellows, who 
showed much kind interest in my welfare* — 
He was a man of superior education, taste 
and acquirements, as well as of excellent 
character and amiable disposition. He was 
employed in the custom house, but found lei* 
to devote to reading, and, I was happy to 
learn, was about to take a journey to Smyrna 
at the time which I had fixed on for my de- 
parture. Much to my satisfaction, it was ar- 
ranged that we should travel together ; and, 
as he was familiar with the roads and the 
means of performing the journey, I entrusted 
the arrangements to him, and found more 
reason to be satisfied wit j the result than on 
the way from Smyrna, under the direction of 
the merchant. We proceeded to the shore, 
at the narrowest part of the strait, where we 
embarked in a amali vessel, which crosses 
with passengers to Asia Minor once in two 
or three days. On landing, we hired horses 
and a guide, and proceeded along a high and 
varied road, which led us on our journey 
by a charter, and to me, far pleasanter way 
than that I had passed before, part of the 
distance nearer the sea. The weather and 
the company doubtless had much to do with 

Conversation turned on the means by which 
a Greek residing abroad may prepare for 
making himself useful to his country : an 
object which my companion had near his 
heart. " Of all the professions," he remark- 
ed, •* Greece is most in want of physicians. — 
We have a number, it is true, in Samos, and 

■on^e of them hare enjoyed the advantages 
of an educaticxi in France or other countries. 
But still the country is not well supplied with 
medical men of science and skill, and there 
are many places, both in our island and else- 
where, in which a well qualified man in that 
profession would be sure to find much prac- 
tice and a good support." 

Other conversation, on interesting topics 

beguiled away the time until near the close 

of day, when we reached our journey *s 



(Continued from Vol IL, page 50.) 

The Lady of the Castle, represented on the ^ 
frontispiece of No. 3, is a character of a dis- 
tinct kind, alike different from anything in 
times antecedent to those of feudalism, and 
later periods. What we have already said 
embraces but a few of the traits which be- 
longed to her ; and we despair of doing full 
justice to it in what we shall find room to 
write aa a few succeeding pages. Perhaps 
some of OUT readers may be disposed to in- 
quire, why such a subject should be consider- 
ed worthy of particular attention ? We may 
reply, that some writers have felt themselves 
interested in raising the public estimation of 
the Dark Ages, because they have been train- 
ed in the same principles, and are endeavor- 
ing to support the tottering remains of the 
same institutions, or to raise them in a new 
continent If we can be brought to look at 
the personages of those days through a favor- 
able medium, we may be impressed in favor 
of the political and religious systems which 
surrounded them. If the Lords and Ladies, ^ 
Knights and Esquires, of feudal days were 
very exalted in dignity and refined in life and 
manners, there must be something exalting 
in despotism, false religion, profound igno 
ranee and gross idolatry. The political rulers 
of those days were the monarchs and feudal 
lords in civil afiairs, and the priests in spirit- 
ual : bul the latter, (o a great extent, absorb- 
ed also the temporal power, through the ar- 
rogance of their assumptions, and the grovel- 
Img subserviency of those faint-hearted heroes, 
the owners of the castles, the Don Quixotes 
of the day. We call them faint-hearted, 
because, whatever « duellos " they may hare 
been prepared for, with champions like them- 
selves, or with such giants and hobgoblins as 
tlieir monastic instructors taught them to 







believe in, the mighiiest of them, with few 
exceptioDff, quailed below the priests of Borne, 
as an Indian warrior trembles in the presence 
of a medicine-man. 

What we hare to say on this subject, we 
hope may have a tendency to direct the atten- 
tion of some of our romantic friends, to the 
mifounded views they may have imbibed re- 
specting the times of which we speak, ^hat 
they may more justly appreciate those in 
which their Maker has seen fit to place them, 
J he more highly regard the superior institu- 
lions and characters around them, and the 
more heartily apply themselves to their du- 

•'Disguise thyself as thou wilt, 

«* Still, slavery, still thou art a bitter draught" 

And this truth is no less certain when ap- 
plied to national than to personal bondage, to 
intellectual and mc^ral than to physical. One 
of the worst features of feudal days was the 
gross immorality of all classes. Of this we 
have too numerous and decisive evidence, in 
a great part of the romantic writings to which 
some appeal in justification of their extrava- 
gant eulogiums of those days. Much of the 
old English poetry, for example, which has 
been preserved in many collections, abounds 
in grossness and profligacy to such a degree 
as to forbid the quotation of the few beauties 
of sentiment and expression which it con- 
tains. "Like people like priest," is a proverb 
which applies with terrible force to those 
periods. The Reformation itself was long 
imable to purify English society sufficiently 
to render literature tolerable to a virtuous 
mind. Wbat was the condition of society 
through that gloomy succession of ages, we' 
have too many and sad intimations ; and some 
of the most painful are those which show 
corruption in the springs— the female condi- 
tion and character. 

We intended, after presenting a few re- 
marks like the preceding to our readers, to 
bring together some few short descriptions 
from dififerent writers, as specimens of the 
pictures from which our opinions of castles 
and their tenants are commonly drawn; and 
lor this purpose had laid before us several old 
j books, from the shelves within our reach. — 
> But, on recurrence to them, we find olgections 
'of the kind referred to, which greatly restrict 
vk in our future quotations. 



We have thought it opportune, at a time 
when much is said of war with England 
and Mexico, to present some thoughts and 
some facts calculated to lead parents and 
teachers to make exertions, rightly to im- 
press the minds of the young on the sub- 
jects of peace and war. Who knows but 
some young persons near us, now at the 
age of impression.s, may be so prepared for 
future scenes of public agitation, as to ad- 
vocate our principles, and to use our argu- 
ments, now in private poured into his mind 
in a more public manner, and on a broader 
scale, in one of our legislatures, or through 
the channel of the press ? While we, on 
the one hand, reflect upon the early educa- 
tion of Napoleon, and, on the other, review 
his blood-stained career, let us remind our- 
selves, that thousands of other children and 
youth, may imbibe such a taste, and be 
found, in future days, wading through 
slaughter, like him, his marshals, his gen- 
erals, his officers, and his soldiers, in Cana- 
da, Oregon, California, or Mexico, in Pata- 
gonia, the coast of Europe, or in the heart 
of Africa or Asia, in pursuit of new phan- 
toms of fame, wealth and conquest, unless 
we, by our firesides and at our tables, teach 
them the humane, the righteous, the peace- 
making principles of meekness and love, 
of justice, industry and contentment, of 
obedience to Gtod and good will to men, 
with the gospel in our hands,''and its spirit 
in our hearts. 

Some miscreant, says a Washington paper, 
has recently disfi^rured Greenough^s statue of 
Washington, which stands in the temporary 
octagon building in the East Capitol grounds, 
and of the figure of Columbus, standing on 
the left side of the antique chair, (on which 
the main statue is seated,) one half the arm, 
with his hand and ball have been broken off" 
and carried away. The letters of the Latin 
inscriptions have also been defaced. 

The Missouri or Western Territory, is es- 
timated to contain 340,000 square miles; 
and is but thinly inhabited by roving tribes of > 
Indians. s 







Fabheb'b Club.— An unusnally large meet- 
ing of the members of thi« Club assembled 
onTaesday aftemoon, at the new rooms of the 
American Institute, in the Park. 

The Club directed their attention to that 
neTer-failing topic of discussion, the best 
mulberry for the raising of silk worms. 

Mr. Pike saif that he did not believe that 
the silk business would succeed in this coun« 
try, until children will obey their parents, 
and eo to work, exclusirely, upon and devote 
all their time to the cultivation of the mul* 
b^rry, and taking care of the worm. In 
this generation, ne had no hope of seeing 
any profitable progress in the business. 

Dr. Underhill, of Croton Point, knew the 
Multicaulis would not do, in this country ; 
and he did not think the BrtLsa would, either. 
But he knew less of this. 

Mr. Van Epps said his most successful 
feeding had been in the open air. He was 
about to commence the business, on a large 
scale, at Washington, where he had twenty 
acres, with the trees growing, all well-rooted 
and flourishing. He believed the Brusa to 
be a good mulberry. The Multtcaulis was 
only to be cultivated on high lands. The 
Brusa and the Canton were hardier varieties. 
He differed in opinion with Mr. Pike as to 
the feasibility of the silk business. He had 
no doubt of its success. 

The chairman thought that nothinfi; but en- 
terprise was wanting for as successful a cul- 
ture of the mulberry and the worm, in this 
country, as in any otner. 

The orders of the day were Ist, — ^wintering 
cattle, especially cows ; and 2nd, the pruning 
of fruit trees. The latter was taken up. 

Dr. Underhill. Trees must be pruned^ to 
let in circulation of light and air, or the fruit 
will be knotty, cme-sided, perforated with in- 
sects, and flavorless. Young pruning is ab* 
solutely necessary. The best time to prune 
is the Spring, alter the foliage has begun to 
come out. This is not the usual practice, the 
speakcar admitted ; not even his own. The 
labor in the Spring leaves less time, and 
therefore it is often done in the winter. But 
it is a ffood thing at any time. The limb 
cut -should be covered over with some kind 
of composition, to protect it. Rosin and 
beeswax, with a small quantity of tallow, 
make a good composition for this purpose ; it 
makes it to heal over soon, and prevents rot, 
from the intrusion of water. There is a pro- 
per place to prune the limb. A little bulge 
or rin^ is discernible, and it is just outside of 
that bulge where the limb grows smaller, and 
it will heal more rapidly. A limb grows 
twice as last on the lower side, (next the 
ground,) than on the upper side ; and ihe 
reason is, that there is much less obstruction 
of the sap-vessels, nearer the source of nou- 
rishment. ** More roots and less top '* is the 
result of ipruning, and thus is the finer fruit 
raised. Ihe suckers which grow upon the 

upper side of the limbs should be always cut 
on, every year, certainly every two vears. — 
They make the tree a perfect brush heap. 
They interfere with the care of the tree, m 
the removal of the caterpillars and picking 
of the fruit. And the man who does not 
clear off the caterpillars from his orchard, 
said Mr. Underhill, I don't want to cultivate 
his friendship : for it is not only his own, but 
his neighbor's interests that he overlooks, and, 
indeed, iniures. 

Mr. Allen showed a splendid bell-fleur 
apple, and other splendid varieties, taken at 
random from barrels, grown in an old orchard, 
a moss-covered orchard, a worm-eaten orch- 
ard, belonging to Mr. Mills, of Smithtown, 
Long Island. It vfas done by reclainung the 
orchard, by careful culture, 


daj. afternoon, a soldier took a small skiff, 
with his wife, and pulled across to Whitehall. 
He then undertook to pull back, — the tide be- 
in^ strong, the river full of floating ice, the 
wmd nortn-west, and the weather exceeding- 
ly cold, the thermometer down nearly to 
zero, — his boat drifted down with the cur- 
rent, and night set in. With a hope to reach 
the shore, he left his boat and undertodt to 
'cross from cake to cake. He unfortunate- 
ly fell in between the cakes, but succeeded in 
regaining his position on a pretty large cake 
of ice, on whicn he drlAed about the harbor 
all night, and was rescued the next moraine 
by a boy, at the Narrows, on the Staten Island 
side. He was taken on shore with his limbs 
badhr frozen, and, after being warmed and 
comfortably protected, he was snfficiently 
restored to come to the citv. It is truljr as- 
tonishing, that a man coufd have survived, 
on a cake of ice, exposed to the severity of 
the weather in one of the coldest nights we 
have experienced this year. — Express. 

A Display of Mathematics. — ^In the Hall of 
the House of Kepresentatives at Washinj^ton 
on Friday morning, before the meeting of^the 
House, the members were edified with the 
mathematical skill ot a youn^ man from 
Philadelphia, who multiplied millions of fig- 
ures m two or three seconds, by a new pro- 
'*ess, so claimed, and for which he has ap- 

Elied for a patent. The Hall, for half an 
our, was a capacious school room, and rep- 
resentatives of the people the pupils. 

The Late Snow Storm* — A snow storm com- 
menced here on Friday evening, and continu- 
ed without intermission until Sundav morning, 
a period of nearly 36 hours. This is the 
heaviest storm of the kind we have had this 
seasQn, and the severest for many years. 

Phila, Ledger, 

Removal of the State Capital. — There be- 
gins to be a considerable movement of the 
waters in reference to the renooval of the Cap- 
itaL The feeling in the western part of N. Y. 
State in its favor is growing. — Palladium. 







The eropc hmre all ripened, and aatamn is 

The harrest it gathered, and garaer*d at 

And near the pore stream, or the generous 

Where the deer slakes bis thirst, and the 

doTe folds her wing, 
In the coolness of sluide, with a shelter 

Spread broadly and dark by the kings of the 

The gronps hare assembled, and tents they 

Where the singing of birds still enlirens the 


The vigor of manhood may cease from its 

And cluldhood forget her gay pleasures 
awhile ; 

The weary may rest, and the thoaghtfnl em- 

A seasQO in lofty reflection and joy. 


Now BciHj is swelling the first of their 

Penitential and lowly, to dost it belongs ; 
Now, kindling and rising, and swelling on 

It revises the echoes, and soars to the sky. 
The cares and the sorrows, so long that 

bore down 
The loneliest bosoms, are banished and flown ; 
Bad thooghts of past sufferings, and fears of 

the new. 
All fade as the darkness, for heaven is in 


Now eyes late averted, or cast to the ground, 
la hope, and in rapture ascend with the 

And parents and children, and neighbors and 

Unite in the anthem* far upward that tends. 

— 'Tis silence, dead silence a moment — and 

A rererend form, with a silvery brow. 
With a dijpnified mien and an aspect of love. 
Sends a voice of deep tones through the lis- 

teninc^ ^rove. 
'* God r Every heart, at the soft solenm 

In silence, attention and feeling profound. 
Now borne to the earth in sad penitence 

Now joyful in hope of forgiveness ascends. 
The volume of truth, then its treasure dis- 

Us examples and warnings, confessions or 

And moments and hours thus solemnly move. 
Each bringing a message of truth and of 

And many a heart from new sonows will 


To the scene where such accents impressive 
did bum; 

Having learned the first task of repentance 

and love. 
In the shade <^ the forest, the cfanich in the 


«' Lady Mary, or Not of this Worid, by 
Rev. Charles B. Tiylor>''is an elegant vo- 
lume just published by Messrs. Stanford and 
Swords of this city, written by the auAor of 
several popular religious works, in the list of 
the London Tract Society: "The Fool's 
Pence," ««The Beershdp," <»The Sunday 
Newspaper. The present volume, like ** Ka- 
therme," is intended for the upper classes of 
EngUsb society. 

" Perranzabuloe, or the Lost Church found," 
by Rev. C. T. Collins, of Trelawny , from the 
same press, claims the British Church as of 
an older date than that of Rome. The vo- 
lume opens with a description of the first 
site of a Christian edifice in England, (at Per- 
ranzabuloe, in Devonshire.) 

/' Hood's Serious Poems," published by his 
widow in accordance with his dying request, 
will appear immediately in the *< Library of 
Choice Reading," printed firom the proof 
sheets, purchased in London. 

In the << Librarv of American Books," a 
work of great novelty will be immediately is- 
sued—simultaneously with its publication bf 
Murray, in Lcmdon — entitled '<Ttfbe; a 
Peep at Polynesian Life; during a Four 
Months' Residence in a valley of the Mar^ 
quesas, with notices of the French occupa- 
tion of Tahiti, and the provisional cession of 
the Sandwich Islands to Lord Paulett By 
Herman Melville." 

The following New Works are announced 
as nearly ready, for which orders are received 
by Wiley & Putnam. 

Burrows, on Disorders of the Cerebral Cir- 

Brodie's Lectures illustrative of various 
subjects in Pathology and Surgery. 

Rev. Dr. Whitby, on the Life Everlasting. 

Epitome Evangelica. By the Rev. Dr. 
Lexilogus Scholasficus. By the same. 

The Church in the Catacombs. By C. 
Maitland, M. D. 

On the State of the laboring population.— 
By J. D. Tuckeit. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Lectures on the advantages of a Classical 
Education. By Professor Amos. 

Scotland : its Faith and its Features. By 
the Rev. F. Trench. 

History of England during the Thirty 
Years' Peace. By Charles Kniffht. 

Historical Picture of the Middle Ages. 



./-^--V*".'^ >--v •*./ 






£^or th9 AfMnean Penny Magazine. 


iZ Gdllo. 

1. Canta, canta, 
Gallo, mio, 
Cara sTeglla 
Del fnatin. 
Loda sempre 
II ffran Dio 
Col tuo canio 

2. Al Aurora. 
Tutto solo, 
Peli prali 
Vai ^irar, 
Cor il campa 
Cor il solo 
La compagna 

Canta, &c. 

3. Ela t' ode 
Ti risponde, 
G\k s' appresta 
Di Tenir ; 

Ela gode 
Si confonde 
Del tuo aspetto 
Di graD sir. 

Canla, &c 

4. Ambo aienie, 
Fresche erbelte, 

Le foglielte 
A pulcini 

Canta, &c 



Chant, chant thy cheerful song! 
Let it echo, loua and long, 
Dear awak'ner of the dawn, 
Praising God at early mom. 

When the earth-reviving sun 
Hath his bright career begun. 
In the meadows Chanticleer 
Croweth to regain his dear. 

Chant, chant, &c. 

Well she kfiows the gladsome note, 
Swelling from his feather'd throat ; 
And, with answering joy, replies, 
While on wings of love she flies. 

Chant, chnnt, &c. 

But, with bashful, fond delight. 
See, she stops, bewildered quite 

By her lord's majestic mien, 
Fiery crest and varied sheen; 

Chant, chant, &c. 

They are picking now together 
The sweet herb and dewy heather, 
CuUidg still the tend'rest food 
For their little chirping brood. 

Chant, chant, &c. 


CoMuoN Lemon Candy. — Take three 
pounas of coarse brown sugar; add to it 
three tea-cups full of water, and set it over a 
slow fire for half an hour ; put to it a little 
gum Arabic, dissolved in hot water : this is 
to clear it. Continue to take off the scum as 
long as any rises. When perfectly clear, try 
it by dipping a pipe-stem first into it, and 
then into cold water, or by putting a spoonful 
of it into a saucer ; if it is done, it will snap 
like glass. Flavor with essence of lemoo, 
and cut it in sticks. — Every Lady's Book. 

From " Old Hwnpkrey^s ReceipU.^^ 

Fob a Fit of Idleness. — Count the lick- 
ings of a clock. Do this for one hour, and 
you will be ^lad to pull off your coat the next 
and work like a man. ** Slothfulness cast- 
eth into a deep sleep ; and an idle soul shaM 
suffer hunger." — Prov. 19th, 35th. 

To OuE SuBscBiBEES. — Those who wish 
to receive the second volume, and have not 
paid for it, are requested to send $1 without 
further delay through the Post-master, or by 
mail, without paying postage. 

Those who wish to withdraw their names, 
are requested to return the last number re- 
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be stopped forthwith. 

To ALL OUR Subscribers. — ^If each will 
procure one new subscriber, it will be ren- 
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lication, designed for extensive and lasting 



With numerous Engravings. 
Edited by Theodore D wight, Jr* 

Is pubiiflbed weekly, at the office of the New Yok 
Express, No. 112 Broadway, at 3 cents a namber. (1<( 
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<* The information contained in ibis work is worth 
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•♦ It should te in every family in the countrv.»»— 
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The New York Methodist Advocate tpeaks of it in 
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■-1 ) I Psiei 

I 1«1 a U 

Nkw York, SATvaoAr, Habch U, 1846. 

38-3 Z^ 

■its "•^ 
•si? II 

111 il 

'11?^ I 

! E S ° 

> « ; s = 

•3 .E S" — 

s-s i . S-» 



charms of natural scenery, and rendered 
still more attractive by the refinements of 
education, the polish of intelligence and 
good manners and the virtues of Christian- 
ity. All these recommendations, however, 
are peculiarly appropriate to that part of 
our country, where those institutions were 
first established which directly tend to pro- 
duce and to perpetuate such a state of soci- 
ety, and such habits among the people. 

The scene represented above affords us 
no unworthy specimen of a common New- 
England village : the union of two 
streams, in the midst of an extensive an«I 
fertile meadow, the evidences of cultivation 
on every side, which has long ago stripped 
the soil of its native forests, and laid out 
fields on the uplands, leaving only a few 
trees on the margin of the water, and be- 
tween the dwellings ; 

<<From storms a shelter, and from heats a 

The comforts and abundance which are 
found in those neat and substantial dwellings, 
the libraries which they contain, the influ- 
euce of the books upon the minds and 
hearts, the characters and lives of the in- 
habitants, the power exerted in other 
places, and even other countries, by persons 
bom amidst such scenes, and prepared by 
such habits, to aid in the advancement of 
science or arts, of physical, intellectual or 
moral improvement, to advocate the prin- 
ciples of civil freedom, or to proclaim the 
truths of Christianity : all invite reflection. 
The varying scenery of the country first 
claims the attention of a stranger visiting 
the New England villages, then the simple 
embellishments which nature has added 
with her tasteful hand; and these first 
meet the eye of one who returns after 
a long absence, to revive the impcessions 
ever interesting to his feelings. The con- 
ditions and habits of the people, and the 
history of men of past periods then claim 
the attention; and each of these will be 

found a fertile subject of inquiry to every 
well-stored mind, an improving branch of 

contemplation to every heart. 

^<An account of travels through the 

countries here Described," remarks the 
late President Dwight, in his *' Travels in 
New England and New York,'' (Vol. I., 
page 14,) ** must, if written in truth, be 
destitute, in several important particul.irs, 
of the entertainment expected from travels 
on the eastern continent. Adventures of 
all kinds must be very rare, in a country 
perfectly quiet and orderly in its state of 
society. In a series of journies, sufficient- 
ly extensive to have carried me through 
two-thirds of the distance round the globe, 
I have not met with one. Nearly every 
man whom I have seen, was calmly pur- 
suing the sober business of peaceful life. 

'< These countries have also been the the- 
atres of comparatively few splendid or even 
uncommon events ; such as very convenient- 
ly come to the aid of the European tourist, 
and often relieve him from the dull routine 
of mere journeying. 

*<Nor have national wealth, taste and 
grandeur, for any great length of time, or 
in any great number of instances, been dis- 
played, here, in magnificent buildings, 
canals, public libraries, and vast collections 
of antiquities and curiosfties. These, and 
other things of a similar nature, arrest, in 
European countries, the attention of travel- 
lers ; and, when recorded, ap:reeably en- 
gage that of their readers. Nor has pri- 
vate opulence in these States been extensive, 
ly employed in raising up ' such a coUec- 
tion of magnificent villas, and palaces with 
their beautiful appenda£;es,' as on ^he east- 
ern continent, and the island of Great Bri- 
tain, exhibit the hand of refined taste, and 
indicate the residence of affluence and dis- 
tinction. There are here many handsome, 
and some splendid 'structures ; probably 
more ihan could rationally be expected 
from our circumstances. But immense 
private wealth is rare ; and the style of 
building, and living, is rather neat and 
comfortable, than magnificent. Estates are 
customarily distributed to all the children 
of a family in equal proportions ; and the 
happiness of all is consulted, rather than 
the splendor of one. 

'' Nor can the traveller find here those 
varieties of character, religion, language, 
customs and manners, which in Europe so 
often diversify the scene, even at little dis- 
tances ; and give beauty, and interest 
to his descriptions. Some such varieties 
he will meet with in the field, which I have 
explored ; but the distinctions will not be 




marked, as to strike hia eye with much 
force, or to yield his readers any great gra- 

The scene is a novelty in the history of 
man. The colonization of a wilderness by 
civilized men, jvhere a regular govern- 
ment, mild manners, arts, learning, science 
and Christianity have been interwoven in 
its progress from the beginning, is a state 
of things, of which the eastern continent, 
and the records of past ages, furnish neither 
an example nor a resemblance. Nor can 
it be questioned, that this state of things 
presents one interesting feature in the hu- 
man character ; or that it exhibits man in 
one advantageous attitude, and his efforts 
in a light, whioh is honorable to our na- 

In New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and 
CJonnecticut, the public worship of God 
has always been established by law, and 
for a long time, without the communication 
of peculiar privileges to any class of Chris- 
tians. Here only, in the history of man, has 
this experiment been made. The first 
practical answer, thefefore^ to the great 
question, whether such a slate of things is 
consistent with the public peace, good order 
and safety, has been given in these States. 
Speculations on this subject have never 
satisfied either the understanding, or the 
fears of inquisitive men. An experiment 
was absolutely necessary. 

Here the experiment has been extensively 
made : and to say the least, has gone far 
towards proving, that Christians of diflTercnt 
classes can live together harmoniously un- 
der a government, which confers on them 
equal privileges. Facts, continued through 
a sufiicient periof), have solved the prob- 
lem. Hereafter it will scarcely be doubted, 
that where the blessings of rational liberty 
and universal protection are securely en- 
joyed, men, of very different religious 
views, can all be strongly attached to the 

In these countries what may be called 
parochial schools are every where estab- 
lished ; and all children are tau jht to read, 
write and keep accounts. In this impor- 
tant feet it is seen without a doubt, that ig- 
norance is not necessary for the preserva- 
tion of good order among the multitude. — 
Future generations will at least believe, 
that the knowledge, derived from this edu- 
cation, instead of making men worse citi- 
zens and subjects, certainly makes them 
better ,* while it enables them also to dis- 
charge the dudes of parents and children, ^^ 

of neighbors and friends, in a manner 
more useful, pleasant and praiseworthy. 

In Massachusetts and Connecticut the 
great body of the inhabitants are carried to 
the church from the cradle, and leave it 
only for the grave. It is believed, that the 
happy mfluence of this important fact in 
promoting the prosperity of a State, in pre- 
venting crimes, and in establishing good 
order, under a government, involying com- 
paratively few restraints upon personal lib- 
erty, is here evinced in the most satis&otory 
manner. ^ 

All these things, except the establish- 
ment of public worship by law, are to a 
considerable extent true of the other States, 
described in these letters. 

' In both New England and New York, 
every man is permitted, and in some if not 
all the States,, is required to possess fire, 
arms. To trust arms in the hands of the 
people at large has, in Europe, been believ- 
ed, and so far as I am informed, universal- 
ly, to be an experiment, fraught only with 
danger. Here by a long trial it has been 
proved to be perfectly harmless: neither 
public nor private evils having ever flowed 
from this source, except in instances of too 
little moment to deserve any serious regard 
If the government be equitable} if it be 
reasonable in its exactions ; if proper at- 
tention bo paid to the education of children 
in knowledge, and religion, few men will 
be disposed to use arms, tmless for their 
amusement and for the defence of them- 
selves and their country. The diflkulty 
here has been to persuade the citizens to 
keep arms ; not to prevent them from being 
employed for violent purposes. 

In New England lands are universally 
held in fee simple. Every farmer, with 
too few exceptions to deserve notice, labors 
on his own ground, and for the benefit of 
himself and his family merely. This also, 
if I am not deceived, is a novelty ; and its 
influence is seen to be remarkably happy, 
in the industry, sobriety, cheerfulness, per- 
sonal iddependence, and universal prosper- 
ity of the people at large. Great wealth j 
that is, what Europeans consider as great 
wealth , is not ' often found in these coun- 
tries. But poverty is almost unknown. 

Comfortable subsistence is enjoyed every 
where, unless prevented by peculiar mis- 
fortunes, or by vice. The feelings of a 
benevolent man are very imperfectly satis- 
fied by the sight of opulence and splendor 
in the hands of a few, contrasted by want 
and suffering in the many. 

(To be continued.) 




(Continued from Vol. II., page 52.) 

Sceuei of the Russian Campalgu. 
Sdecied Extracts from Scott's Life of Napo- 
leon, Vol. II., Chap. 37. 

On the 14lh September, 1812, while the 
rear-guard of the Russians weie in the act of 
evacuating Moscow, Napoleon reached the 
hill called the Mount of Salvation, because • 
it is there where the natires kneel and cross 
themselves at first sight of the Holy City. 

Moscow seemed lordly and striking as ever, 
with the steeples of its thirty churches, and 
its copper domes glittering m the sun; its 
palaces of Eastern arcliitecture mingled with 
trees, and surrounded with gardens ; and its 
Kremlin, a huge triangular mass of towers, 
something between a palace and a castle, 
which rose like a citadel out of the general 
mass of groves and buildings. But not a 
chimney sent up smoke, not a man appeared 
on the battlements, or at the gates. Napo- 
leon gazed every moment, expeqting to sec a 
train of bearded boyar^s arriving to fling 
themselves at his feet, and place their wealth 
at his disposal. His first exclamation was, 
«* Behold at last that celebrated city !"— His 
next, " It was full time." His army, less re- 
gardful of the past or the future, hxed their 
eyes on the goal of their wishes, and a shout 
of ** Moscow !— Moscow !"— passed from rank 
to rank. 

Meantime no one interrupted his medita- 
tions, until a messenger arrived from Murat. 
He had pushed in among the rear of the 
Cossacks, who covered the rear of the Rus- 
sians, and readily admitted to a parley the 
chivalrous champion, whom they at once re- 
cognized, having so often seen him blazing 
in the van of the French Cavalry. The 
message which he sent to Bonaparte intima- 
ted, that Miloradovitch threatened to burn the 
town, if his rear was not allowed time to 
march through it. This was a tone of defi- 
ance* Napoleon, however, granted the ar- 
mistice, for which no inhabitants were left to 
be grateful. 

After waitin|r two hours, he received from 
some -French mhabitants, who had hidden 
themselves during the evacuation, the strange 
intelligence that Moscow was deserted by its 
population. The tidings that a population of 
two hundred and fifty thousand persons had 
left their native city was incredible, and Na- 
poleon still commanded the boyards, the pub- 
lic fimctionaries, to be broufi^ht before him ; 
nor could he be convinced of what had actu- 
ally happened, till they led to his presence 
some of^that refuse of humanity, the only 
live creatures thev could find in the city, but 
they were wretches of the lowest rank. — 
When he was at last convinced that the de- 
sertion of the capital was universal, he 
smiled bitterly and said, *• The Russians will 

soon learn better the value of their capital." 
The signal was now given for the troops 
to advance ; and the columns, still in a state 
of wonder at the solitude and silence which 
received them ever>'where, penetrated 
through that assemblage of huts, mingled 
with palaces, where it seemed that Penury, 
which had scarce means i% obtain the ordi- 
nary uecesparies of life, had for her next door 
neighbor all the wealth and profuse expendi- 
ture of the East. At once the silence was 
broken by a volley of musketry, which some 
miserable fanatics poured from the battle- 
ments of the Kremlin on the first French 
troops that approached the palace of the 
Czars. Those wretches were most of them 
intoxicated ; yet the determined' obstinacy 
withwhich they threw away their lives, was 
another feature of that rugged patriotism of 
which the French had seen, and were yet to 
see so many instances. 

During the first few hours after their ar- 
rival, an obscure rumor which could not be 
traced, but one of those which are sometimes 
found to get abroad before the approach of 
some awful certainty, announced that the 
city would be endangered by fire in the course 
of the night. The report seemed to arise 
from those evident circumstances which ren- 
dered the event prqt)able, but no one took 
any notice of it, until at midnight, when the 
soldiers were started from their quarters by 
the report that ^he town was in flames. The 
memorable conflagration began amongst the 
coachmakers' warehouses and workshops in 
the Bazaar, or general market, which was the 
richest district of the city. It was imputed 
to accident, and the progress of the dames 
was subdued by the exertions of the French 

Next dav the flames had disappeared, and 
the Frencli officers luxuriously employed 
themselves In selecting out of the deserted 
palaces of Moscow, that which best pleased 
the fancy of each for his residence. At night 
the flames again arose in the north and west 
quarters of the city. 

The equinoctial gales ro^e higher and high- 
er upon the third night, and extended the 
flames, with which there was no longer any 
human power of contending. At the dead 
hour of midnight, the Kremlin itself was 
found to be on nre. 

The fire continued to triumph unopposed, 
and consumed in a few days what it had cost 
centuries to raise. '* Palaces and temples," 
said a Russian author, '< monuments of art, 
and miracles of luxury, the remains of s^es 
which had passed away, and those which 
had been the creation of yesterday; the 
tombs of ancestors, and the nursery cradles 
of the present generation, were indiscrim- 
inately destroyed. Nothing was left of Mos- 
cow save the remembrance of the city, and 
the deep resolution to avenge its fall." 

The fire raged till the I9th with unabated 
violence, and then began to slacken for wuni 







of fuel. It is said four-fiAhs of this great 
city were laid in ruins. 

On the 20th, Bonaparte returned to the ' 
Kremlin : and. as if in defiance o( the terri- 
ble scene which he had witnessed, took mea- 
sures as if he were disposed to make Moscow 
his residence for ^metime. He even caused 
a theatre to be fitted up, and plays to be acted 
by performers sent from Paris, to show per- 
haps that it was not in the most terrible of 
elements to overawe his spirit, or interrupt 
his usual habits of life. In the same style 
of indifference or affectation, a set of very 

frecise regulations respecting the Theatre 
'rancais was drawn up by the Emperor amid 
the ruins of Moscow. He was not superior 
to the affectation of choosing distant places 
and foreign capitals for the date of domestic 
and trifling orainances. It gave the Emperor 
an air of ubiquity, to issue rules for a rari- 
sian theatre from the Kremlin. It had already 
been prophesied that he would sacrifice his 
army to have the pleasure of dating a decree 
from Moscow. 

The conflagration of Moscow was so com- 
plete in its devastation ; so im[>ortant in its 
consequences ; so critical in the moment of 
its commencement, that almost all the eye- 
witnesses have imputed it to a sublime, yet 
almost horrible exertion of patriotic decision 
on the part of the Russians; their govern- 
ment, and, m particular, of the governor, 
Kostopchin. Nor has the positive denial of 
Count Rostopchin himself diminished the 
jgeneral conviction, that the fire was directed 
by him. All the French officers continue to 
this day to ascribe the conflagration to persons 
whom he had employed. 

On the other hand, there are many, and 
those good judges of the probabilities in such 
an event, who have shown strong reasons for 
believing, that Moscow shared but the fate 
of a deserted city, which is almost always 
bmmt as well as pillaged. 

Whether the conflagration of Moscow was, 
or was not, the work of Russian will, and 
Russian hands, the effects which it was to 
produce on the campaign were likely to be 
of the most important character. £onaparte*s 
object in pressing on to the capital at every 
risk, was to grasp a pledgB, for the redemp- 
tion of which he had no doubt Alexander 
would be glad to make peace on bis own 
terms. But the prize of his victory, however 
fair to the sight, had, like that tabled fruit 
said to ^ow on the banks of the Dead Sea, 
proved m the end but soot and ashes. Mos- 
cow, indeed, he had seized, but it had perish- 
ed in his grasp ; and far from being able to 
work upon Alexander's fears for its safety, it 
was reasonable to think that its total de- 
struction had produced the most vehement 
resentment on the part of the Russians, 
since Napoleon received not even the civility 
of an answer to his conciliatory letter. And 
thus the acquisition so much desired as the 
means of procuring peace, had become, by 



this catastrophe, the cause of the most irre* 
concileable enmity. 

Neither was it a trifling consideration, that 
Na{>oleon had lost by this dreadful fire a 
great part of the supplies, which he expected 
the capture of the metropolis would have 
contributed for the support of his famished 
army. Had there existed in Moscow the usu- 
al population of a capital, he would have 
found the usual modes of fumishmg its mar- 
kets in lull activity. These, doubtless, are 
not of the common kind, for provisions are 
sent to this capital, not, as is usual, from fer^ 
tile districts around the city, but from distant 
regions, whence they are brought by watei^ 
carriage in the summer, and by sledges, 
which travel on the ice and frozen snow, in 
the wmter time. To Moscow, with its usual 
inhabitants, these supplies must have been 
remitted as usual, lest the mumeroas popu- 
lation of 250,000 and upwards, should be 
famished, as well as the enemy's army. But ^ 
Moscow deserted, — Moscow burnt, and re- ( 
duced to mountains of cinders and ashes, — 
had no occasion for such supplies ; nor was it 
to be supposed that the provmces from which 
they were usually remitted, would send them 
to a heap of ruins, where there remained 
none to be fed, save the soldiers of the invad- 
ing army. This conviction came with heavy 
anticipation on the Emperor of France and 
his principal officers. 

Meanwhile, the ruins of Moscow, and the 
remnant which was left standing, afforded the 
common soldiers an abundance of booty dur- 
ing their short day of rest ; and, as is their 
nature, they enjoyed the present moment 
without thinking of futurity. The army was 
dispersed over the city, plundering at plea- 
sure whatever they could find; sometimes 
discovering (quantities of melted gold and 
silver, sometimes rich merchandise and pre- 
cious articles, of which they knew not the 
value ; sometimes articles of luxury, which 
contrasted strangely with their general want 
of comforts, and even necessaries. It was 
not uncommon to see the most tattered, shoe- 
less wretcheS; sitting among bales of rich 
merchandise, or displaying costly shawls, 
precious furs^ and vestments rich with barba- 
ric pearl and gold. In another place, there 
were to be seen soldiers possessed of tea, 
sugar, coffee and similar luxuries, while the 
same individuals could scarce procure carrion 
to eat, or muddy water to drink. Of sugar, 
in particular, they had such quantities, that 
they mixed it with their horse-flesh soup. — 
The whole was a contrast of the wildest and 
most lavish excess, with the last degree of 
necessity, disgusting to witness, and most 
ominous in its presas^e. They esteemed 
themselves happiest of all, who could pro- 
cure intoxicating liquors, and escape by some 
hours of insensibility from the scene of con- 
fusion around them. Napoleon and his offi- 
cers toiled hard to restore some degree of or- 
ganization to the army. 





A Hundred and forty years ag:o. or more, 
Charles II., chartered the •♦Hudson's Bay 
Company,'* and gave it exclusive privileges 
of establishing trading factories on Hudson's 
Bay, and its tributary rivers. It took posses* 
sion of its territor}', and enjoyed its trade, 
without opposition, till 1787, when a rival 
company, the '* North American Fur Com- 
pany of Canada," sprung up. This latter 
was composed entirely of Canadians, and 
was noted for its ener^ and enterprise. The 
jealousies naturally arising between rivals led 
to the most barbarous tettles, and the sack- 
ing and burning of each other's posts. In 
1821, Parliament interfered and consolidated 
them into one, under the title of the " Hud- 
son's Bay Company." They occupied a vast 
country, and their operations are those of a 
vast monopoly. All the British possessions 
Dcnrth ot the Canada s to the Arctic Ocean, 
are their bunting and trapping grounds. 
They have leas^ for twenty years from 
1840, all ol Russian America, excepting the 
post of Siika. Thus this powerful company 
control more than one-ninth of the soil of 
the Globe. Its capitalists are in England, 
and its board of managers transact their 
business at the *< Hudson's Bay House," in 
London. This board buy all their goods, and 
ship them to the territory ; sell the furs, and 
transact all their affairs with the Company, 
^cept the actual business of collecting furs in 
their territory. The annual value of their 
peltries is about a million of dollors. The 
net profit of the fur trade is immense. — The 
shares of the Company's stock, which origin- 
ally cost one hundred pounds are at one hun- 
dred per cent premium, and dividends range 
from ten per cent upwards, and this, too, 
while they are creating immense funds, to be 
expended in keeping other persons out of the 

In 1811 the American Pacific Fur Com- 
pany, of whi::h John Jacob Astor was the 
prime mover, built Fort Astoria, near the 
mouth of the Columbia. In 1813, during 
the last war, this American Company sold 
all its establishments in Oregon to the 
British Company—now the Hudson's Bay 
Company. In the same year a British sloop 
of war entered the Columbia, and formally 
took possession of Fort Astoria, and changed 
its name (o Fort George. In 1818, by the 
treaty of Ghent, England surrendered this 
Fort to our government— Then it was by the 
same treaty, that British subjects were grant- 
ed the same rights of trade and settlement in 
Oregon, as belonged to the citizens of this 
republic, for ten years. In 1227, this stipu- 
lation was indefinitely extended, and cannot 
cease to be in force till- after twelve months 
notice. • 

This is the manner in which the Hudson's 
Bay Company came into Oregon. — ^The value 
of furs wnicn are annually collected in Ore- 

SOQ by this Company, is about (140,000 in 
le London market. Parliament extended 

the jurisdiction of the Canada Courts over 
the country occupied by these fur traders, 
whether it were owned or claimed by Great 
Britain. Under this act, certain gentlemen 
of the Fur Company were appointed Justices, 
and empowered to entertain prosecutions for 
minor offenders — arrest and send to Canada 
criminals of a higher order, and to try, ren- 
der judgment, and mnt execution in civil 
8uits,,and imprison debtors in their forts and 
jails. — Selected. 

Saline Resources of the Country. — Sal? 
springs are abundant in this State and in the 
Valley of the Mississippi. The principal 
wells in this State, as every one knows or 
ought to know, are in Onandaga county, at 
the towns of Syracuse, Salina, Geddea and 
Liverpool. The well at Liverpool is 150 
feet deep ; at Syracuse 170 feet, and at Sa- 
lina 60 feet deep. The pumps of Salina 
raise 580 gallons a minute, or about 29,000 
an hour. The temperature of this water is 
50 degrees ; 43 1-2 ^Uons of this water pro« 
duce one bushel ot salt. At Syracuse 46 
gallons. In 1829, of 3,804,229 bushels of 
salt made in the United States, 1,291,220 
bushels were produced in Onondaga county. 
In 1825, this quantity was increased to 
2,222,694 bushels, and the product of the 
United States about 8,000,000 bushels. 

350 gallons of sea water make one bushel 
of salt; 450 gallons in Missouri; 300 in 
Pennsylvania; 280 in Illinois; 213 in one 

glace m Ohio, (there are two other localities 
I Ohio, where one bushel of salt is obtained 
from 95 and 50 gallons salt water ;) 180 in 
Mississippi ; 120 in Upper Canada ; 75 in 
Virginia; 80 in Arkansas, and 41 to 45 gal- 
lons in Onondaga county, in this State. The 
strength of the orine increases as you descend. 

On the Muskinffum River, Ohio, there are 
about 15 salt wells, and as many furnaces 
for making salt, which produce annnally 
500,000 bushels. 

The saline contents of the ocean vary from 
3 to 4 i)er cent. They are muirates of soda, 
magnesia, and lime, and sulphate of soda. 
The Mediterranean sea has more salt than 
the ocean. The evaporation is greater than 
the supply of fresh waier. It has two cur- 
rents, one from the Atlantic and one from the 
Black sea. 

It is generally suppossed by geologists that 
the water of salt wells proceeds from rock 
salt in solution. In Ohio the source of the 
water is a white porous sand rock, found at ' 
different depths. At Zanesville, Ohio, it is \ 
35 feet deep^ At Taylorsville, nine miles < 
below Zanesville, it is 450. At Connelsviile < 
eighteen miles below, it is 750, and at Bald J 
Eacle it is 1000 feet deep, below the surface. < 
Fifty gallons of the water at Bald Eagle af- < 
fords as much salt as 250 at Zanesville. j 

On Cape Cod there was formerly made a < 
large quantity of salt, but for ten or fifteen < 
years the manufacture there has been on the I 
decline, as they cannot compete with oar ( 






superior adTantap^es in Onondaga countf, 
where the water is about ten times as strong 
as at Cape Cod. The water at the latter 
place is pumped up from the ocean bv means 
of a windmill which were formerly to be 
seen all along the beach,]) into rats, where 
by eraporation most beautiful coarse salt is 
made. Many of the fanners, whose farms 
border on the sea shore, still make consider- 
able quantities of this kind of salt; but com- 
part with the product of the State it is as a 
drop in the bucket. — N, Y, Eve* Gazette, 

Disceveries on Light. — The London cor- 
respondeat of the Boston Atlas says : 

Professor Faraday^s discoveries with re- 
_gard to Ma^etism and Light are exciting 
great attention, and are thus noticed : 

On the evening of the 23d ultimo, Mr. 
Faraday exhibited the great fact of his re- 
searches, the rotation of solar light by ma^- 
Detic-forec The following grand expen- 
ment of the eyening was successfully tried : 

A prism of heavy glass was so adjusted 
between the poles of a very powerful mag- 
net as to receire the oxy- hydrogen light 
after it had been polarized, and before it was 
depolarized by ^cholPs eye-piece. — The fol- 
lowing fiicts, demonstrating the magnetism 
of light, were then exhibited : 

1. As to the rotation of the ray. A polar- 
ized raj having been extinguished bv the 
depohurizing plate, was instantaneously re- 

I stored when the magnetic current was sent 
tHroogh the prism through which the ray 
was transmitted ; and conversely, the polar- 
ised ray, when, by the common adjustment 
of the plate, it had been made visible, was 
extinguished by the force of the current. 

2. As to the relations of this electro-mag- 
netic power to other laws of polarized light 
The rotation having been established, it was 
shown that the direction of the rotation was 
absolutely dependent on that of the magnetic 
force. That, while in common circular po- 
larization* the ra^ of light always rotates m 
the same direction with regard to the ob- 
server to whatever part of the medium his 
view may be directed,) it is verv different in 
the state of the ray induced by this new 
force* When brought under the influence 
of the magnetic current, polarized rays al- 
ways rotate in a constant direction, with 
respect, not to the observer, but to the planes 
of the magnetic curves. 

In the course of his remarks. Professor 
Faraday said it did not seem impossible to 
him that the sun's rays might be found to 
originate the magnetic force of the earth, and 
the air and water of our planet might be 
proved to be the diamagnetic media in which 
this condition of the force was eliminated. 

We have been told that these reported 
discoveries of Professor Faraday have been 
previoufily made by Professor • Henry, of 
Princeton College, and communicated by letter 
10 the English philosopher ; but we caimot 

answer for the truth of the story.— iV. Y. Eve. 

Toilette of an ancient Koman* 

The slave came with the tunica, and fol- 
lowed by two others bearing the toga, al- 
ready folded in. the approved fashion, while 
a fourth attendant placed the purple dress- 
shoes near the seat. Eros first girded the 
under garment afresh, then threw over his 
master the upper tunica, taking particular 
care that the broad strip of purple woven 
into it might fall exactly across the centre 
of the breast, for custom did not permit of 
this garment being ffirded. He tnen, with 
the assistance of another slave, hung one end 
of the toga, woven of the softest and whitest 
Milesian wool, over the left shoulder, so as 
to fall far below the knee and cover with its 
folds, which gradually became more wide, 
the whole arm down to the hand. The right 
arm remained at liberty, as the voluminous 

farment was passed at its broadest part un- 
er the arm, and then brought forward in 
front ; the umbo, alreadv arranged in an in- 
genious fashion, being laid obliquely across 
the breast, so that the well rounded sinus al- 
most reached the knee, and the lower half 
ended at the middle of the shin-bone, whihit 
the remaining portion was once more thrown 
over the left snoulder, and hunf down over 
the arm and back of the person in a mass of 
broad and regular folds. Eros was occupied 
for a long time before he could get each fold 
into its approved position ; he then reached 
for his lord the polished hand-mirror, the 
thick silver plate of which reflected every 
image with perfect clearness. Oallus cast 
but a single glance at it ; allowed his feet to 
be installed in|o the tall shoes, latched with 
four ffold thonffs, placed on his fingers the 
rings he had taken off over night, and order- 
ed Chresimus to be summoned. — BedcerU 
Gallus ; or, Roman Scenes in the Times of 

Oood Advice Free of Charge. — People 
from the Western towns and cities, beg of 
younff professional men, if they have any re- 
^rd for themselves, not to thmk of emigra- 
ting to the valley of the Mississippi. The 
professions, except the clerical one, are bur- 
thened to excess. It is much wor&*e than in 
any of the Eastern States. In St. Louis, 
there are something like one hundred and 
twenty lawyers, and nearly as many physi- 
cians, and yet neither of the professions re- 
quires the services of more than twenty or 
thirty each : consequently the balance are in 
a wretched state of suspense or starvation. 
In this new country, professional business of 
every sort is greatly over-done. — What is 
wanted at the West is more farmers, me- 
chanics, manufacturers, wool growers, and 
laborers. Millions of acres, teeming with 
luxuriant vegetation, only wait the husband- 
man, to yidd an enormous harvest. — West. 




Among ibe Damerous insects at this sea- 
ion lying in a siale of inaciirity, in (he crev> 
ices of (he stones or trees, buried in the 
', wood, or sunk in ihe earth, we may select 
I one of a species veryabundani in some coun- 
9, and (00 well known in certain seasons 
; by its extensive ravages, which is hererepre- 
I Mnted in several stages. This is (he cock- 
, ohafer, as it is calledin England, CAfe^onon/Aa 
Yvlgari*:] and it is shown nbove, first as a 

< minute caterpillar, (in the middle figures,) 
I then in the same form increased in size, (see 
I the right band lown figure and (he left hand 
I <ippBT,} (hen in the pupa or chrysalis state, 
I (right-hand upper figure,) without eziemal 
* (urgans of sense or motion, and apparently 
I lifeleta,) and finally in the list and more 
, highly finished state ol a coleopterous (or 
I hard-she] (ed) insect, which we call, ineom- 

n language, a bug, or beetle. This lays 
! the ^gs trom which little worms are to 

ae, and then dies. Tt is seen here just 
I banting from the ground, where it has long 
I lain in the pupa state. 

This insect is a good represenutive of all 

< the other bnga, which pass through the same 
I generml rovind of changes. Indeed we see all 
; theuaectr more or less resemble it; and it 

ms inexcusable, that we do not teach our 

! ohiidren at least this general outline of in- 

; i«ei history, which would enable them to 

look with some intelligence on the numerous 

phenomina surrounding them, in that part of 

I creation, 

We copy the lollowing remarks on the 

Cockchafer from a popular work on Insects. 

One of the moat desiruciiTe beeiles is 

Mimmonly known by the name of Cockchafer 

I (Mtlononiha vulgaris.) The lara, which is 

' Tulgarlr called the whiteworm, commits 

eeai ravages during four years which nature , .„. „ 
a allotted for the duration of their exis- i he elm 

tence, on the roots of planis, grasses;' and 
any vegetable EUbsiaoces thai may fall in 
their way wbile burrowing beneath the sur- 
face of the earth. In autumn ih^y begin to 
bury themselves deep in the earib, to protect 
them from the inclemency of the winter, 
lying in a torpiil state. On the approach of 
spring they recommence their work of de- 
Birucilon, by unileiiniaing acres of the richest 
meadows, so tiint ihe turf can be rolled up 
as if it had been cut with a turf-spade. 

A poor farmer, near Norwich, snlfered so 
much from the grubs, that the coait of that 
city, out of compassion, allowed him twenty- 
five pounds; the man and his lervant de- 
clared that they had gathered eighty bushels 
of these obnoxious insects. In the yearlTBS, 
many provinces of France were so infested 
by them, that the government offered a pre* 
mium for the best mode of destroying ibem. 
his more particularly to feast upon this grub 
that the rooks loUow the plough. When the 
larva has arrived lo its lufl growth (hey 
cease to eat, and then bury themselves in jjie 
earth to (he depth of a foot and a half^or 
(wo feet. It constructs itself a very even sort 
of cocoon, Bmonih wiihin, and lines it wiih 
its excrements, and with some silken thread. 
Their bodies become shorter and inflated. 
Tiiey quit their tiiin and change into a chry> 
salis, (urough (lie covering ol which all the 
parts of the perfect insect are easily distin- 
guished. In the month of February the 
cockchafer tears its envelope, and issues 
forth under its final form. Sue the insect is 
at first yellowish, and rather si^ft, and atill 
remains for some lime under ground, to get 
of its superfluous humidity. It approaches 
by little and little to the surface of the earth, 
from which it docs not issue forth entirelyuo- 
tilitis attracted by a mild heat The con- 
tact with air completely foriifies it, and givea 
ils external parts their proper colour. 

Having now arrived at its perfect state, it 
beguiB to congregate in numbers on (he bor- 
ders of forests or woods, remaining motion- 
less in tbe day-iimc, but on the Be((mg of the 
sun it issues forth to devour the leaves of the 
various trees, and is not particular whether it 


lished description of one of the numerous 
dreadful scenes of dangers, which ihe re- 
cent storma have rendered so c 

Tbc ocettn in a storm is one of the moat 
1 fearltil natural objects we can coatempiate. 
, Bren the imaginatton alone can picture it 
j to the miud la tad and terrific colors. Such 
irresistible power, in operation en every 
1 side, ftnd over a waste of water, an hundred 
i or a thousand miles in extent, with a recol- 
< leciioD of the unknown, darlt and im> 
I measurable depths below, is what the mind 
i cannot contemplate without strong emotion, 
} uaiil habit has familiarized us with Ihe life 
! of a sailor. 

\ A tcene like ifaat represoited in our print, 

j are too oAoi witnessed by many unfortunate 

■ teunen and passengers on our coast, 

I lAuncbed in haste in a small and crowded 

{ boat, to escape from a smking ship, whole 

/ uHupanies of people have sometimes been 

speedily awallowed up by Ihe. yawning 

waves which surrounded them, or have 

perished of cold and hunger after long ex- 

) posure. Others have been resoued by ves- 

net at sea, and others still have lauded 

me shore, and lived lo rejoice in their 

\ deliverance. 

It is plainly an important desideratum, 
[ in wliich we all should feel some interest, 
■fflit some means by which boau may 
» be rendered as buoyant as possible, without 
( seriously interfering with their cosi, form, 
I streogth or capacity. Life-boats, in the 
J common meaning of the term, are invalu- 
( aWe, whenever they can be used to save or 
t reacoelife; but it is of incomparably greal- 
I ei importance to make every ship's boat 
I eaentially r life-boat 
j The following is an extract from a pub- 

Pasiage of the Packet Ship Havre, 
Captain Ainnoorth. — We sailed from 
Havrt) oa the 5th of January, and had mo- 
derate weather until the 12th ; then wes- 
terly gates commenced, which conliiuted 
without intermission until the 23d., when 
the hurricane, indicated by the lowiiUss of 
the barometer, commenced. 

On the morning of the 24th the storm 
bad arisen lo a fearful height ; the waves 
splashing over the decks, had stove the 
quarter.boat, and carried away the bul- 
warks. The night of the 25th approached, 
yet no cessation of the storm. Tlie captain 
ordered the wet and exhausted crew to the 
recess in the rear of the cabin, lo be ready 
for any emergency ; the massive wrought- 
iron tiller lashed with ropes and pulfies, 
was with difficulty guided by four of the 
crew ; when the evening of the third nighl 
appeared, the wind slightly abated, and a 
bint hope arose that ihe storm was broken ; 
but on the fourth morning it raged most 
fearfully — the winds howling and moaning 
in the rigging, had blown away the foretop 

gallant sail, which was closely furled lo 
16 yard. The horizon was no longer 
visible. On one side {t mountain wave, on 
the other a wild and fearful abyss ; and the 
mist blown from the top of the billows was 
hurled, frozen, through the atmosphere, into 
our faces. — {See pages 97 and 121, Vol. /) 
For five long days we were kid-to under 
a close-reefed maintop sail, the sun noi v. 
bl& Those long, dreary nights will never ', 
be forgotten ; yet our sufferings below were 
of little moment compared with the labor \ 
an<l exertions overhead. The sixth even- 
ing now wore irightfully on. We had 
been driven from 38" to 52° north. Our 
vessel, masts and rigging were covered 
with ice ; sei'en of the crew were on the 
sick list. Our ship was strong as wood 
and iron could make her ; but it was evi- 
dent she could not forever withstand the 
wear and tear of such a storm. 

We passed the Southern edge of the 
Banks on the 8th of February, covered ' 
with ice and snow ; were then driven to \ 
within fourteen hours and a half of Ber- '< 
muda, where the Western goles which bad \ 
been blowing so furiously for nearly forty i 
days, ceased on the 18th of February, and , 
on the 27th of February, after fifty-one < 
days passage, we arrived in New York. \ 



These uncouth and hideous figures are 
I drkivings of househald-godai found by 
; I/indflT at Kiama, a village on the banks of 
' the Niger, They ibrmed part of the col- 
lection of idols in the hut of Yario, a 
d-hearled negro, by whom the traveller 
I and his companions weie hospitably enter* 
', uined. He gives us (he following account 
] of these and other objects of ignorant adora- 
i tion, (Vol.!., chtp. 9.) 
i Yarro professes the Mohammedan faith, 
< yet it ia easy to perceive the venr slender 

> acquajntanoe he has obtained of the pre- 
\ cepla of the Koran, by the confidence which 

> he still places in the religion of bia bihers, 
] in placing fetishes to guard the entrance of 
• his houses, and adorn their half-naked walls. 
, In one of the huta we observed a stool of 

> very curious workmanship. The form of 
I it is nearly square ; the two principal sides 
' are each supported by four little wooden 
', figures of men; and another of large di- 
' mensions, sealed on a clumsy representation 
I of a hippopotamus, is placed between them. 
' These images were subsequently presented 

> to us by Yarro, and wo learned that the 

> natives, before undertaking any water' ez- 
i cnraion, applied for proteciion from the hip- 

> popoiami and other dangers of the river to 

> the principal figure, which is represenled 
' as mounted on one of those creatures. Thia 

> important personage is attended by his 
' muaiciana, and guarded by soldiers, some 

> armed with muskeU, and others with bowa 
I and arrows, who formed the lega of the 

stool, {n the sketch in the book which ia 
about one-aevenlh the size of the original, 
be has been placed on the top of the stool, 
that the view of him might n<H be inier- 

In an inner apartment we discovered 
Yarro silting alone on buffiilo hides ; and 
we were desired to place ourselves near 
him. The walls of this apanment were 
adorned with very good prints of our moai 
gracious sovereign George the Fouriii, hia 
late royal brother the Duke of York, 
Lord Nelson, the Duke of Wellington on 
horseback, together with on officer in llie 
light dragoons, in company with a smartly 
dressed and happy-looking English lady. 
Opposite to Ihem were hung horse accoutre- 
ments ; and 00 each side were dirty scraps 
of paper containing select srniences from 
the Koran. On the floor lay muakeLa, 
several handsomely ornamented lances, and 
other weapons, all confusedly heaped to- 
gether by the side of a large granite Etone 
■ pounding pepper. These were 

the most striking objects we observed in the 
king's hut; adjoining which were others, 
through whose diminutive doors Tarro's 
WLvea were straining their eyes to catch a 
glimpse of our poisons. 

When we spoke of proceeding to Yaoorie 
by way of Wowow and Boosaa, (he king 
objected to our visiting the former state un- 
^ der any consideration, alleging that three 
of the slaves who carried (he goods for 
Captain Ciapperton had never returned lo 
him again, but had remained at Wowow, 
where they were protected by the governor 
Mohammed ; 'and that if he should send 
others with ua lo that place, ihey might do 
the same. He therefore promisea to send 
us to Boossa in four days' lime by another 
rood. Independently of the above consider- 
ation, the king is highly incensed against 
the ruler of Wowow for harsh Ireatraeot 
of the widow Zuma, who ia his friend and 
relative, and who haa lately fled to Boossa 
for the purpose of claiming the protectim 
of the king of ibet country. 

It is Eaid that Yarro'a father, the lata 
king of Kiama, during his lifetime, enjoyed 
the friendship of on Arab Jrom the desert, 
which was returned with equal warmth 
and sincerity. A similarity of dispositions 
and pursuits produced a mutual interchange 
of kind actions; their friendship became so 
great, that the king was never happy ex- 
cept when in (he Arab's company ; and as 
a proof of hia esteem and confidence, be 
gave him his favorite daughter in mai^ 










{Contintted from Voh IL, page 52,) 

After the pablication of his book, Mr. How- 
ard leiired for a season to Cardington ; and 
there, amid his friends, and in the society 
of hia son, now a boy of twelve years, he 
rested awhile from his labors. He had said, 
in the conclasion ot his book, that, should 
Parliament take hold of and thoroughly in- 
Testigate the subject of prisons, he would 
cfaeerfolly devote his time to one more exten- 
sive foreign tour, in which new light might 
be thrown upon the subject The House of 
Commons entering with proper zeal upon the 
business. Parliament had a right to claim 
from him the fulfilment of his promise ; and 
the good man was ready^ to anticipate their 
demand. He was examined before a select 
Committee of the House of Commons, and 
immediately prepared to set out on his trav- 
els. A slight sketch of the third philanthro- 
pic tour is all that we can give here. 

Taking his £iTonte servant Thomasson 
with him, he crossed over to Holland in 
April 1778. and began, with fresh spirits, his 
inspeetioQ of prisons, houses of correction, 
&c From HoUaod he proceeded to Hanover, 
L and then risited Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Ven- 
ice, Padua, Florence, Rome, Naples, Leghorn, 
Geneva and Milan. From Italy he passed 
through to Switzerland, and a part of Ger- 
many he had not before visited; again through 
the Netherlands, and thence to France on his 
war home. He crossed the channel at Calais 
and oQce more landed on his native shores, 
having travelled 4000 miles, and devoted his 
whole strength and time, for nine months, to 
his labors. He visited all the prisons he 
could find. The Condition and manner of 
conducting many afforded him sincere joy, as 
well as much information; while, on the 
other hand, he met much to pain him. But, 
whatever was-their condition, nothing deter- 
red him from visiting them. In he went, to 
sneak the kind woid-— to bestow the charita^ 
Die alms— 'td do everv thing in his power to 
alleviate and benefit tne wretched mmate^ — 
la France he was gratified to find that some 
good eflfecu had resulted and were still visible 
from his exertions, twenly^-two years before, 
when he himself was a prisoner there. 

Arrived at home, he allowed himself a 
little rest : but only during his son's vacation. 
This over, he was again busy in his Vocation. 
Being desirous of seeing, and noting what 
improvements had been made since his for-. 
mer visits, what good had resulted from the 
acts of Parliament, and what had been the 
effects of his book, he spent the greater part 
of the year 1779 in various tours through the 
British Isles. He had the satisfaction of find- 
ing some grievances done away, some new 
jifis built on an improved plan, and better 
i^gulatioos ii^troducecf into others. Neverthe* 
less, there were many wrongs and sufferings 
to be redressed andf mitigated ; and, these 

he particnlarly noticed, intending to make 
further statements with regard to English 
jails, m the book he was about to publish 
concerning foreign prisons. While in Liver- 
pool, ihe corporation presented him with the 
freedom of the city, as a compliment for his 
uuweaned exertions in his noble undertaking. 
Two months after his return from this city 
his second work appeared. It was a quarto 
volume of 200 pages, entiUed : " Appendix 
to the State of the Prisons in England and 
Wales, &Cm containing a further Account of 
Foreign Prisons and Hospitals, with addi- 
tional Remarks on the Prisons of this Coun- 
try.** The book contained seven copper- 
plate engravings, which were very expensive 
at that lime. These were presented lo the 
public by Mr. H. for— as in the case of his 
former work— he chose to fix the price of his 
book lower than the cost. At the same time 
he published a cheap edition of his former 
work, with all the new matter of the last 
incorporated into the body of it. After the 
publication of his Appendix, Mr. H. deter-, 
mined to retire to private life, to enjoy that 
quiet to which he had long looked forward. 
While in retirement, the cause that had so 
engrossed his attention led him to the con- 
templation, not of the much he had accom- 
plished, but of the vast regions of the civi- 
lized globe which he had not explored. To 
this grand field of labor his sense of duty 
now pointed him. To ihose who knew him 
intimately, it was no matter of surprise to 
learn, that, in the summer of 1781, he had 
set out on a tour to the capitals of Denmark, 
Sweden, Russia and Poland. 

He passed through Holland and Gemany, 
(visiting many places in those countries he 
had not before seen,) to Denmark, visiting 
Copenhagen and Eisineur. Here he crossed 
the Sound and proceeded to Stockholm; 
from whence he passed to Russia, where we 
hear of his entering St. Petersburgh on foot. 
The name of Howard was now so well 
known, that he was obliged to take precau- 
tions, if he wished to see prisons and hospi- 
tals in their ordinary state, and not as special- 
ly prepared for his reception. On this ac- 
count, therefore, on approaching St. Peters- 
burg, he alighted from his carriage, and 
walked quietly into the city. Moscow was 
his next destmation ; and the distanee he had 
to travel was 500 mUes, over roads that were 
intolerably bad, and not very safe from rob- 
bers. This he travelled alona, accompanied 
only by his servant, in a light travelling car- 
riage, although a military escort was pressed 
unon him by the Russian Government. From 
Moscow he journeyed to Warsaw, where he 
found much wretchedness and suffering. He 
then passed into Prussia and Holland ; and, 
embarking at Ostend, landed in England in 
Dec., 1781 : having travelled 4465 miles. 

He spent the Christmas holidays with his 
son, after which he set our on a fourth gene- 
ral inspection of the jails. 6cc, of the United 



Nor were his exertions vain. While on 
ibis last lour, he had the satisfaction of ob- 
serving that the legislators of his country 
were making the use he desired of his publi- 

Mr. Howard had now travelled over almost 
tlie whole of Europe. Two Souiliem king- 
doms, however, were slill unexplored ; and, 
though civil despotism and religious bigotry 
rendered Spain and Portugal less hopeful re- 
gions than those he had already visited, some- 
thing might be learned from them. He was 
therefore resolved to make the trial. He 
embarked at Falmouth for Lisbon, and had a 
safe and prosperous voyage. In some, re 
spects he fouud this country before his own. 
Imprisonment for debt had been abolished, 
and in the prisons the male and female pris- 
oners were kept entirely separate. From 
Lisbon Mr. H. entered Spain, and soon found 
his way to Madrid. The chief point of in- 
terest to him here, was the Prisons of the 
Inquisition. He had failed in his attempt to 
enter those at Lisbon, but was not discouraged 
from making fresh efforts to see those at Ma- 
drid. By procuring an introduction to the 
Grand Inquisitor, he was admitted to <he 
apartments where the dreaded tribunals were 
held ; but to no other parts of the prison 
could he gain access. At Valladolid he saw 
a little further into those places of secret 
horrors, but could not gain admittance to the 
cells. He told his conductors, that he would 
be confined a month in them, to satisfy his 
curiosity. The reply to this was — " None 
come out under three years ; and they take 
the oath of secrecy V 

After visiting a few more places he quitted 
Spain, crossing the Pyrenees to France. At 
Paris the heart of tne Philanthropist was 
cheered by finding that, ttirough his instru- 
mentality,* the attention of the French mon- 
arch had been directed to the subject of 
Prison-discipline, and (hat two- of the worst 
prisons in tne country had been demolished. 
At Lille he was exposed ta an infectious fe- 
ver in one of the prisons. Repeating his 
visitt in order to administer to the relief of 
its victims, he was violently attacked by the 
malignant distemper, and for a short time his 
life was in great danger. It was, however, 
spared for a few more year^ of usefulness. — 
Recovering from this attack^ he visited nume- 
rous cities in Holland and the Netherlands ; 
and ieaving-Ostend, landed in England from 
his fifth foreign tour of ins[>ection. From 
this labor of love he returned to his home at 
Cardington, where he suffered great anxiety 
on account of his son, who, under the tuition 
of the wicked Thomasson, was making rapid 
progress towards destruction. Hopmg to 
surround him with better influences, Mr. H. 
entered him as a student at the University of 
Edinburgh, and then devoted himself to the 
publication of the Second Edition of his Ap- 
pendix, and a third of bis entire work, into 
each of which he introduced all the new mat- 
ter furnished by his late travds. This being 

accomplished, he gladly returned to Carding- 
ton, and there gave himself up to th^ social 
duties and social pleasures of his neighbor- 

Change of scene, and a new field of exer- 
tion did not produce in young Howard that 
change of habits and feelings, so earnestly 
desired by his father. His dissipated habits 
began to produce their effect upon his health : 
nor was this all. His mind began to be af- 
fected. He was therefore removed from Ed- 
inburgh, and allowed to return home. At the 
end of a few months, he was persuaded to 
enter as a fellow-commoner of St. John's 
College, Cambridge: but here he soon fell 
into the company of the idle and profligate ; 
and his ex'travagance and dissipation com- 
pleted the ruin of his health, and confirmed 
the malady of his mind. And here we will 
take leave of him. As has been mentioned 
in the beginning of this sketch, he soon be- 
came an inmate of a Lunatic Asylum, where 
he died in 1799, nine years after the death of 
his father. — Mr. H. now spent two years at 

In followinsf up his researches concerning 
hospitals, and the treatment of malignant 
disorders, in which he had become more and 
more interested, he was led to think a great 
deal on that most dreadful scourge of man- 
kind, the Plague. He believed that an ex- 
amination of all the principal Lazarettos of 
Europe might throw considerable light upon 
the subject, and furnish some useful hints on 
the means of preventing the spread of con- 
tagion ; and in the edition of his work on 
prisons, he threw out a remark to that effect, 
and expressed a hope tha( some traveller 
would take drawings of those plague hospitals. 
No one, however, having mad« use of this 
suggestion, and believing that correct plans 
of these buildings would prove very important 
aids, in devisins^ means to check the progress 
of this dreadful malady, he resolved to un- 
dertake the dangerous task himself. The 
thought of exposing one's self voluntarily to 
this almost certain death, is enough to make 
one shudder : but Mr. H. belie v^ that duty 
called him ; and what call is superior to this T 
Is it not difficult for an ordinary mind to con- 
ceive the depth of that philanthropy, which 
would lead a fellow-being to make such self^ 
sacrifices ? Would he not be, aye, was he not 
called a fieinatic I 

He made all necessary arrangements for 
his distant and perilous expedition, not omit- 
ting particular directions, in case he fell a 
victim to his perilous undertaking. He de- 
termined to go unattended by a servant, not 
wishing to expose any life but' his own. 

In November, 1785, he set sail for Holland. 
Marseilles was the first place he wished to 
visit : but he was not only refused, when he 
requested permission of the French Minister 
at the Hague, to visit the prisons there, but 
was cautioned not to enter France at all, as he 
would be in danger of the Bastille. 
(To be continued,) 


The coal of Hall Shell, or Chiton. 

This is one of the moBi curious of shells, 
htviog much the appearance of a work of 
art. It consists of several small plates, set 
ride by side in a narrow band or rim, which 
holds them firmly together, and forms, for 
the inhabitants, a neat and complete suit 
of armor. In the brief, expressive lan- 
gaage of science, the genus ia described 
thus ; — Generic character — shell mulli- 
valve, composed of eight valves, rarely of 
seven or six ; form conveji, oval ; the valves 
are arranged in an imbricated manner, the 
margin of one being incumbent on thai of 
the next ; they are surrounded and con- 
aecled by an elastic coriaceous membrane, 
which ia either scaly, h&iiy, or spinous, 
and allows of the free movement of the 

We add the following particulars from 
« Lessons on Shells," a liiile work we have 
Kcommended to parents and teaohera, for 
daily use in the family or school. 


The Chitons are readily dislinguiahed 
from all other testaceous molluscs by the 
form of their I'lell, which very much re- 
sembles a small vessel or boat turned up- 
side down, and by the peculiar arrange- 
ment of its moveable valves, attached by a 
coriaceous membrane. This latter sub- 
stance is capable of suiBcient distension and 
contraction to admit of considerable play in 
the valves, so that the animal can roll up 
ita shell into the form of a ball, having all 
the appearanceof a wood-louse. Contracted 
and covered by its scales it lies like a peb- 
ble at the botlom of the sea, and thus con- 
trives frequendv to escape the visilance oi 
its enemies. The mollusca of the Chitons 
are of the same form as their shelfs, the 
plates of which are fixed in their mantle; 
the gills surround their bodies ; they breathe 

only WBler, and have a fleshy foot upon J 
which they creep. Their abode is in r 
sea at sn inconsiderable depth near i 
shore. They fix themselves for a time to < 
rocks and stones, but they can letnore at ', 
pleasure. The situation and formation of ' 
the valves resemble (he plate which con 
tute a suit of armor, or coat of mail ; and J 
to this resemblance the shell owes 
name, which is derived from chiton, a coal \ 
of mail. 

Chiton FaiciadaTis. 

Tufied Chiton. 

Specific character. — Shell with eight \ 
valves, apparently smooth, but when view- ' 
ed through a glass, found to be rough like 
shagreen, except on the elevated dorsal J 
ridge ; the margin ia surrounded with tufis ( 
of whitish hairs at the junction of each \ 
valve, there also two tufts in front, making < 
altogether eighteen. The color is brown ' 
or dark gray, often mottled ; the length is ' 
rather less than an inch. 

The animal of this Chiton adhejes lo \ 
oysters, and other shells, and with iher 
inhabits the deep ; it is also found on stones. 
It is not uncommon on the coast of Devon- 
shire, England ; on those of Barbery it oc- 
curs of a much larger size. 

Chiton Squamons. 
Scaly Chiton. 

Specific character. — Shell with eight ( 
valves, one hali of each valve ia striated \ 
longitudinaHy, and the other half trans- i 
Tersely ; the margin scaly ; the outside is \ 
dark brown, more or less variegated with < 
olive, and the inside is light bluish green ; [ 
the margin is beautifully checquered with ' 
light green and dark olive acalea. 

Inhabits the coasts of America. 

V. 3. Ship Savannah, i 
Mazallan, Mexico, Dee.2li '45. i 
V/e remained at Honolulu till the I2th i 
of October, on which day we took our 
pariure for St, Francisco, California, hut ■ 
merely touched off there, and then shoped f 
our course for this place, arriving on the ■ 
17th of November, making- a passage of [ 
36 days. On our arrival, we found (be state 
of affairs rather pacific. 

AwBssinations are very common here.- 
Night before last one man was killed and .< 
three severely wounded. ^ 

The squadron have enjoyed excellent health > 
since March last, having loat only one man J 
in this ship by sickness. — U. S, Oaz. 








If some are naturally dull, and yel strire 
to do well, notice the enort, and do not cen- 
sure the dullness. A teacher might as well 
scold a child for being near-sighted, as for be- 
ing naturally dull. Some children haye a 
great verbal memory, others are quite the 
reverse. Some minus develope early, others 
late. Some have great powers of acquiring, 
others of originating. Some may appear stu- 
pid, because their true spring of character has 
never been touched. The dunce of the 
school may turn out in the end, the living, 
progressive, wonder-working genius of the 
age. — In order to erect die best spiritual influ- 
ence we most understand the spirit upon 
which we wish to exert that influence. For 
with the human mind we must work with 
nature, and not agamst it. Like the leaf of 
the nettle, if touched one way, it stings like 
a wasp ; if the other, it is softer than satin. 
If we would do justice to the human mindi 
we must find out its peculiar characteristics, 
and adapt ourselves to its individual wants. — 
In conversation on this point with a friend 
who is now the principal in one of our best 
grammar schools, and to whose instruction I 
look back with delight — ''your remarks," 
said he, "are quite true; let me tell you a 
little incident which bears upon the point. — 
Last summer, I had a girl who was exceed- 
ingly behind in all her studies. She was at 
the foot of the division, and seemed to care 
but little for her books. It so happened, that 
as a relaxation, I let them at times during 
school hours unite in sinffing^. I noticed that 
this ^irl had a remarkably dear, sweet yoice ; 
and I said to her, * Jane, you have a good 
voice, and you may lead in the singing.' She 
brightened up, ana from that time her mind 
seemed to be more active. Her lessons were 
attended to, and she soon gained a high rank. 
One day as I was going home, I overtook 
her with a school companion. — * Well Jane,' 
said If ' irou are getting along very well, how 
happens it, you do much better than at the 
beginning of the quarter V ' I do not know 
why it is,' she replied. ' I know what she 
told me the other day,' said her companion. 

* And what was that V I asked. 
Why she said, she was encouraged.^ " 

Yes here we have it — she was encoliraged. 

Some twelve or thirteen years ago, there 
was in Franklin school an exceeding dull 
boy. One day, the teacher wishing to look 
out a word, took up the lad's dictionary, and 
on opoiing it, found the blank leaves covered 
with drawings. He called the boy to him. 

** Did you draw these?" said the teacher. 

<* Yes sir," said the boy, with a downcast 

'*! do not think it is well for boys to draw** 
in their books," said the teacher, **and I 
would rub these out, if I were you; but 
they are very well done : did you ever take 
lessons ?" 

" No, sir," said the boy, his eyes sparl 

" Well I think you have a talent for th 
thing ; I should like you to draw roe tonii 
thing when you are at leisure, at home, an 
bring it to me. In the meantime see how we 
you can recite your lessons." 

The next morning the boy brought a pi< 
ture, and when he had committed his lesso 
the teacher permitted him to draw a map.- 
The true spirit was touched. The boy fe 
he was understood. He began to love hi 
teacher. He became animated and fbnd o 
his books. He took delight in gratifying hi 
teacher by his faithfulness to his studies 
while the teacher took every opportunity t 
encourage him in his natural desires. Th 
boy became one of the first scholars. Afte 
this he became an engraver, laid up mone; 
enough to go to Europe, studied the works c 
old masters, sent home productions from hi 
own pencil, which found a place in some oi 
the best collections of paintin|;s, and is novi 
one of the most promising artists of his year 
in the country. 

He sent the teacher a beautiful picture as i 
token of respect ; and while he was an en 
gravejr, the teacher received frequent tokens 
of continued regard ; and I doubt not, thii 
day, that that teacher, by the judicious en 
coura^ement he gave to the natural turn of 
his mind, has had a great moral and spiritua 
eflect on his character. — Bost. pap. 

Triple Deflnce. — A ease was tried a fevi 
days since in Baltimore for the recovery of an 
account set forth on the face of a note, given 
for a supper, champagne, die, whence thi 
defence, mgeniously presented, tpok a three 
cornered form. In the first place it was.coQ* 
tended that the defendant did not sign the 
note ; in the second place that he was drunk 
when he signed it ; and in the third place 
that he never had the supper. The magis' 
trate, however, in spite of the three^K^omered 
defence, gave judgment for the plaintiff, and 
the case was appealed. This is the counter- 
part of the loan of the iron pot : — '* Mamma 
says, please Mrs. Snooks, won't you lend 
her your iron pot to-day." " Tell your mo- 
ther, my little dear, that I can't-^havn't got 
one — besides it's got a hole in ii, and aint fit 
for use, and I'm going to use it myself."— iV. 
Y, True Sun. 

Pennstlvania. — ^This State was settled in 
1682, by English ; acceded to the Union in 
December, 1767; capital, Harrisburg. One 
year's residence in the State, and ten days in 
the election district, and payment of a State 
or county tax assessed ten days prior to an 
election, give tlie right to vote, except that 
citizens between 21 and 22 years of age 
need not have paid a tax. Area, 43,960 
square miles. The population, in 1840, was 







A young man of eighteen or twenty, a stu- 
dent in a uniTersity, took a walk one day 
with a professor, who was commonly called 
the student's friend, such was his kindness 
to the young men whose office it was to in- 

While they were now walking together, 
and the professor was seeking to lead the 
conversation to grave subjects, thev saw a 
pair of old shoes lying in theii path, which 
they supposed to belong to a poor man who 
was at work in a field close by, and who had 
nearly finished his day's work. 

The young student turned to the professor 
sajinff : *' Let us play the man a trick : we 
wiUhide his shoes, and conceal ourselves 
behind those bushes, and watch to see his 
perplexity when he cannot find them." 

** My dear friend," answered the professor, 
"we must never amuse ourselves at the 
expense of the poor. But you are rich, and 
you may give yourself a much greater plea- 
tore by means of this poor man. Put a dol- 
lar in each shoe, and then we will hide our- 

The student did so, and then placed him- 
self with the professor behind the bushes 
close by, through which they could easily 
watch the la'oorer, and see whatever wonder 
or joy he might express. 

The poor man had soon finished his work, 
and came across the field to the path where 
he had left his coat and shoes. While he 
put OQ the coat he slipped one foot into one 
of the dhoes ; but feeling something hard he 
stooped down and found the dollar. Aston- 
ishment and wonder were seen upon his 
oooBteaoance ; he gazed upon the dollar, 
turned it around, and looked again and 
again; then he looked around him on all 
sides, but could see no one. Now he put the 
money in his pocket and proceeded to put on 
the other shoe ; but how great was his as- 
tonishment when he found the other dollar ! 
His feelings overcame him ; he fell upon his 
knees, looked up to heaven and uttered aloud 
a fervent ihanksgivine, in which he spoke of 
his wife» sick and helpless, and bis children 
without bread, whom this timely bounty 
£rom some imknown hand would save from 
perishing. ^ 

. The youne man stood there deeply afi'ected, 
and tears fined his eyes. 

"Now,** said the professor, ••are you not 
■inch better pleased than if you had played 
your intended trick 1" 

"O, dearest Sir," answered the )ouih, "you 
have taught me a lesson now that I never 
will forget. I feel now the truth of the words 
which I never before understood — ' it is better 
to give than to receive.' " 
( We should never approach the poor but 
I with the wish to do them good. — (JSelected.) 

Patriotic. — Gardner Rowland, Esq., of 
this city, has given to the Agricultural Socie- 
ty the use of his fine farm at Flushing, L. I., 
(300 acres,) for five years, to be used as an 
experimental (arm, and subservient to an 
agricultural college. ' This is a well-timed 
step, and reflects high honor on the liberality, 
patriotism and judgment of Mr. H. Science 
and the country may well thank him for it. 
It is encouraging to see that we have not 
only men of virtue, taste and science who 
are willing to give, for the common benefit, 
what they possess; viz., labor, time and 
learning, but also those who have the same 
liberality in the pecuniary estates. 

** Decus est pro patria vivere.*^ 

Doll Manufacture. —It is stated in an En- 
glish newspaper, that 17,000 sacks of sawdust 
are consumed annually in London, for stuffing 
dolls alone. Also that one toy manufacturer 
has been known to purchase three thousand 
pounds' worth of doll's eyes at one time — 
that one hundred and eleven persons are con- 
stantly employed in one manufactory, in 
making small sized donkeys; and, that as 
much timber is annually consumed in making 
wooden horses for children to ride upon as 
would be required in a first rate ship of war. 
This is certainly doing a large business, 
though it be for small matters. 

A Curious Title Deed.-^The Philadelphia 
Inquirer mentions having recently inspected 
qmte a curiosity in the shape of a legal paper, 
being a deed tor Boompies (Bombay) Hook, 
dated on the 4th of May, 1G79. The parties 
at the time were an Indian Sachem, whose 
signature is a hieroglyphic somewhat re- 
sembling a turtle, and Peter Bayard, of New 
York. This island, or " Hook,^ is about 15 
miles long[, and by the deed it seems that the 
consideration paid the Indian, consisted of 
one gun, four nandfuls of powder, one anchor 
of liquor, and one kettle. The property is 
now worth some thousands. The deed is 
distinctly written, and is quite clear and ex- 
pressive. It now forms part of the title to 
the property, which belongs to a gentleman 
of Pliiladelphia. 

A man may leave an estate to a son, but 
how soon may it be mortgaged ! Ue may 
leave him money, but how soon may it be 
squandered ! Better leave him habits of in- 
dustry, an unblemished reputation, a good 
education, and an inward abhorrence of vice ; 
these cannot be wrested fro^^him, and are 
better than thousands of gold and silver. — (Se- 

The Indian Terbitobt is inhabited by 
numerous tribes of Indians: estimated at 
275,000 square miles. Population unknown. 







In s-ilence had the Savior viewed, 
Wiiliin the Temple, as ihey siood, 
Jerusalem's great multilude : 
It was their Offering day. 
From far and near they gathered there» 
Some led by pride and some by prayer, 
Each with his great or little share 
Of goods to give away. 

Came every rank of life, to engage 

In this alms-giving pilgrimage : 

Highulow, rich, poor, youth, manhood, age, 

As if with one accord — 

Into the open Treasury, 

Receiver of their charity. 

The gold and silver, fast and free, 

Like glittering air-drops, poured. 

And lo, amid' the throng, appears 

A widow, bowed 'neath care and years. 

Her grief loo plainly marked by tears, 

A humble penitent. 

A life of jioverty she led : 

Yet had religion, on her head, 

lis richest, holiest blessings shed. 

And bade her be content. 

Experience to her had given 

A shadowy foretaste of that heaven, 

For which her soul so long had striven : 

Her mission well she knew ; 

And, though each day, new trials brought, 

To test her faith, slill more she sought 

For aid divine, and sternly fought, 

'Till sin she overthrew. 

Now, to the Altar tottering. 

The '* Widow's Mite" she came to bring, 

'Twas virtue's noblest offering : 

The poor gave to the poor. 

The simple token thus bestowed. 

The debt was paid her conscience owed ; 

And, passing slowly through the crowd, 

She left the Temple door. 

And Christ had seen it all : amazed, 
At faiih like hers, he turned and gazed 
Upon *• the Twelve," as thus he praised 
The Woman's charily : 
** This Widow, though her gift be small, 
Yet hath she given more than they all. 
Their tributes from rich coffers fall : 
Her's from her poverty." 

Oh, suffering humanity . 

Would that the " Widow's Mite" for thee 

Were given, as ofl as it should be. 

To soothe and bless ; 

*' Bind up the wounded, feed the poor, 

Assist the friendless," seek and cure 

Life of its deaih ; make all things pure. 

All happiness ! F. G. C. 

To OvB Subscribers. — Those who have 
paid for the second volume of this Magazine, 
may expect to receive from us a few kernels 
of the celebrated Mummv Wheat, which has 
excited so extraordinary an interest in this 
country and in Europe. We hope they will 
sow it, and hereafter distribute the product. 
Three or four years ago a few grains were 
found in unrolling the bandages of an £g>'p- 
tian mummy, which had been taken to Eng- 
land as a curiosity ; and, on being planted, 
they grew, ripened, and have been propa- 
gated. The Farmers' Club received a pre- 
sent of a small bagful last year, from which 
we have obtained^ enough to distribute among 
our particular friends, among whom we count 
those of our subscribers wholiarmonize with 
us on moral and patriotic subjects. 

Having received some rather blunt reproofs 
from a few persons whose cooperation we 
had invited, in our extensive plan for pro- 
moting the culture of trees,, we he»iiate to 
venture farther than we find favorable symp- 
toms excited. 

To Our Subscribers. — Those who wish 
to receive the second volume, and have not 
paid for it, are requested to send $1 without 
further delay through the Post-master, or by 
mail, without paying postage. 

Those who wish lo withdraw their names, 
are requested to return the last number re- 
ceived, with the name and address. It will 
be stopped for ih with. 

To ALL our Subscribers. — ^If each will 
procure one new subscriber, it will be ren- 
dering an important service to a new pub- 
lication, designed fur extensive and lasting 



Wiih numerous Engravings. 
K'lited by T.'icodore Dwiglit, Jr. 

Is pul)^i^'uHJ weekly, ni ihc office of llie New York 
Exprcfi?, N :>. 112 Broadway, at 3 cents n number, (16 
pnjj'js 1 insre oetivo,) or, lo sabscribcre receiving i* by 
mail, and paying in Hilvonce, ^1 a yeur. 

6 seU tor $r). 

Hack num)>er8 ctin be supplied. 

Postmasteis are aulhonzeU lo remi! man "• 

Enciofe a One Dollar Uil , without pa^-meiit of pps- 
liige, nu.l I he work will be sent for ih.? vvht. 

" The informanon contained in this work i« worth 
more than silver."— iV. y. Obtertyr, 

»* It shoukl be m every family in the comUrv "— 
N. Y. Baptist tiecorOer. ^ 

Tiie New York Method i*t Advocate spe.ika of it in 
fimilnr tcrm-§ Also many other pnpcrd. 

Edilorso! newspapers |)ublishi:ig this aJ- 
veriisemcni foi 3 monlli!^, will be furuiohed 
with ihe work for one year. 




Drrm ar Tbbodoib Dwibbt, Jx., I 
Oarrmt Oftt, 113 Awim^. | 

Vol. II. Nkw YoBR, Satdkdat. Mabch21, 1846. 





This scene is not an agreeable, but it may 
ht a salutary one. It is now in the power 
of many of us to aid some of the young 
within the spheres of our influenoe, in form- 
ing a taste for the low, degrading, vicious 
and ruinous practices of the idle and pro- 
fligate, or to instil into them principles, and 
to cultitate habits, which shall place them 
above a grovelling level, and f(^fy them 
for life against all the temptations, which 
to others may prove irresistable. 

The recollections of past days and old 
acquaintances, often rise to our minds with 
impressions so sad : so strongly are we oc- 
casionally reminded of the melancholy ruin 
of those we knew in youth or childhood, 
by the want of careful parents or other 
guardians, that we have often felt an irre- 
sistable desire to warn those now around us, 
who are exposed to similar dangers, to be- 
ware of the courses whose end we have too 
much reason to dread. Could we but bring 
up before the eyes of our readers some of 
tiie friends and playmates of our childhood, 
as we still see them in memory, with their 
gay and Mendly smiles, their pure, unsul- 
lied characters, their frank, ingenuous man- 
ners, their noble hearts, their upright inten- 
tions, their bright anticipations of long, re- 
spectable and happy lives, and then show 
the sad reverse which a few years exhibit- 
ed, we feel certain that our youthful read- 
ers, as well as those of greater experience, 
would find reason to thank us for the brie( 
but direct warning which we intend this 
week to speak in their ears. 

The print we now present is a foreign 
one, and was depicted, we believe, with no 
design to reproach the practices it re- 
presents, but rather as a scene of common 
oocurrence among the peasantry of Europe, 
which many regard as natural, and not un- 
becoming on occasions of general leisure 
and hilarity. Unfortunately our country 
has not been a stranger to scenes of the 
same nature. In spite of all the precau- 
tions taken by our ancestors, to guard 
against ignorance, irreligion and vice, and 
of all the suocess which they had, in 


adopting and transmitting right pruiciples, 
good habits and excellent institutions, in this 
point they signally fiuled. All of us who 
are old enough to remember the ^kwful 
flood of intemperance which was pouring 
through our land thirty or forty years ago, 
will look back with unspeakable horror ; 
and whoever knows the history of its ori- 
gin and progress will be deeply impressed 
with the imminent danger of its return, and 
the necessity of guarding against its rava- 
ges in future. We might rather compare 
that awful and universal scourge to a gene- 
ral inundation, than to a current, of what- 
ever size ; for it not only destroyed the poor 
and lowly, the less educated and most dia- 
tressed, but it invaded the highest classes 
of society. It not only ravaged the vallies, 
but it rose above the highest mountains ; 
and even science and refinement, domestic 
peace and purity, sank in the melancholy 
ruin. No place, no circumstances were 
safe from its invasions ; and one of the most 
extensive forms of misery which it brought 
in its train, was that of dread and appre- 
hension. While fathers, brothers and atm$ 
were daily transformed into brutes, into 
madmen or idiots, by this subtil influence, 
what wife or mother could call her treasure 
her own ; what child could surely count on 
the bve or protection of a fiither, even for a 
day ? Indeed, what member of any fiunily 
could find assurance that his home would 
not, before to-morrow, ^ converted into a 
scene of shame and misery, by the foiling 
of its principal ornament, or its strongest 

The North American Review, a few 
years ago, published a sketch of the history 
of ardent spirits in the United States, in 
which it exhibited the introduction and rapid 
progress of the manufacture of the different 
sorts of domestic spirits, b^inning whh 
New England rum. The picture was as. 
tounding \ and the reader was forced to ad- 
mit the conclusion of the writer : that never, 
since the creation of the world, was any 
country ever supplied with such an amount 
of intoxicating liquors, at so cheap a rate. 
The spring of all that flood of mischief 


WW sboini to have been the raw material 
Vnught from the ' West lodiu. Th« 
plaaten had been aocnHcmed to throw 
awi^the molasses nmainiog after making 
their ngu-: but an American trader 
broo^t a nnall quantity home, to see 
whether it might be applied to some use ; 
and, after it had been awhile used u 
food, diatitlation was reaorted to, and that 
corrent of intemperance b^an ' to flow, 
which many thousands of our best oitizena, 
with some of our most derated philanlhro- 
pistt OS their head, hare beco laboring, 
widi all their powers, to stop tor many 
years. They are laboring still, and 
although they have accomplished but a 
part of the good they design, they ham 
done, and are doing more. Ood be with 

Bat let us not be so short-sighted, in our 
nuospeot of past years, as to seek the 
bead-spring of this horrible stream too near 
our own times, or in one of ila branches. 

Oar ancestors, with all their wisdom and 
rirtse^ neither foresaw nor properly gnatded 
against the danger of intemperance. From 
the earliest records of the country we leam 
that total abMinenoe was not practiced, but, 
on the coDinry, that " strong wnteia " wero 
in use. and ihat some of the best ntMi made 
no scrapie in drinking them, nor in present- 
ing tbenn to the Indians. They appear 
to boTe been i^arded, as they wen for 
several generations afterwardi^ as necessa- 
tiM, or at lestft as cordials, useful to those 
in fe^le health, or exposed to fiuigue or 
to hsidship. Among many other evidenoes 
of this which we hare seen, we have an old 
mannacript diary in our possession, which 
was kept by the Rev, Thomas Buckingham, 
chaplain of the Connecticut forces sent 
against Lonisborgh and Canada, in two 
campaigns of the old French war, which 
cootains entries of rum, gin and other 
liqnors, laid up among his little private 
store*. In the Connecticut Historical So- 
ckly's ColleetioQ of manuscripts, are seve- 
ral hills, of different old dales, paid to per* 
oaa who entertained ministers al Conso- 

ciations, 6ec., in which liquors form a oon- 
slant and a large item. The us* was 
habitual, and ils dangers not known. The | 
lesson hod never been taught, as ft t 
aflerwards taught in consequence of their ] 
neglect and example. Coold they hava ; 
lotjced fenvard, they would never have Id^ J 
to us snob a task as we have fonnd on our j 
hands — the wide ruins of society to be r^ ! 
built from rubbish, and the dyking^«tit of j 
an ocean which had long over.whelmed j 
the country. This work we must perform. ' 
ti is srdaons and eipensive : but yet light, j 
both for the hand and for the parse, com* < 
pared with that which the neglect of it ? 
would soon bring npcai us all. 

Whoever may be disposed to question the j 
propriety or necessity of proaeouling it in j 
earnest, and without iniennissjon or oemtf 
Oon, may- sit down and oratemplate a pic- 
tore like the following, and ask hinael^ \ 

bow the heart is affected by the prospect at 
having son or grandsoa, brother, bther or 
husband reduced to the cooditkn of this 
man, home stripped of every remnant of 
comfort and decency, and nothing left for a 
companion to the miserable being — now an 
object of foar and contempt, of abhorrence 
and dread — unless some &ithful dog, whoso 
attachment is proof against want snd 
abuse. Wben we tee ftshion seeking new 
Ibrms to inveigle our sons into the paths 
of dissipation it is time for parents to 
arouse anew. In the city of New Tork 
a splendid edifice has been opened for ex- 
pensive amusements, for fhshionable dissi- 
pation. Dangers, unminent dangers stand at 
the threshold. 






From th$ Boston AtUu, 

Whilst flytDff tXoug the Great Westera 
BaUroad, from Bristol to Londoo, it struck roe 
that sketches of the two men who i^ad done 
more towards fast travelling/than any two 
others in existence, might he mterestme^ to 
the readers of the Atlas. I was in the fast- 
est train in the world, for we glided aloug at 
the rate of 60 miles an hour, and my thoughts 
naturally fell into a rinUwajf tram; as soon as 
I could procure pen and mk» I set down my 
" notions," and here they are. 

Let me first speak of Mr Waghorn, whose 
recent extraordinary overland journey from 
India has excited so much attention : I took 
my'* chop," a week ago, at the Jerusalem 
Coffee House, for the purpose of seeing him, 
and before I had half got through it, therQ 
walked into the Coffee room a gentleman, 
apparently about fiily years of age, five feet 
SIX inches in heightl with a robust constitu- 
tion, and a very intell|ge[)t countenance, the 
latter much tanned by his frequent voya^i'es 
to, and excursions in foreign countries. The 
'* Jerusalem" is the home, when in town, of 
this individual, whom I need scarcely intro- 
duce as Lieutenant Waghorn. 

Lieutenant Waghorn is rather an eccentric 
man. and though excitable, is undoubtedly an 
honest British seaman. A story is current in 
the city, that «Tom Waghorn." as he is 
familiarly called, can do nothing without the 
Pachv of Egypt, and the Pacha of Egypt 
nothing without him. Waghorn is said to be 
Mehemet Ali's fidu$ Achat u^ and every rea* 
son exists for believing that the influence the 
one possesses over the other, has done much 
to ensure the safety of the passage of the 
mail over the desert. 

The rapidity of Mc Waghom^s movements 
is a great feature in his bustling character. — 
You meet him one day at the Jerusalem Cof- 
fee House ; and the next, or the day after, 
you see him announced as arrived at Paris, 
on his way to Marseilles — of course en roui$ 
for Egypt You are perhaps, in a day or two 
afterwards, surprisea to Bnd, rushing up 
ComhiU, or down Bifchen Lana, the indivia- 
ual, who, you would have thought^ could 
scarcely have reached Alexandria ; and when 
Tou say, " Ah ! what back again— why you 
nave never seen the Pacha '" '* Y^s, I have 
though — when we travel, we don't do things 
liy halves," is the reply. 

It was not many months ago that Mr. 
Waghorn was off on one of those flyiog vis- 
its, and he then reached as far as Bomhay. 
On his return, he was asked how he liked 
the appearance of affairs there ? He replied, 
*'Not at all —no improvements going on there, 
as in other parts of the world. The Parsees, 
the Jews of^ I he place, are eating all before 

The only remuneration Mr. Waghoro is 
understood ever to have received from Go* 
vemment, for the interest he exhibited in pro* 

motm^ and directing the ronte for the Ovei^ 
land Mail, was the concession of the title of 
<' Lieutenant R. N.," for which he has long 
sought The merchants, howeveff» in 1839- 
40, very handsomely subscribed a conshlera- 
ble sum, and presented it to Mr. Waghonit 
to enable him to push his agency, both at 
home and in India. He now goes on aue- 

Who has not heard of the Brunels— Father 
and Son : the former, the constructor of the 
Thames Tunnel ; the latter, the first Railway 
engineer in the world ! Sir Isambert, the old 
gentleman, was bom in a small village in 
Normandy. " He was educated in the Col- 
lejge of Gisors ; and when his vacations call^ 
him home, his favorite resort was the shop 
of the village carpenter, whose tools and in- 
struments had greater attractions for the 
vouthful engineer than Latin and Greek, and 
his allotted holiday task, (devoirs,) He has 
frequently been heard to describe tne wonder 
and delight with which he, for the first time, 
beheld (1784» on the quay of Rouen) the 
component par;s of a huge steam-engine, just 
landed from England. ' When I am a man, 
(he said to himself,) I will repair to the coun* 
try where such machinery is made.' " 

It is with hia son that I shall more par- 
ticularly have to do. 

If you would see the ugliness of railway 
speeulatioM, go to a meeting of some respect* 
able company. The scene is the largest hall 
in some London tavem. The body of the 
apartment— the spacious music gallery — is 
crammed with proprietors. They are sub- 
stantial men. Three moustaches may be de- 
tected, on a close scrutiny — one coat with 
Bospicioua-lookinff lappels of sumptuous vel- 
vet, ostentatiously folded back-^one huge 
double breast-pin of paltry stones, on a frayed 
and fitded neckcloth ; but the mass consists 
of seemly burgesses, with shrewd, healihy, 
pleasant countenances, well iairrayed in broad- 
cloth. They are, in outward appearance, the 
eiite of the trading and manulacturing class. 
They are obviously in a sute of high excite- 
ment. Groups start up in different parts of 
the hall, and look eagerly towards the out- 
skirts of the crowd whenever a rustle is 
heard. At, last the whole mass rises with a 
simultaneous cheer, A shrewd, hard-featured 
man— preceded and followel by a dozen well 
dressed attendants, proud as peacocks of their 
proximity— enters, and lakes the chair. Amid 
rapturous applause he proceeds to develope 
the coarse of action recommended by him- 
self or his brother directors. It evinces no 
comprehensive views of general utility — 
not even a high decree of mechanical skill. 
It is merely a sample of skilful jobbing on a 
grand scale — dexterous reconciliation of 
discordant selfish interests, in order to bring a 
numerous body to work together. And its 
great recommendation is that it will raise the 
price of shares. 

In the age of Elizabeth, Spencer and Jon- 
sen onconaciously breathed a spirit of poetry 




into tbeir coDceptions of Mammon ; but the 
ineaniatioD of MammoQ in oar age, the laat 
armtar of the Brahma of Avarice, is merely 
graspinff* greedy* imitative ; there is nothing 
of intellect or imagination aboat it. 

We will suppose a Railway 'meeting— and 
Mr. Brunei, Jr. He is from 40 fo 45 years of 
age and of small stature — from five feet to five 
feet six. He is slightlir but firmly built, with 
g^eat vif^or and elasticity in his gait and per- 
son. His face is small and somewhat round, 
very riightly flashed but not raddy, with fea- 
tvpea regular but not marked, vet exceedingly 
expressive. His forehead, which, in propor- 
tion to the head, is a large one, is high, broad 
and open, and indicative of great intellectual 
powers. His hair, black, and somewhat 
wiry, is combed backwards, and gives full ef- 
fect to all the beauties of the forehead. But 
that which most attracts the attention, or, 
more properlv speaking, what at first sight 
>>atirhn it, is his eye ; its color is a hazel, but 
the observer has very little time to ascertain 
thi& It has a restlessness almost approach- 
ing to perpetual motion, and its glances are 
so pregnant with meaning, so full of fire, and 
so charged with a penetration that nothing 
can esoape, that the eye of a spectator has 
more than enough to do to watch its motions. 
And there is between every motion of these 
watchful eyes and every feature and muscle 
of the face, a sympathy and harmony which 
sake them work together with a unity, that 
at the same time pleases and astonisnes. — 
Let the most difificult point be put, the most 
intricate question asked, no sfaade of doubt 
fltttters over his face, his featuf-es are not set- 
tled ia distrust, nor is his eye fixed oa vacan* 
cy amidst mazes of difficulty. 

When under examination before the Par- 
liamentary Committees, his self-possession 
and apparent indifference are inimitable. — 
<* Mr. ftnnel," asks an honorable member or 
a noble lord, " do you think that a ^pradient 
of so and so is really safe ?" '* I think so," 
is the short and quick reply. <*But Mr. 
Bnmd,^ eootinues the querist, '^suppose there 
is a curve of such and such a radius, would 
you still think such a gradient safe ?" **I 
think so," is still the laconic and unhesitating 
answer. " But here, besides these," and the 
inqoirer's eye plainly says, "now I have 
you,^ — " we have a tunnel — what, do you 
think all these safe V '* I think so," is still 
the answer. 

Mr. Brdnel's great engineering rival is 
Robert Stephenson. And, like Robert Ste- 
pbensoo, he had the advantage of a first-rate 
edocatioQ, the care and superintendence of an 
able and experienced father and the frequent 
opporttmity of much practice. His history as 
a railway engineer commenced with the 
Great Western. 

Mr. Brunei is the author of the broad 
g^uage : he introduced it in his first line, he 
bad posittvel][ aever previously superintended 
the eoQstmction of a railway, and every line 
in tliecooatry was laid down with the narrow 

guage. Brunei, in his first line, introduced a 
new guage, widely different from the old.— 
His eaffer mind, quick in conception and 
comprehensive in its range, does not stop to 
learn the lesson of experience, or to witness 
the illustrations of practice. 

In the construction of the Great Western, 
if report speaks true, Mr. Brunei had to call 
in the assistance of others to correct his own 
blunders in laying down the sleepers, &c. ; 
and to this very day he is, we are credibly 
informed, continually experimenting as to ttie 
layinff down of sleepers, of rails, of using this 
and that material under the sleeper and un- 
der the rail, and a hundred other things. 

He surveyed the Great Western — its en- 
gineering merits were highly spoken of by 
George Stephenson and neariy all our emi- 
nent engineers — ^the Bill was passed, and the 
battle of the broad gua^e commenced. After 
a struggle, in which Mr. Brunei performed 
wonders, he was at length successful, and 
the broad guage was adopted. All this is 
like Brunei; and the many failures which 
were the consequence, are evidence that he 
did not possess that practical knowledge 
which was requisite to a due execution, and 
that he did not, befure he started, calculate 
all the obstacles which he had to overcome. 

Last session, the South Wales Railway 
Company, of which Mr. Brunei was ens^ineer, 
proposed to cross the river Severn bv a bridge 
at a point called the Horse Shoe. The bridge 
was to be 200 yards broad. The Severn is 
well known to be one of the most difficult 
rivers in the kingdom to construct a bridge 
over, and especially at this point ; hut be did 
not hesitate, and there can be no doubt he 
would have executed it, but the Admiralty 
interfered and would not permit it. 

Mr. Robert Stephenson experiments be- 
fore he decides; Mr. Brunei, after he has 
commenced, and is bound to execute. Mr. 
Brunei is too rash, perhaps ; Mr. Stephenson 
may sometimes be too slow. 

Mr. Brunei superintended the construction 
of the engines of the Great Western and the 
Great Britain steam ships, at least he afforded 
them the benefits of his experience. A few 
years ago, he very nearlv lost his life whilst 
showing a conjunng trick to a child — he put 
a half sovereign into his mouth, and pretend- 
ed to swallow it Unfortunately the com 
slipped down his gullet, and lodged there. — 
For days his valuable life was in the utmost 
danger. Sir Benjamin Brodie and other dis- 
tinguished surgeons, were in constant attend- 
ance, and operation after operation was vain- 
ly performed. At length the patient set his 
wits to work, and constructed a machine, by 
means of which he could be turned upside 
down in an instant. There were certain 
times when the coin felt loosened, and by 
seizing the lucky moment, and turning over, 
Mr. Brunei succeeded in dislodging the fo- 
reign substance. ^ After many trials, one day 
he turned a summerset rapidly, and out drop- 
ped the money. 









Omduded from pag$lA^ VoL U. 

The Rigah sayt Bishop Heber, had been 
deteribed to me as a man, with whom I should 
be much pleased, but I saw him under uq- 
lavorable circumstances. He had had the 
same ferer with the rest of the world, was 
looking very yellow, and, as Mr. Boulderson 
said, unusually silent and out of spirits. 
His manners and appearance were, howerer, 
gentlemanly, and his show of attendants far 
greater than that of the Rigah of Sheeshghur. 
He mentioned that there W49 a tiger in an 
adjoining tope, which had done a good deal 
of mischief, that he should haye gone after 
it himself had he not been ill, and had he not 
thought it would l)e' a fine dirersion for Mr. 
Boulderson and me. I told him I was no 
sportsman : but Mr. Boulderson's eyes spark- 
led at the name of tiger, and he expressed 
great anxiety to beat up his quarters in the 

Under such circumstances I did not like to 
> deprive him of his sport, as he would not 
leave me by myself. I went, though with no 
intention of being more than a spectator. 
Mr. Boulderson, however, advised me to load 
my pistols, for the sake of defence, and lent 
me a very fine double-barrelled gun, for the 
same purpose. We set out a little after three 
00 our elephants, with a servant behind each 
howdah, carrying a large chatta, which, how- 
ever, was almost needless. The Rijah, in 
spite of his fever, made his appearance too, 
saying that he could not bear to be left be- 
hind. A number of people, on foot and on 
horseback, attended, rom our own camp and 
the neighboring villages ; and the same sort 
of interest and delight was evidently excited, 
that might be produced In England by a large 
conrsitig party. 

The Rigah was on a little female elephaur, 
scarcely bigger than the Durham ox, and al- 
most as shaggy as a poodle. She was a 
native of the neighboring wood, where they 
are generally of a smaller sixe than those of 
Bengal and Chittagong. • He sat in a low 
howdah, with three or four guns ranged be- 
side him, ready for action. Mr. Boulderson 
had also a formidable apparatus of muskets 
and fowling-pieces, prcgecting over his mo- 
hout's head. We rode about two miles over 
a low plain, covered with long jungly grass, 
whieh pat me very much in mind of the 

country near the Cuban. Quails and wild 
fowl rose in great numbers; and beautiful 
antelopes were seen scudding away m all 
directions. With them our party had no 
quarrel: their flesh is good for little, and 
they are in general favorites both with native 
and English sportsmen, who feel disinclined 
to meddle with a creature so graceful and so 

At last we came to a deeper and mere 
marshy ground, which lay a little before the 
tope pointed out to us; and, while Mr. 
Boulderson was doubting whether we should 
pass through it or skirt it, some country 
people came running to say, that the tiger 
had been tracked there that morning. We 
therefore went in, keepmg line, as if we had 
been hunting (m a hare, through grass ao 
high, that it reached up to the howdah of my 
elephant, though a tall one, and almost hid 
the Rajah entirely. We had not gone far, 
before a very large animal, of the deer kind, 
sprang up just before us, larger than a stag, 
c^ a dusky brown color, with spreading, but 
not palmated horns. Mr. Boulderson said it 
was a **mohr," a species of elk; that this 
was a yoimg one, but that they there grow 
to an immense size, so that he had stood 
upright between the tips of their horns. He 
could have shot, but did not like to fire at 
present, and said it was, after all, a pity to 
meddle with such harmless animals. The 
mohr accordingly ran off unmolested, rising 
with splendid bounds, up to the very top of 
the high jungle, so that his whole body and 
limbs were seen from time to time above it. 

At last the elephants all drew up their 
trunks into the air, and began to roar and stamp 
violently with their fore feet. The Rajah's 
little elephant turned short round; and, in 
spite of all her mohout could say or do, took 
up her post, to the Rajah's great annoyanoe* 
close in the rear of Mr. Boulderson. The 
other three, (for one of my baggage*elephants 
had come out too, the mohout, though un- 
armed, not caring to miss the show,) went on 
slowly, but boldly, with their trunks raised, 
their ears expanded, and their sagacious little 
eyes bent intently forward. '< We are close 
upon him!*' said Mr. Boulderson: «*fiDe 
where you see the long grass shake, if he 
rises before you." 

Just at that moment my elephant stamped 
again violently. « THere, there !" cried the 
mohout; <'Isaw liis head." A short roar. 






or nther lood growl followed ; and I ww, 
iiiwudiiTlj before my'^elephant's head, the 
fttotioD of some large animal, stealing away 
diTough the grass. I fired, as directed ; and 
a moment after, sedng the motion still more 
pbiialyt fired the second barrel. Another 
short growl followed, the motion was im- 
mediately quickened, and was soon lost in 
the more distant jimgle. Ifr. Boolderson 
odd: ''I should not wonder if you hit him 
that last time ; at any rate we shall drive 
him oot of the cover, and then I will take 
ears of him." 

In &et, at that moment, the crowd of horse 
and foot specutovs, at the jungle-side, began 
tonm off in all directions. We went on to 
the place, but found it was a false alarm ; 
and, in fact, we had seen all we were to see 
of him, and wen( twice more through the 
jon^ in vain. A large extent of high gmss 
stretched out in one direction, and this we 
had not now sufficient daylight to explore. 
In fiMt, that the animal before us was a 
tiger at all, I hare no evidence but its growl, 
Mr. Boolderson's belief, the asserticm of the 
Bohout, and, what is perhaps more valuable 
than all the rest, the alarm expressed by the 

I ooold not help feeling some apprehension, 
that my friend had robbed Boulderson of his 
shot : but he assured me that I was quite in 
nde, that in such sport no courtesies could 
be deared, and that the animal in fact rose 
belore me, bat that he should himself have 
fixed without scruple, if he had seen the 
rasde of the gvass in time. Thus ended my 
first, and probably last essay in the « field 
q[>orts" of India, in which I am much mis* 
taken, notwithstanding what Mr. Boulderson 
said, if I harmed any living creature. 

I asked Mr. Boulderson, on our return, 
whether tiger-bunting was generally of this 
kind, which I could not help comparing to 
that chase of bubbles, which enables us in 
England, to pursue an otter. In a jungle, he 
answered, it always must be pretty much the 
same, inasmuch as, except under very pecu* 
liar circumstances, as when a tiger felt him- 
self severely wounded, and was roused to re- 
venge by despair, his aim was to remain 
eoDceaied, and to make off as quietly as pos- 
sible It was aAer he had broken cover, oi 
when he found himself in a situation so as to 
be fairly at bay, that the serious part of the 
tpan began, ki which case he attacked his 

enemies boldly, and always died fighting. He 
added that the lion, although not so large or 
swift an ammal as the tiger, was generally 
stronger and more courageous. Those which 
have been killed in India, instead of nmaing 
away, when pursued through a jun^e, sd- 
dom thinks iu cover necessary at alL When 
they see their enemies approaching, they 
spring out to meet them, open-mouthed, in ' 
the plain, like the boldest of all animals, a 
mastiff dog. They are thus generally shot 
with very little trouble : if they are missed, 
or only slightly wounded, they are truly for^ 
midable enemies. Though not swift, they 
leap with strength and violence ; and their 
large heads, and immense paws, and the 
great weight of their body forwards, often 
enable them to q>ring on the heads of the 
largest elephants, and fairly pull them down 
to the earth, riders and all. 

When a tiger springs on an elephant, the 
latter is generally able to shake him off, un- 
der his feet, and then wo be to him i- The 
elephant either kneels on him, and crushes 
him at once, or gives him a kick, which 
breaks half his ribs, and sends him flyings 
perhaps twenty paces. The elephants, how- 
evOT, are often dreadfully torn ; and a large 
old tiger sometimes clings too fast to be thus 
dealt with. In this case it often happens, 
that the tiger himsdf falls, from pain, or 
from the hope of rolling on his enemy ; and 
the people on hislmck are in very considera- 
ble danger from both friends and foes: fet 
Mr. Boulderson said the scratch of a tiger 
was sometimes venomous, as that of a eat is 
said to be. But this did not oflen happen ; 
and in general persons wounded by the \ee\h 
or claws, if not not killed outright, recover-' 
ed easily enough. 

Ftr^ta.— This state was settled m 1007,- 
by the English j acceded to the Union in 
June, 1788 ; capital, Richmond. A freehold 
in possession, or in the occupancy of only a 
tenant at wiU or sufferance, worth #25 ; or 
the reversion of a freehold, to vest on the 
ternunation of a Hfe estate, and worth #50 ; 
or a leasehold of the yearly value of #20, 
for a term not less than five years ; or the 
payment of a state tax within the year by a 
oousekeeper who is the head of a fomily, 
and has a year's residence, gives the right of 
voting to every citizen, except paupers, fel- 
ons, and persons in the army or navy, not 
having commissions. Area, 64,000 square 
miles. Population in 1840, 1,2^,79Z» 





For agn the panage of ihe Dardanelles 
wia regarded as* a most dangerous, or 
rather impracticable enterprise, by naval 
men, a* well as by the world al large. 
UIca many other opinions, founded on ru< 
mor, or on fiicU imperfectly understood, it 
has been totally ohanged, by an iacreaae of 
knciwledgq. And thus it has been, within 
tbe memory of many of us, with tereral 
oibar poittta involving the military power 
of that nation to which these forts belong. 
The Bussian campaign taught us, that the 
Turkish power had long been vastly over- 

Th« following allusion to the Upper 
Canle, (which is represented m our print) 
Wft copy firom Dr. Kekay'i Travels. 

H« gives us a sketch, on a scale of 
m Enah to a niile, to furnish the reader 
wilh sn idea of the various defences oi the 
nardanelleo, from the upper or inner castles 
to Abydoa. It will be recollected, that in 
addition to these, an enemy would have first 
to pncouotoT the fire of the two lower 
oastles at the entrance of Dardanelles, b^. 
aides several water-batteiiesalongthe shores, 
carrying altogether 203 guns, previous to 
iDMtbg these formidable castles. 

Although these present a formidable as- 
pect to an enemy, yet (heir importance has, 
wo imaguice, beisn greatly overrated. A 
dabarkalioB m the Thracian peninsula 
would take the works on the European 
snore wilh great ease, and those on the op- 
posite side would lall of course. The real 
ttiemy, and the one most lo b« dreaded, is 
flir in the rear of all these formidable works : 
and naat experience should have instructed 
the Turk that Russia does not depend ao 
nuwh upon her ships aa upon her armed 

As we approached the exlmsire Ibrtres- 
ses which command the oarrowesi part of 
the Dardanelles, a scene of a different na- 
ture presented itself. As a compliment, we 
hoisted a large Turkish Sag, and imme- 
diately a hundred flags arose from every 
part of the castles on cither side of the 
straits. The consuls of all the European 
nations residing here also hoisted the stan- 
dards of their respective countries, and die 
long line of white battlements was crowded 
with spectators. 

The American flag was the only one not 
exhibited. We were aflerwaids informed 
that we have a consul here, but he was too 
poor lo purchase a Hag. He is a respecta- 
ble Jew, with twenty-five children, and his 
consular fees amount to about six dollars 
per annum. It need scarcely be added 
that he has no salary. His official rank, 
however, ia very great, and he enjoys the 
inestimable privilege of atrulling through 
the dirty streets of this village with his 
twenty-five children all clad in yellow slip- 
oers. He is the Licvaatiue Jew alluded to 
ty Turner, who was formerly the English 
vice-consul at the Dardanelles, a post which 
his fiunily has filled for successive genera- 

Taking the lead of our fleet, we no 
rapidly up the straits, and passed a low 
poml of land on our right, which is cover, 
ed wilh a circular battery, marking the site 
of Abydos. At this place Xerxes crossed 
with his Persian host, on his disastrous ex- 
pedition against Grreece. The wind, short- 
ly afier we had passed this place, died 
away, and we anchored about three mile* 
above, on the European side, under a high 
point of land, which is commonly supposed 
to have been the ancient locality of Seaiot. 
This spot has obtained a singular celebrity, 
as the place whence Leaiider swam serosa 
the Hellespont 



> Th0 Engliafa fte reniftrksby find of 
) ridbff aa horuboob, and the pnotice ia 
) &r more oommon among ladiea, u well oa 
i gcDtlaniMi, than in our own country, ex- 
\ ct^Hag Virginia, a&d certain other por- 
( tiou of the UoioD, where it ia forced upon 
i the people by necessity. 
) No ana, who haa triad tha experiment 
I long enongb to iorm an opinion, can have 
I any doubt of the heatthfulness of the exer- 

< cae ; and, aa for the pleosuie, it is unquea- 
} ticnably &r more oonduoive to physical an- 
) joymeat, than the more easy but luxurious 
i and efiemtnats nwveroents of the lailcar oi 
} HeunboaL Some object to it on account of 
S the Buneroue risks of injury in diflTerent 
I ways ; and of that we hare nothing to say, 
i except that if thay be greater and mora 
I serknia than hi Tehictea, we scarcely can 
\ ioHitnte a fiiir comparison, especially 
} while wa have so little proolioal acquaint- 
i asca with horse-riding in our country at 
; large, and so few artangements or prepaia- 
i tuM to pToour« good and safe animals for 

< Ibe saddle. Besides, we know very well 
I that lh« dangeia an^ boonTeniencies, what- 

ever they may be, are not presented to ns 
l^ those who have had the best opportuni- 
ties to appreciate them, that is, horsemen 
diemselvea. Oa the contrary, they are the ; 
loudest in the praise of this mode of exer-* 
ciee and of travelling, and generally testify 
their attachment and preference for it, by 
practising it in piefeieoee lo all others, to < 
the eiid of their lives. 

The vigorous exertlcms of a spirited horse < 
comraunic&le to our frames a constant and , 
eahiliratiDg motion ; the free air surrounds ', 
us, and comes to our tnnga fresh from tha | 
cornfields or gardens, the motiutain top or | 
the ocean, without any interruption, check 
or contamination ; the scenes around ua are < 
tmacreened and unclouded, ptesentiDg all 
their natural beauty and continued varieiy. 
We move in the same atmosphere inhaled 
by the lowin; herds and the joyful feathered | 
throngs ; and we soon begin to feel some-' 
thing of that infiaence on our physical sys- • 
tem, which makes the lambs gambol on the 
grass, and the birds break out in songs. 

Who that has performed a jooney «b 
horseback, has not fbtmd bis whole set of 





heirngB in lome degn^ee altered by the phy- 
sical excitement of the exercise ? It requires 
a day, a week or a fortnight to aocastom a 
no?ice to the saddle and the fatigue of the 
exercise : but, sooner or later, he will feel 
himself emancipated from the feebleness 
and efieminate condition, to which the lux- 
urious, debilitating and depressing habits 
of city life reduce so many of us, and feel 
thrills of enjoyment through his nerves, and 
a riling energy in his limbs, which may 
remind him of youth, and its long-forgotten 
buoyancy and lightness of heart 

At leMt suoh has been our own expe- 
rience; and this recurrence to the subject 
has already awakened pleasing recollec- 
tions of the majestic solitudes of the White 
Hills, and of the Italian mountains, among 
which we have passed, in former days, 
borne by spirited, or at least, faithful and 
sure-footed steeds* The aspect cf a good 
rider, well mounted, is recommendation 
enough of this mode of travelling to many 
an observer ; and we could hardly have 
desired a more graceful specimen of horse- 
manship than that which we have given 
on the preceding page, which represents the 
^een of England, attended by her ccm- 
sort, in one of those country rides which 
she is so fond of taking. 

An Unexpecied but Joyful Meeting.'^A 
gMitleman residing near Marlborough, in 
this county, some days since went to New 
York toget a hand to work for him on his 
fiurm. He chanced to have recommended to 
him a voung man who had just emigrated 
from Qermany, and through hired persons, 

i as the German could not speak English,) 
le oigaged to work with him, and brought 
the young man over to his residence. At 
dusk the gentleman sent to a neighbor for 
a German who had been working there for 
a long time, having emigrated &om Ger- 
many many years since, and whose steady 
habits had, as much as anything, influenced 
him in retaining the young man, to come 
and talk with the new work-hand. The 
German who was sent for, came and seated 
himself by the fire, back of the other, who 
was drinking his tea. The fiimily were 
waiting for the meal to be finished, ex. 
peeting to hear some regular Dutch talk ; 
nor dM they wait in vain, for the momept 

the young man turqed firom the table, his 
eyes were fixed on the other German. — 
Both stood a moment regarding each other, 
and then rushed into each other's arms— 
they were brothers^ and had met for the 
first time in manv years ! The kind feel- 
ing, the unboundfed joy, the repeated em- 
brace, were worthy of lovers. These two 
honest Dutchmen did talk real Dutch that 
night, and will probably do so for a long 
time, as they work on farms which adjoin 
each other. — Monmouth Enquirer. 

Salt fob Cattle. — ^Tbe advantage of salt 
as an addendum to the food of man is a "fixed 
fact/ as Mr. Gushing might say, and it is 
proved to be no less a desideratum for the 
animal creation. The lollowing curious fact 
is mentioned in Plirker's **-Treatise on 

**k person who kept sixteen farming 
horses, made the foUowin^f experiment with 
seven of them, which had been accustomed 
to eat salt with their feed. Lumps of rock 
salt were laid in their mangers, and these 
lumps, previoudy weighed, were examined 
regularly, to ascertain what quantity weekly 
had been consumed ; and it was repeatedly 
found, that whenever these horses were fed 
on hay and com, they consumed only two 
and a half or three ounces per day, and when 
they were fed with new hay, they took six 
ounces per day. This fact should convince us 
of the expediency of permitting our cattle the 
free use of salt at all times ; and it cannot be 
^iven in so convenient a form as rock salt. 
It being much more palatable than the other 
in a refined sute, and by far cheaper. A 
good lump should always be kept in a box, 
by the side of the animal, without fear that 
it will ever be taken to excess."— B0</oa 

Perranzahtloef the lost Church foundl^ 
The title of this book is somewhat quaint. 
It seems that Perranzabnloe, a place on the 
North West Coast of Cornwall, is the site of 
an old church, and actually was its sepulchre 
from the twelfth century to the year 1835 ; 
the edifice during that long interval having 
been completely buried in sand! Eleven 
years ago, successful attempts were made to 
extricate the church from its sandy grave, and 
present it, "^ in all its unpretendmg simplicity. 
Its rude but solid workmanship, to the won* 
der of antiquarians, and the gratitude of Or- 
nish men." 

The applieation is this: the anthor says 
that Perranzibuloe illustrates Ihe condition of 
the church of England at the reformation— 
when it was not rebuilt, but restored from 
the incrustations which the dioreh of Borne 
Jiad spread over its walls, and at last <' en- 
tombed in the depth of her own abomina* 



? ThU cot pnaonts nt with a view of one 

) ef dw GM TillagM fi>imad in Liberia by tba 

I Coknilnrion Socie^, u it appeared soon 

} tfier its eonuDMicenient It hat ainoe 

ocaaiderably enlarged, and many 

, othen are now erected oa other parta of ihe 

The hulory of thoee aettlemeati 

irtereat ; and tiich of our rao- 

' den aa have not jret paid partlonlar attea< 

[ tkn to Ihe aoliieot, will find mnch to engage 

( theii feelinga and to infbnn their minds, in 

I the perusal of the accounts fiimtihed by 

1 nnsitMiaiiei, agents and nsilors, aa well aa 

by soma of the colmista thonaelres, whioh 

Imto bom pnblisbed in diflerent forms 

within a few years past, and this indepmd^ 

(Uly of any idea they may entertain about 

I the ojtpedlflncy or inailnlty of the gsoeiml 

The Mlowing extracts from the last ■«»«- 
j ber of the Afrioan Repository contains im- 
' portent etatisrioa. 

The Comotonwealtb of Liberia is repre- 

NBlad to be in a most flourishing condition. 

The colony extends about three hundred 

■ika along the coast. In 1821 the agents 

) of the Coioaixation Society attempt^ to 

I purchase a tract for their first settlemrat at 

[ Qnmd Basa ; but the obstinate refueal of 

\ the natiraa to abandon the slave trade was 

insuperable obstacle. In December, 

{ howerer, of the same year, Cape Hesurado 

j was purchased upon that indispeoMble oon- 

I dition. in 1825 another tract was pur- 

) chasad on ibfl Sl Paul's, by Mr. Ashmun, 

! than govenur. Of this terriior^ he re- 

I Bulud, that " along thk beantitul mn 

were fonnerlr soattered, in Afnoa's better 
days, iimumerablfl native hamlets ; aitd still 
within tbe last twenty years, nearly the 
whole riTer-board, for me or two milea beck, 
was under the slight culture which obtains 
among the natiTea of this oouolry. But 
the populotioD had been wasted by uie rage 
for trading in slarea, with which the oour 
Stant presence of trading Teasels, and the in- 
troduotion of foreupi luxuries, hare Inspired 
them. The soiUn banlc of this river, and 
all the intervening country betweea it and 
the MesuTsdo, have been from this causa 
nearly desolated of iuhabttanta. A few 
detached, solitary plantations, acattered at 
long intervals through the tract, just serve 
to mterrupt the silence and relieve the 
gloom which reign over the whole region." 

There are now nine settlements in the 
colony. Of these. Monrovia, the seat 4>f 
government, is the largest, containing a pm- 
ulation of about one thousand. On the St. 
Paul's river there are two settlements, Cald- 
well and Millsburg. On an arm of St. 
Paul's river, colled Stocking Creek, is New 
Georgia, the settlement of thoee recaptured 
Africans who were restored to the land of 
their nativity by tbe United States govern- 
ment At the mouth of Ihe Junk river is 
the settleuMot of Marshall, and on the St. 
John's are those of Edinai Boaaa Cove and 
Bexley; further down the coast it that of 
Qreenvllle, near the mouth of the Sinou 
river. Besides theae are two oihen, one 
on the Sinou river, and tbe other on the St. 

Writuig of Cape Mesnrado, in 1844, 
Com. Perry saya — « [ fiM saw this beauti- 
Ail pnxnoaiory, when Itsdaose fbresis were 
only inhabited by wild beasts ; since then I 
bare visited it thrice, and each time hare 




noticed with infinite satisfaction, its progres- 
sive improvement. The Cape has now 
upon its summit, a growing towK, having 
several churches, a mission establishment, 
school-house, a building for the meeting of 
courts, printing presses, warehouses, shops, 
dec. In fiict, It possesses most of the con- 
veniences of a small seaport town in the 
llnited States, and it is not unusual to see 
at anohor in its capacious road, on the same 
day, one or more vessels of war and two 
or three merchant vessels. 

The colony is divided into two counties, 
Montserado and Qraod Bassa, in each of 
which courts af<b regularly held. The 
form of government is similar to that of 
the State governments in the United States. 
All of its officers are blacks, inoluding the 
Governor, who is the only one appointed by 
the American Colonization Society. Its 
legislature is composed of ten representa- 
tives, who are elected by the people, and 
hold an annual session. The colonial phy- 
sician, in writing upon this subject, says, 
that *'in visiting the legislature and Uie 
different courts during their sessions, any 
unprejudiced individual cannot fail to be 
impressed with feelings of respect for the 
authorities of the colony, and with, the con- 
viction of the fact, tliat in a country in 
which the mind as well as the body is un« 
fettered, the power of self-government does 
not depend upon the color of the skin. 

Most of the usual productions of tropical 
climates thrive well in Liberia. The 
coffee tree will grow as freely and yield as 
abundantly as perhaps in any other part of 
the world. At some future period, its 
fruit will be the principal staple production, 
and the most profitable article of exporta- 
tion. The cotton tree will yield abundant- 
ly, and the sugar cane grows luxuriantly, 
but cannot at present be manufactured to 
advantage for want of capital. Indeed 
such is the variety and value of its produc- 
tions, that at no distant day a lucrative com- 
merce must be established between the co- 
lony and other nations. The imports du- 
ring the^last two years amounted to 15'i',829, 
and the exports during the same period, to 
•123,694. The Liberia Herald states that 
*<the commerce and the trade of the colony 
have been steadilv on the increase. Ac- 
cording to the ofndal returns the imports 
for a smgle quarter exceeded #40,000, and 
the exports were about the sama The 
country has immense resources. It only 
requires industry and indomitable perse* 
veranoe to dev^pe them. ^ The receipts 
into the colonial treasury, ohieflj from koh 

port duties, were sufficient to meet the cur- 
rent expenses of the commonwealth. These 
receipts would be vastly increased, if all 
the sea coast wartinder the jurisdiction of 
the Colony, bv which smuggling and the 
introduction o/ goods free of auty would be 

The influence of the colony upon the 
slave trade has been of the most ffattenng 
character. For centuries, Africa has been 
plundered o^ her children without a single 
voice raised in her behat( and thousands 
upon thousands have been annually carried 
away into hopeless captivity. Many sec- 
tions of her territory have become entirely 
depopulated 1^ the violence of intestine 
wars, excited by the cupidity of the slave 
dealer, and dense forests have covered the 
spot where once were thriving villages and 
extensive towns. '< The two siavfnff stations 
of Cape Moutit and <7ape Mesurado," says 
Mr. Asfamun, *' have for several ag^s been 
desolated of every thing valuable, as well 
as the intervening very fertile and beautiful 
tract of country. The forests have remain- 
ed untouched, all moral virtue has been ex- 
tinguished in the people, and their industry 
annihilated by this one ruinous cause.^ 

The whole slave trading coast of West- 
em Africa, is estimated at ibur thoosand 
miles, which if in the market at 133^ 
a mile, the estimated value of the tract 
which the American Colonization Society 
is now attempting to purchase, would cost 
8633,833. The expense, including interest 
on the first cost for two years, of oiirsquad<> 
ron of eighty guns, which the United States 
is bound, by toe African treaty, to keep on 
the African coast for the suppression or the 
slave trade, is $613,272, being enough to 
buy the whole four thousand miles and 
leave a surplus of 970,939, while the an- 
nual expense of the British squadrons em- 
ployed m watching the slave trade for sev- 
eral years past has been estimated at about 
two milliona and a hal£ According to a 
Parliamentary return of 1643, the total ex- 
pense to the British government of every 
thing connected with the suppression of 
this trade, including her settlements on the 
African coast established for that purpose^ 
drawn up with great care from omcial 
documents, amounted to jS22,429,271, or 
about 9100,000,000, down to the begin- 
ning of 1839. The Inefficiency of thi«< 
immense naval expenditure is alluded 
to in the London Morning Hemld:— It 
is now sixty years since Englishmai di. 
rooted their attention to the suppression of 
the <fosthictive traffic i and with little eflbct. 






(Cantimud from VoL IL, pagB S2.) 

BatthiBdidnotkitiinidAtehim. HawMde* 
temuiied to raa the risk, in foU reliaDce on the 
pioleotioa of ProYidoice, as he thought it a^ 
■eotitl to his plaiM, penooaUhr to iospe^ the 
Lazarettoe of Marseilles and XouloD. In two 
daya he reached Paris, whence he went to Ly^ 
ooa» travellini^ aa a doctor* and justifying lub 
claima to the title hy prescrihing yery success- 
folly for a ladv of the party, in the coach in 
which he travelled. At Lyons he could not 
refrain, although keeping himself as t>riyate 
as possible, irom yisiung all the prisone, and 
hospitals of the city. At length he reached 
Marseilles, and called on an old acouaintance ; 
but his reception was caloulatea to alarm 
him: «*Mr. Howard, I have always been 
happy to see yon till now. Leave France as 
aooa as possible. I know they are searching 
for you in all directioDS.** From this friend 
he learned, that he had trayelled all the way 
for the Hague with a spy, sent by the French 
Minister, and that he was only sayed from 
an arrest the night he was in Paris, by the 
absence of ihe official character who managed 
such matters. 

This animosity of the French government, 
was founded on the efforts Howara had made 
to prevent the English prisoners of war at 
Dunbrk from entering the French navy, 
and on having published in French, as well 
as in Englisl^ a pamphlet, detailing all the 
secret horrors of the Bastile. These were 
OB pardonable sins, in the eyes of the French 

Svemment. Afier having visited secretly 
^ Lucaretto at Marseilles, and had a draw* 
mg made of the whole plan of it ; prudence 
required that he should quit France as soon 
as possible. He therefore sailed for Nice.— 
From there he proceeded to the South of Italy, 
visiiing all the prisons, hospitals and Lata- 
rettos in the principal cities, sometimes 
pleased by finding old grievances redressed, 
and better regulations instituted, and some* 
limes peined by seeing the establishments 
be had before admired, now <^anged for the 

From Kapies he proceeded to Malta, where 
he spent three weeks, and found much to dis- 
please, in the ill regulated ])risonB and hospi- 
lak. The following extract from a letter 
from thte place will serve to show both the 
effect of his visits to Lazarettos, and the spi- 
rit by which he was animated. " One effect 
I find during my visits to the Lazarettos, viz., 
a head- ache and pain across my forehead, but 
it has always quite leA me, in one hour after 
I have come from these places. As I am 
quite alonot I have need to summon all my 
courage and resolution. You Will say it is a 
i;reat design, and so liable to a fatal miscar- 
riage, I must adopt the motto of a Maltese 
Baron: — * Non nisi per ardua. I will not 
think my friend is amongst the many who- 

treat every new attempt as wild and ehimer- 
icaU and say, as was first said of mv formef 
attempt, that it would produce no real or last- 
ing advantage^ But I persever, Mhrough 
good report, and evil report' I know I run 
ie risk of my life, &c.. Yet there is a hope 
set before me* In him, the Lord Jesus 
Christ, I trust. In him I have strong conso* 

He was now about to mm the region 
of infection ; and, embarking on board a ves- 
sel, was landed at Smyrna^ stopping at Zame 
on the way, visiting the hospitals and prisoas 
of the Greeks. The plague had raffed here, 
and still existed partially. Never^eless he 
visited the Lazarettos, and then went by sea 
to Constantinople. While at Smyrna, in the 
character of an English doctor, he performed 
a cure upon a person whose life had been 
given up. The report of the cure having 
spread throughout the city, sITorded him a 
ready passport in all his visits. It even fol- 
lowed him to Constantinople, and greatly as- 
sisted him in all his undertakini^ Here he 
staid nearly a month, at the end of which 
time he made arrangements for proceeding by 
land to Vienna. 

And here we have to record an act, which 
will successfully compete with, if it does not 
altogether throw in the sfaftde, any human 
act of philanthropy and disinterestedness the 
world has ever witnessed. Surely, while we 
draw back at the thought of the exposure he 
underwent, we cannot but look with the 
highest admiration on this noble deed of hu- 
manity. Whilst preparing for his departure 
to Vienna, it suddenly occurred to him, that, 
after all the dangers he had inctirred, and the 
fatigues he had endured, the information he 
had gained concerning the arrangements of 
the Lazarettos was mere hearsay, and might 
Just as well have been procured by written 
applications to ministers and consuls; and that 
the only way to obtain a knowledge of their 
economy would be to subject himself to their 

Once convinced of this, his resolution was 
taken. He would go directly back to Smyrna, 
whence no vessels sailed with clean bills of 
health; and, by taking passage thence to 
Venice, he should, on arriving, be obliged to 
perform quarantine in an extensive Lazaretto 
of that city. Relinquishing, therefore, his in- 
tention of returning home, be sailed for Sa- 
lonica and Scio, vi^titing all the prisons ; and, 
arriving at Smyrna, he found a vessel bound 
for Venice, with a foul bill of health. He 
immediately took passage in her ; and, after 
a dangerous voyage of two months, reached 
the spot where he was to carry on his inves- 
tinitions in a new manner^as the inmate of 
a Lazaretto. 

I have already taken up too much space, 
to give more than an outline of his life, while 
undergoing this voluntary impnsoument of 
40 days. The room in which he had first 
lodged was very dirty, full of vermin, and 
without table, chair or bed, and in the Laza- 




r«tto cbiefly used by Turks, toldien and 
ef«wt of feMeU which had the plague on 
board. He immediately emplored a person 
to wash his room ; but this did not remove 
the offeosireness oi \U or prevent constant 
headache. In a few days, at the representsp 
tion of the English consol, he was removed 
to another Lanretto, nearer the city. Here 
his lodgings were two rooms, one above the 
other. Sot nolees disagreeable were they than 
the one be had jnst left. Of (he two apart* 
ments he preferred lying in the lower one, 
on a brick floor and nearly surrounded by 
water. At the end of six days, he was again 
removed to rather better quartern. The win- 
dows of his rooms afibrded a pleasant view : 
but the rooms were without furniture, verv 
dirty, and no less offensive than the sick 
waras of the worst hospital. The walls, not 
faAving been cleansed for years, seemed to be 
saturated with infection; and, though he 
washed them repeatedly with boiling water, 
it did not remove their offensive smell. In 
this miwholasome atmosphere bis appetite 
failed, his head ached constantly, and he felt 
hunself to be in danj^er of the slow hospital- 
fever. In this situation he proposed to white- 
wash his room : but, bis proposal beins: re- 
jected by the prejudices ot those around him, 
he succeeded, oy the help of the Bnttsh Con- 
sul, in smuggling into his apartment a quar- 
ter of a buMiel o( quick lime, and a brush ; 
and, by rising verv earlv, and bribing an at- 
tendant to help nim, he accomplished the 
business one morning before his guard was 
awake. By this simple process, his principal 
room was rendered so sweet, that he ate his 
next meal in it with a better relish, had a 
good night's rest, and in a few days recover- 
ed his luual appetite. 

While a prisoner, he received a~ package 
of letters from his fkr-distsnt home, the con- 
tents «of which gave him far more pain than 
pleasure. That calm frame of mind, and 
tnose even spiriu, which his personal suffer- 
ings could not affect, were not proof against 
the sad tidings which reachea him of his 
son's conduct. He heard of the straiiffe 
whims, and extravagant behavior of his omy 
child : but the whole truth was not told him. 
None of his correspondents mentioned their 
suspicions that his son labored under a men- 
tal malady. Another piece of intelligence 
which he received, and which would have 
been mtifying to most men, caused him un- 
mixed pain. He was informed that a sub- 
seription had been set on foot in England, for 
the purpose of erecting a monument to his 
honor, and that it was rapidly filled with the 
names of ministers, nobles and persons of 
distinction. So far was this truly modest man 
from deriving any pleasure from so remark- 
able a testimony of public esteem, that all 
his expressions on this subject show his re- 
tiring nature to have been deeply wounded, 

by the possibilitv of such an exposure to the 
~. The only monument he desired was 



tha good reauUa 

might flow to hia sul> 

feriuff fellow beings, out of hia unwearied 
exertions in their Mhal^ 

When he had completed the term of hia 
confinement, he left tne Lasaretto, with hia 
health and spirits so much impaired by all 
he had suffered there, that he found it ne- 
cessary to remain a week in Venice, in order 
to recruit, before he be^an his long, and 
wearisome journey home. Suffering under 
the slow hospital fever, he left Venice for 
Trieste, whence he proceeded to Vienna in an 
easy travelling carriage ; and hardly allowing 
^ himself the necessary repose after his long 
joumev, was soon actively engaged in the 
mspecuon of prisons, &c, in the Austrian 
capital. Thence he passed through Holland : 
and, early in February, 1787, he atrived at 
his own house in London. After a short re- 
pose from the fatigue of travelling, he went 
to Cardington, to see for himself the state of 
his son's malady ; and found him a raving 
maniac, threatenm^ destruction to his dearest 
friends. Resignation and constant occupation 
were the only balm for bis wounded feelings; 
and he was too pious, and too deeply pledged 
to tbe public, not to reap the full benefit of 
both. The project of the monument beiuff 
still persisted in, he published a spirited and 
dinned letter in all the principal public 
journals, addressed to the aubseribm to 
the monument, expressiiig the hope, that, if 
his friends wished for his happiness, and fti- 
ture comfort in life, they would vrithdraw 
their names from the wbscription to k desi^ 
to which he could not consent, without vio- 
lating all his feelings, and the execution of 
whien would be a cruel punishment to him. 
His letter had the desired effect : the project 
was abandoned, and the subscribers were in- 
vited to reclaim their money. Out of £1500^ 
or more, but jS500 was refunded. The rest 
was placed in the stocks, and was used,aAer 
the death of the philanthropist, to confer that 
honor on his memory which his modesty re- 
fused while living. 

Did he not rest from his labors, the reader, 
perhaps wearied with following this indefa- 
tigable man, will ask ? No! he did not As 
he intended to publish a full account of the 
Lazarettos and hospitals which he had visited 
in his last tour, he was desirous of adding to 
it a further description of jails, bridewells and 
hospitals of his own country ; and, in order 
to note the changes which might haVe taken 

Elace since the publication of his former work, 
e entered upon another ffeneral tour of in- 
npection throughout the Imited Kingdom.-^ 
These tours occupied about two years, at the 
end of which time he began to print the re- 
sults of his labors, abroad snd at home. Hia 
book was entitled : " An account of the prin- 
cipal Laxarettoa in Europe, with various Pa- 
pera relative to the Plague, together with 
some further Observations on some Foreign 
Prisons and Hospitals, and additional Re- 
marks on the present state of those in Great 
Britain and Ireland." 









The MMoo for making maple sugar being 
nevr at hand» and at rery many are ignorant 
or nq|[ligent of the best method of manafae- 
toring lit (jodging from the samples annually 
presented m the maiket,) we hare thought it 
B^t be Qsefal to copy the following from 
the Report of the Commissioners of Fatents 
(Bfr. EHsworth^s) for 1844. 

KvTLAicD, N. Y., Dee. 23» 1844» 

Sib — ^Yonr farorof Decemcer 4th was doly 
reeeired, and I am happy to inform yoo, as 
£ir as I am able, what yon desire to know of 
the proeess by which I made that sogar of 
which yoa hare seen a small sample. First, 
the plaa and manner of tapping tne trees in 
this town is rery nearly the same ; that is 
with a half>inch or fire-eighths auger, and a 
q>ile inserted in the hde, and a pine tub to 
catch the sap from each tree. I gather my 
sap mto one large reservoir once in 24 hours ; 
then it is boiled each day to sjrrup, which is 
about half the sweemess tof molasses ; it is 
then taken out and strained through a AMmel 
doth, and put into a tub or barrel to cool and 
settle for 12 hours. (I use a sheet from a 
pan, set in an arch of brick ; the pan is made 
of Russia iron, eighc feet long, four feet 
wide and six inches deep.) It is then taken 
out— and I am careful not to more the bottom 
where it has settled — and placed in a kettle 
and heated to 98 degrees. 

I ttien add (for 100 pounds) the whites of 
fbnr eg^is, two quarts of milk, and one ounce 
of saleratus— the eggs well beat up, and the 
saleratus well dissolTed — and the whole well 
mixed together in the syrup, and when the 
scum has all risen, it is to be taken off, and 
be sure it does not boil before vou have done 
dumming it. Then it is boiled until it is 
done, which you will know bjr dropping some 
into water, which if done will form wax. — 
It then must be taken from the kettle and 
placed in tin pans to cool and form grain, and 
as soon as the grain is sufficiently formed, I 
then poor it into tunnel shaped boxes, to drain, 
and after 24 hours I place a flannel cloth on 
the top ; and take the plug from the bottom 
and let it drain. The flannel doth I keep 
wet from day to day. The sample which 
you have seen was done in this way, with 
the addition of being repeated afler once 
draining. Should you wish for farther infer* 
mation, or a more extensive sami>le, i^lease 
send me word to that effect, and it will be 
cheerfully given. Tou will please accept my 
thanks for your kindness. Your's.Jcc. 


Hon. H. L* Ellsworth. 

.—We thank those of our subscribers 
who have expressed their wiih to cooperate 
with us in our plans for the propagatiou of 
nsefnl and ornamental trees and shrubs, and 
assure them that the kind intimations we 
have received the past week have given us 

much pleasure. We regret, however, to be 
obliged to apdogize to some of our friends, 
who have paid for our second volume, as the 
demand for Mummif WktiU has exhausted our 
stock much sooner than we had reason to an- 
tidpate. We have applied for more, but it 
is very scarce. However, we hope to make 
amends, ere long. 

Hie Slave Trade Vew* 

A slave barque fVom Africa, named the 
Pons, has been captured with nine him* 
dred slaves, in latitude 3?, by the U. S. Sloop 
of war, Capt Bdl, and the most shocking 
descriptions are given of the suffering condi- 
tiou of the poor captives. There were 47 
girls, and the rest were chiefly boys between 
10 and 20 years old. The following deserves 
to be recorded, painted and reflected upon, as 
one of the most affecting scenes ever wimess- 
ed, and one which reflects honor on the hu- 
man race, while it silences the char^ made 
against the Africans, of possessing less sensi- 
bility than others of the species. Men of any 
comj^exion may hereafter be content, if thqr 
only equal the conduct of the two little boys 
mentioned below. 

"The sailors pointed me to a group of 
three little boys under the bow of the long 
boat, on deck. One of them was probably 
eight years of age, and almost in a dying 
state, and had been pining away for the last 
six days. Two others, perhaps ten and twdve 
years of age, were sitting by him, one on 
either side, watchmg him with a ^preat deal 
of apparent sympathy* and administering to 
him, as they were able. They had procured 
a sinall quantity of oakum, with which they 
had made his bed, and a small piece of mus- 
lin for his pillow. They did not leave him 
night or day, and the sailors always foimd 
one of them awake. Through an interpret* 
er, I commended them Jor their kindness to 
the little sufierer, and promised to take them 
to live with me, and that they should bring 
with them their sick companion. I gave each 
of them a slip of paper with my name, di- 
recting them to keep them so that I might 
Imow them when they landed. 

The elder boys are brothers, and the 
younger was from the same tribe. 

During the night the little sick boy died, 
as did idso several others, and was thrown 
into the sea. When the brothers arrived 
near the beach, they plunged into the water 
(as all the captives were required to do) and 
washed themselves, but came out with the 
slips of paper clenched in their hands. One 
of these we have named John Wesley, the 
other, David A. Shepard, and have ukcn 
them to educate." 


ttflt AfllEMCASf PElWrtr MAGAZINE. 




Home, home well I remember 
Thee, thee, loTeliest home. 
Though, thoagh, though I may wander^ 
Far o'erthe natioo to roam, 
Yes, yes, ah, yes, 
I will remember my home. 

Home, hctme, thou art more lovely. 
When* when, when I'm away. 

Yet, yet, yet I will bless thee> 
Ajid for thy happiness pray. 
Yes, yes, ice. 

Home, home, though thott an lowly. 
And though humble thy fare, 

Still, still, stiU I will love thee. 
For all thy kindness and care. 
Yes, yes, &c. 

Hbme, home, pleasant thy mem'ry, 
i Sweet, «weet, sweet happy home. 
Where, where, where in my faney, 
I in my infancy roam, 
Yes, yes, &c 

Home, home, others may praise thee, 

I, I, I love thee more, 
Thouffh, though, years haverolPd by me, 
Aad ( thy memory deplore. 
Yes, yes, dus. . 

Bangor Whtg* 

■ « ■ i i 



Ay ! ask the deathless s^ars, my boy. 

The secret of their power 
To chain the soul in silent awe. 

At evening's lonely hour ! 
For since the Eastern magi watched 

On Chaldea's midnight plain, 
Full many a Pagan priest and seer 

Have asked them, all in vain ! 

Far up thev roll their silent course, 

With cafm and steady light. 
Still looking on the deeds of earth, 

Lone watchers of the night ! 
They saw Assyria's rise and lall— » 

They saw the might of Rome — 
And these are fled, yet still the starr 

Watch from their deathless home ! 

And ages more shall pass away. 

And empires come and go. 
Yet still the stars shall keep their watch. 

With faces wan with woe. 
ril tell thee, child, what subtle power. 

Is theirs, as thus they roll- 
It is the voice of God, through them. 

That whispers to thy soulT 

QrahanCi Mag. 

(A friend has kindly procured for us the fol- 
lowing well-timed information.) 


No. 1. 25 medium size clams cut in pieces. 
. No; 3. 2 quarts of water and the jaiee of 

the clams. 
No. 3. 1 onion chopped fine. 
No. 4. A little salt and pepper according to 

No. Sc 2 spooiifirt» of wheat flower rubbed 

up with a lump of butter the size 

of a hickory nut. 
No; 6. 1 pint of milk weH beaten with the 

yolks of four eggs. 

The materials, Nos. 1 to 4, being thickened 
with No. 5, are to be set to boil for ten or 
twelve minutes, no longer, . Then, being 
taken from the fire, the milk and yolks (No. 
6) are to be gradually stirred iiH and the 
soup is ready for the palate of the more fas- 
tidious epicure. Mr. Howell, ot ■ " L. I. 
has made his house deservedly celebrated for 
furnishing his guests with a dish so. ddi- 

To Our ^ Sttbscribbbs. — Those who wish 
to receive the second vdume, and have not 
paid Ibr it, are requested to send $1 without 
further delay through the Post-mastei^ or by 
mail, without paying postage. 

Those who wish to withdraw their names, 
are requested to return thv last number re- 
ceived, with the name and addresa* it will 
be Stopped forthwith* 

' To ALL OUR SUB8CR1BBB8.— If ^ch wttl 

procure one new subscriber, it- will be ren- 
dering an important ^ervice to a new pub- 
lication, designed* for extensive and lasting 







With numerous Engravings. 

fidltect by Theodore Dwight, Jr« 

It pablitked weekly, at the oAoe of the New Tofk 
Express, No. 112 Broadway, at 3 centi a number, (IS 
pa^t larfe octaTo,) or, to snbsciibeit reoeivloff i* oy 
mail, and pavhigr in advance, ^1 a year. 

6 sets for $5. 

Back nombers oan be tnpplied. 

Poatmastera are authorised to remit aiOMy. 

Enclote a One DoUar Bill, without payment of pot* 
tage, and the work will be seat for the year. 

** The inlbrmation cootaioed in this woric iewmtli 
more than slIver.*'^iV. y. Q&MrMr. 
< ** It should be in every fimnty in the ooottiy.**— 
N. y. lUipUtt RecorJtr. 

The New York Methodist Advocate speaks of it in 
similar terms. Also many other papers. 

Editors ot newspapers publishing this ad* 
veriisement foi 3 months, wiU be fomiahed 
with the work for one year. 





Vol. II. New Yonii, Satubdat, Mabcii 28. 1 


\ Bom nt Belluno, Sepi. l8th, 1765: and i gallon of Apostolic Tuilalion, of the Oon- 

j mnud Mauro CappeilaTi. A Benedictine i sitHoria' ConKregatton, and of the Rontan 

\ mouk. Elected Pope, Feb. 2d., 1831. i and (Tnivcrsal Inquisition. 

} Ooimed, Feb. «th. Head of tbe Congre- I 




■^ «■ ^ < I »■ »' 


This mant a cootempomry of us all, and 
one who has exerted tnuch Inilitenoe in 
our own country^ is now fast approaching 
the wkA oi hk life ; and therefore, on seve- 
ral aceounts, claims our attention to his ca- 
reer. It is not his o\vb abiliiies, however, 
or his character or deeds, that invite us to 
turn our minds to him, but chiefly the na- 
ture and operations* the posiiiori and pros 
pects of that system of which he is nomi- 
nally the head, and which may ttot long 
survive him. These subjects are copious: 
but, as we have repeatedly adverted to 
them, in several different aspects, we will 
refer our readers to the first volume of this 
magazine for a large amount of information 
illustrating the superstitions and atrocities 
of Rome, and some of her evil influences 
on learning, liberty and religion ; on man, in 
the family, the village, the city and the na- 
tion ; on our youth, by false education ; on 
our country, by assailing the Bible— our 

The present pope, after an uncommonly 
long reign, is probably near his death, be* 
ing said to be the victim of a cancer. Pro- 
bably we will soon hear of his departurct 
and the election of his successor, with a 
repetition of those ceremonies, in which a 
pope is actually worshipped, and not by 
his subjects alone, but by several nations 
also, through their ambassadors. 

Here, then, is the most arrogant man on 
earth, who claims to be the representative, 
the Vicegerent of God, and to have all 
power over the destiny, minds and con- 
sciences of his fellow-creatures. He is the 
head of an army of priests, monks, nunsi, 
Jesuits and spies, informers and persecu. 
tors, scattered in all countries on the face 
of the earth, each sent on a special mission, 
and required to perform special parts of 
one great plan. Every one has a part to 
act, which .is assigned to him in particular ; 
he goes out prepared by a careful training, 
fnd IS himself noted, watched, directed 
and controlled, and required to report pro. 
grees at regular intervals. 

The syMem is astonishingly complex, 
and exceedingly difficult for an American 
to comprehend. We * find, indeed, great 
difficulty in believing in its general nature 
and objects ; because its principles, as well 
as its desigt)s, are opposed to everything 
within our practical observation and expe- 
rience, in the whole course of our educa- 
tion under our parental roof. Even men 
not particularly ardent in their admiration 
of our own Protestant principles and insti. 
tuttims, cannot easily be brought to think 
that a S3rstem is in existence, regularly or- 
ganized and in operation, for the express 
purpose of misleading mankind in the ma- 
zes of false doctrine, and constraining and 
terrifying them by force, in order to render 
tliem nK>ralIy and intellectually the slaves 
of their oppressors, and aids in enslaving 

This old man now stands the last in 
the list of a long dynasty of kings,, who 
have differed from meet other lines of rulers, 
in receiving their rank and power neither 
from inheritance, nor from the choice of 
their people, as well as in uniting supreme 
spiritual authority with temporal. This 
man, like his predecessors, pretends to be 
the delegate — the vicegerent of God, 
although, like most of them, he has led a 
notoriously profligate life, indulging in 
shameful vices, which would have put him 
out of American society, and int^ an Ameri- 
can penitentiary. He is still habitually an 
intemperate drinker, and so unrighteous 
and oppressive a r4iler, that his subjects are 
not only the most unhappy in Europe, but 
those classes of them who have any intel- 
ligence have made lieveral daring attempts 
to destroy his throne forever, and to estab- 
lish a government on better principles. 

This is the man, who, in 1831, was 
threatened with such an overthrow* by 
5000 men on their march for Rome, and 
5000 more assembled in Corsica to coope- 
rate with them ; and who was saved only 
by the ships of Austria. And this in the 
man who broke the capitulation made wuh 
soma of his opponents by his own repre- 




aentatives, ti^od sacrificed men whom- he had 
Mlenmly promised to set free* 

This is the only roooarch on earth whose 
officers are all priests, and have cut off 
! every tie of connection with the people 
they govern, by living unmarried, renoun* 
\ ckig their parents and relations, and chang- 
ing their names ; at d are bound to 
their chief and to each other by awful 
oaths, by peculiar observances and cos- 
tumes, and by every affinity of self-interest 
He pretends to offer even to the Americans, 
a better system of education, government 
uA religion than that which we possess ; 
\ while, in his own petty domain, he teaches 
only falsehood and ignorance, enforces 
gross superstition and idolatry with a rod of 
iroD, and sends into prison or exile every 
man who dares to sigh for liberty or iustice. 
What monstrous absurdities do we daily 
hear! What preposterous contradictions, 
what Qoequalled paradoxes come from 
Rome I Bedlam itself never heard more 
! perfect folly, stupidity or madness, than that 
) which echoes from the Seven Hills. The 
*. successor of Peter, the poor Fisherman of 
■ Gallilee, who « left all *' to follow a master 
whose kingdom was <*not of this world,'' 
; and m which he had not whece to lay his 
head," lives in a palace, and has his hun- 
dreds oi servants who do the same ; has 
thousands in money pouring in annually, 
which is intercepted by fiivorltes or paid to 
enditors and in wages to 6000 hired Swiss 
soldiers, to protect him from his own sub- 
jects ; who has Numerous large prisons, in 
which many of the best and most intelligent 
of the people are treated like felons of the 
vilest class; who employs the Jesuits, 
though they have been disbanded by his 
predeceasbrs ; who has denounced and pro* 
bibited in&nt-schools and railroads, and 
most ci the good books in the world, and 
who baa especially, and in the most delibe- 
I' rata and determined manner, forbidden all 
his subjeciSf in Europe, Asia, Africa, 
America and New Holland, to read, give 
%vsy, lend or sell a Bible, and loaded with 

all who so dO| above all 

those who shall dare to send one into Italy, 
^or to give one to an Italian. , 

I Such is the man whose portrait we this 
week present to our readers? Such is 
Gregory XVl.» the present pope, aad wa 
may safely venture to say, one of the very 
last f the popes. 

It is solemn to think, while looking at 
suoh a man, how the chronicles of his life 
and reign would sound, if given in the sim- 
ple language employed by the Hebrew his* 
torians, under the dictation of Gk>d. VLoxt 
dark the retrospect, how fearful the shadows 
of his coming doom! The mere truth, 
told in the fewest words, without magnify- 
ing, disguise or misrepresentation, would 
make out a picture of the most melancholy 
colors, a sentence of condemnation quite 
enough for any human being to endure.—* 
A glance would be cast back through that 
most appalling vista in the history of man, 
the long, bloody aad polluted line of papal 
kings, the leading traits of his own charac* 
ter would bo held up to view, separated 
from the false glare of the pomp of this 
world which surrounds him in Rome, and 
unconcealed by the apologising spirit of 
those Protestant writers, whose judgment 
has been weakened or perverted by false 
education, or the influence of ill-directed 

But, with the charactor and policy of 
Gregory, his conduct and his careeri we have 
not so much concern, except in those points, 
with which our own country is connected — 
and these, unhappily, are numerous. We 
said unhappily, because we bad our nrnkl 
upon the first consequences. The ultinoate 
results, there is much reason to believe, will 
be good, great and lasting, and redound to 
the benefit of America, Italy and the world. 
He is the first of the popes who ever under- 
took extensive and systematic operations 
against Protestant Anrierica ; and these have 
been carried on, with a determination, a 
boldness and a want of cautkm, which have 
done more than anjrthing else to lead our 
countrymen to observe and study the nature 
of the designs of Rome. 






(Concluded from Vol. IT., page 52.) 

The mono of iliis book was : " let the 
sorrowful sighing of the prisoners come be- 
fore thee." • 
Out narrative is now drawmgr to a close. 
Mr. Howard had intimated, m his work on 
Laiareltoe, that he was about agam to y\m 
those regions infected with the plague. He 
had witnessed the fatal effecta, and terrific 
nature of this scourge ; and, believing ihat 
very little was yet known of the manner m 
wMch it was propagated, he conceived that 
a patient and careful investigation of the 
subject, in those regions where it raged, might 
lead to important results. He, therefore, de- 
liberately and cheerfully made up his mind 
to undertake this distant and perilous enter- 
prize. He was fully impressed with the be- 
lietthat he would not live to return to his 
native land, and made all proper preparations 
accordingly. He made his will, leaving nu- 
merous legacies to his servants, tenants, poor 
neighbors and friends. He even had a marble 
tablet prepared, which he desired might be 
his only monument. Knowing that, according 
to custom, a funeral sermon would be preach- 
ed at his death, by his friend and pastor Mr. 
Smith, he gave that gentleman particular di- 
rections, not to make it a eulogy, and exacted 
a solemn promise from him, that he wouW 
not enter into any particulars of his life and 
actions. He also requested him to take for 
his text, the last verse of the 17lh Psalm, as 
being expressive of the prevailing desire of 
his heart : ** As for me, I will behold thy 
face in righteousness, I shall be satisfied when 
I awake with thy likeness." He spent seve- 
ral days in destroying all the letters and pa- 
pers in his possession, which might be of ust 
ui presenting to the public an account of his 
private afl'airs, so much did he shrink from 
notoriety. Happily, however, he could not 
lay his hands on all. Many interesting let- 
ters were in the possession of his correspond- 
ents, and were round to throw light on his 
valuable character, thus rendering his exam* 
pie doubly useful to posterity. When his 
old friend and pastor was expressing his con- 
cern at parting with him, from a persuasicPn 
that they would never meet again on earth, 
he cheerfully rephed: "We shall meet in 
Heaven ;" and, as he expected to die of the 
plague in Egypt, rather than elsewhere, he 
added ; •' The way to Heaven from Grand 
Cairo is as near as from London." He had 
intended to go alone ; but, at the urgent soli- 
citation of Thomasson, he was allowed to 
aocompanv him. Crossing over to Holland, 
he passed through Amsterdam, Hanover, 
Berlin, St. Petersburgh, &c , to Moscow, trom 
which place we have a letter containing the 
following: '* My medical acquaintance give 
me bat little hope of escaping the plague in 
Turkey ; but my spirits do not at all fail me; 

and, indeed, I do not look back, but would 
readily endure any hardship, and encounter 
any danger, to be an honor to my Christian 
profession." From Moscow, he passed 
through Russian 'l^ftrtary, to the shores of 
the Black Sea ; where a war with Turkey 
Itad occasioned the assembling of a larae 
military forces Amidst the suffering be 
here found, in the military and naval boapi- 
tals, the philanthropist had ample scope for 
the exercise of his benevolence, devoting all 
his powers and influence to the cause, re- 
gardless of the noisome state of the hospitals* 
and the malignant disorders which prevailed. 
These were the labt prisons and hospitals 
to which the angel-presence of Howard was 
to bring relief. 

And now, hut one more act of disinterest- 
ed benevolence remained for him to perform 
on earth ; and to this he fell a victim. A 
young lady, who resided twenty miles from 
the town of Cherson, where he was staying* j 
had taken the infection while on a visit to < 
that place; and the disorder assumed an < 
alarming appearance. Mr. Howard, having | 
acquired the reputation of a skillful physi- 
cian, by his successful treatment of patients 
in the hospitals, was earnestly requested to 
visit her. He accordingly made her two vis- 
its. A little time after, a letter was detpatch- 
ed to him from her family, urging him with- 
out loss of time to repeat his visit. The 
letter miscarried, and be did not receive it 
till eight days after it was written. As soon 
as he received it, he resolved to go imme- 
diately. The weather was cold, and the raio 
fell in torrents. No carriage could be readi- 
ly obtained ; and, rather than delay his visit, 
he mounted an old dray horse, and proceed- 
ed as fast as he could to the residence of the 
lady, whom he foun^ in a dying state. — 
The malignancy of her disorder rendered the 
atmosphere of the room very ofiensive ; and 
it was his belief, that he took the fever of 
her when be felt her pulse under the bed- 
clothes, which he did to avoid checking the 
perspiVation in which she then was. Tired, 
and exhausted, as he must have been, by his 
cold, wet ride of twenty miles, he was less 
able than usual to resist the infection. The 
young lady died the next day, and her medi- 
cal friend returned to Cherson. Two days 
afterwards he was unwell, and felt the symp- 
toms of a fever. He soon considered his 
ca^e as hopeless, believing he had the same 
disorder of which his female patient had died. 
His memorandums made during his illaess, 
show his resignation towthe will of God, and 
the perfect calmness with which he looked 
on death. *' Death has no terror for me," 
he said to a friend, "it is an event I always 
look to with cheerfulness, if not widi plea- 
sure ; and be assured the subject is more 
grateful to me than any other. I am weH 
aware that I have but a short time to live. 
My mode of life has rendered it impossible 
that I should get nd of this fever." He next 

^k ^ i ^ *m0t m * 






tpok^ of his funeral, and of the place where 
he wisheJ to e interred. 

^ There is a spot near the ?iUaj^ of Oau- 
phigny," said he* ** that would suit me nice* 
It. Yoq know it well ; for I have often said 
that I ahould like to oe haried there ; and 
let me heg of you, as you value an old 
iriend, not to snflfer any pomp to he used at 
By funeral, nor any monument, or monuments 
al inscriptioQ whatever to ipark where I am 
laid ; hat lay me quietly in the earth, place a 
sun-dial over my grave, and let me he for- 

A feeling of sadness comes over us as we 
read of the end which awaited this good 
man. AAer having spent much of his life 
away from his friends and home, in acts of 
benevolence towards his fellow beings, we 
find him, instead of returning thitner to 
spend the evening of his life, and finally to 
die amongst those he loved, departing for a 
disunt land, and with strange faces around 
him, lie down to his last rest. But, in hit 
own words — ^Heaven was as near to him 
there, as It was at London. While lying on 
his bed of death, he received a letter from a 
fnend in ESagland, who had seen his son, and 
thought his health improved. He was deep- 
ly affected by the intelligence, and charged 
Thomasaon to tell his son, if ever he was 
restored to reason, how much and bow fer- 
vently he had pra> ed lor his happiness, dur- 
ing his last illness. He handed the letter 
to his friend, Admiral Priestman, who stood 
by his bed-side ; and, when he had finished 
reading it, turned his languid head on his 
pillow, and said : " Is not this comfort for a 
dying father 1" 

Shortly after, on the mommg of the 
20th of January, 1790, he died, verifying 
the Scripture testimony — that ** the end of 
the good man is peace.** A long train of 
carriages and horsemen, and betweoi two and 
three thousand persons on foot, accompanied 
his body to the grave ; and over it was erect- 
ed, instead of s sun-dial, a small brick pyra- 
mid, which is still pointed out to travellers, 
as a memorial, or which even the rude 
mhalmants of Tartary are proud. The 
news of Howard's death was officially an- 
nounced in England as a public calamity; 
and his memory was honored in all possible 
ways. Funeral sermons were preached, 
statesmen, orators and poets paid their tribute 
to his worth, and the old project of the monu- 
ment was revived, sud a full length statue 
of the Philanthropist was erected in St, Paul's 

Bm it needs no monument to perpetuate 
tlie memory of such a man as Howard. For, 
wlisa the marble shall have crumbled into 
dhMt, he will live in the hearts of mankind, 
as one of the truest philanthropistt the world 
has ever produced. Nay, more ; can we not 
say, withoat at all detracting from what is 
dus to many others of the world's benefactors : 

He will live in the hearts of mankind, as 
The Philanthropist of the World ! 

G. A. C. 


(Continued Firoiii Vol. U., page 52.) 
Ceuseqiieuees of his Career. 

Near the close of tht French Revolution, and 
in the time of Bonaparte, a large portion o( 
Germany had been over-run, iojpoverished 
and in a great measure depopulated, by the 
armies which had for years had possession 
of the country ; and the inhabitants who re- 
mained were left in a state of the vtmost 
distress and want. To relieve them in some 
degree from their sufferings, lar^e sums of 
money were rai ed in Great Britain, and re- 
mitted to Germany, under the superintendence 
of committees appointed for the purpose, and 
distributed among the people. In order to 
show the effects of war, and the desdating 
calamities which it produces upon coimtries 
visited by it, we copy from the London Chris- 
tian Observer, several extracts from the re- 
ports of those comtnittees, which were pub- 
lished in 1815. 

'* Extract of a letter from the Magistrates 
at Weissenfels, dated March 8th., 1814. — 
'We have just been apprised by Messrs. 
Frege d& Co. that our town too has been 
named among the number of those that are 
to revive imder the ray of British beneficence, 
and we hasten to express to you the senti- 
ments of gratitude which this noble act of 
the British nation calls forth. Our town, 
indeed, has had its full share of the miseries 
entailed upon Saxony by the cruel mode of 
warfare adopted of late. The greatest part 
of its inhabitants have been plunged into beg- 
nry by the desolations of the last campaign. 
The noble gifi fromr a country that, like a 
protecting, angel, spreads its fostering wings 
over all Europe, and especially over unfortu* 
nate Germany, revives our drooping spirits, 
and gives us the hope of repairing our ruined 
prosperity, throu|;h the blessings of peace 
and the revival of industry. We receive the 
boon with emotions of gratitude not to be ex- 
pressed, and in its distribution shall religious- 
ly observe the laudable views and instructions 
of the donors. May the benefactors of our 
town, Tyhose memory will remain deeply en- 
graven in our hearts, and in those of our des- 
scendants, receive the most glorious rewards 
for their benevolent action.^*' 

'' Extract of a letter from Cbr. F. Ammoo, 
D. D., first chaplain to the Court ol Saxooy, 
dated Dresden, March, 12, 1814. 

'The kingdom of l^axony conuins between 
3 and* 40(10 eler|^men, who, generally speak- 
ing, distinguishing themselves by thar litera* 
ry attainments, their evangelical spirit, and 


< 118 



• Iheir lofmliy. The eampaiga of last ye«r 
hat almost mtiroly raiaed two-ihirds of 
this dasa. They were at the first greatly 
exhausted by almost coostaot and most o|^ 

gressive qqanarings of troops » and when, m 
eptember and October last, the theatre of 
the war was almost eatirelv confioed to Sax- 
ony, the detgymen (parish ministers) lost 
nearly e?erything which had been left ; their 
harvest was consumed, their stores de«rtroyed, 
their habitations pluadered, their hooks bamt, 
Iheir trees eat down and their fumiuire apoil- 
ed. Some worthy old men, who dared to re- 
sist the ill-treatment of their wives and 
danghtera, were killed, and others obliged to 
make their escape to the forests completely 
aiffip^. After the battle near iLeinsIc, a 
nervous fever rapidlv spread through tne vil- 
lages, which proved so destructive, that in 
many church-yards no room was left for the 
great number of corpaes ; deep holes were 
ong for them in bams and gardens. In some 
villages scarcdy an inhabitant was left ; and 
in the district of Dresden alone, 500 orphans 
are counted, in whose behalf the parish min- 
ister musomake an appeal to public charity. 
Tha peasant and the citizen may, perhaps, 
soon procure, in some degree, the means of 
their subsistence; but the unfortunate clergy. 
men are entirely impoverished, oppressed by 
debts, weighed down by grief and sorrow, 
and without prospect of income for several 
years to eome. No class of the sufferers 
seems more deserving of a share in British 
generosity than the Saxon clergy." 

Extxact of an appeal to the benevolent in 
behalf of suffering humanity in the principal- 
ity of Fulda, dated Frankfort 14th Dec., 1814. 

Thii appeal, after stating the exueme mis- 
try endured by the Provinces of Fulda, from 
the eontinual marching and quartering of 
troops for the last ten years, gives the follow- 
ing extract of the Prussian Camp paper, Na 
10, dated Frankfort on the Mayne, November 
9, 1813. 

<'No imagination is sufficiently lively to 
conceive the misery spread everywhere by 
the flying French army on their retreat. The 
nearer they approach the borders of Germany, 
the more furious their excesses, the more re- 
laxed their discipline. The consequences 
may be easily imagined. There is no need of 
a^ guide to fiiid the road from Leipsic to 
Frankfort. On both sides of this long road 
of blood ; all lies wildly mixed : broken car- 
riages; clothing of all kinds; feathers of 
ripped up beds ; fallen horses and dead sol- 
diers, defotmed by the torments of death.— 
Many lie there without a wound, having died 
a cruel death by fati|[ue and himger ; others^ 
bare been rode or dnven over. Most of the 
houses in the villages and suburbs on this 
Foad, have not only been en^rely plundered, 
h«t deprived of all their timber, and redaoed 
to shtUs. Ifany have been burnt down to 

the ground ; and the beautiful village Bntt- 
lar, on the Alster, is entirely in ashes. As 
late as -the 6ih of this month, the ruins U 
this village were yet smoking, and several 
Frenchmen lay half burnt Under the timbers. 
Its inhabitants, brought to bmaiy in a few 
hours, stand there with grief imprinted on 
their faces, and raise in despair their hands to 
Heaven. Already a whole month hAS dapsed 
since those days of terror, and yet no humao 
being, no domestic animal, no poultry, nay, 
not even a sparrow was to be met with ; only 
ravens in abundance^ feeding on corpses, were 
seen. Since then, some human beings, with 
the remainder of the cattle, have returned 
to their ruined dwellings, but both carrying 
within them the seeds of the most dreadfiu 
maladies. Many places in Fulda have since 
lost the tenth, nay, ihe seventh part of their 
population. Nothing remains but an appeal 
tor assistance to the benevolent. Fulda builds 
iu hopes thereon. In each place of some 
consequence there will easily somebody be 
found, who will undertake the trouble of ga- 
thering the benevolent contributions in Tiia 
district, and forwarding the same to the Privy 
Counsellor Baron of Bibra, in Fulda, one of 
the undersigned. They will in due time lay 
before the public their doeuments.** 

First report of the Lubec Central Commit- 
tee for the Exiles from Hamburgh, 28th of 
February, 18H. 

** By a publication at the head quarters of 
the Royal Swedish army at Kiel, of the 24th 
of december, 1813, Lubeck and Bremen were 
advised as places of refuge for the aged, the 
women and children, who, in consequence of 
the investment of Hamburgh by the French, 
were exiled. On that same day a committee 
was here appointed of two senators and six 
citizens, who were empowered to elect other 
assistants among benevolent Lubeckers and 
Hambur^hers residing here. The city being 
then, as It is still, much burdened witn quar- 
tering of soldiers in private houses, five 
buildings were taken; for each of which 
committees of msjpectors were appointed, 
mostly consisting ot two Lubeckers and one 
Hamburg her, under the superintendence of xhe 
general direction.. Three vidua Uinff or cook- 
ing houses wer^ established, whicJi furoiahed, 
siace the 3lst of December, 119,148 meals, 
and 20,285 loaves of 8 pounds each. A mure 
pressiiig want, but still more diflicult to ac- 
complish, is the clothing to preserve cleanli- 
ness and warmth. Many came in tatters, or 
had only one sfiirt for their backs, and during 
the intense cold, many had had no covering. 
- A clothing board was therefore instituted, 
with whom charitable females united. Hith- 
erto, the commission protsvred, at their ex- 
pense, 2318 shirta, 573 pairs of shoes and 
boou, 824 pairs of stocking, 300 frocks, »l 
petticoats, 233 coats, 253 doablela, 275 cn- 
vata, 94 aprons, 99 nightcaps, M) bed hoi- 
atera, 192 bed sheets,. For the many sick, a 
seiHurate house with €0 beds was fumishod. 









and opened on the 6th of January ^ and after- 
wards another with 40 beds. The number of 
nek still increasing, we are planning to 
bare a third hospital for 100 persons, as 
eTerything must be done to prerent infection 
from spreading. In th^ five general houses 
of relief^ 3914 persons have been receired. — 
For the exiles of the Hebrew nation, separate 
institutions were to be made, which their 
own fraternity undertook, being, however, re- 
membered in money by the general inspec- 
tion ; in which manner. 34 Jewish ftimiiies, 
consisting of 83 persons, hare been provided 

Eziract from the Second Report, dated 31st 

of Marcb, 1814. 

"The severe weather of February and March 
particularly affected our exiles, mostly con- 
sisting of old people and young children.— 
Having alreaay, by want and cares, by suf- 
fering and anxieties, their bodies debilitated, 
they were more susceptible of nervous com- 
plamts, ai^inst which all medical effor4s 
proved fnuiless. In the beginning of Febru- 
ary we had more sick than healthy in the 
general receptacles, and the mortality be- 
came every day greater. To prevent infec- 
tion, other measures were required, especially 
that of separating all the sick from the 
healthy. Besides the three hospitals with 
300 beds, another was provided with 250 
beds. For ihe convalescents a separate house 
was established. Victualling and clothing 
were distributed according to medical direc- 
tions. In February many more Hamburgh ers 
arrived from Altona, especially Jews. Since 
the begbning^ of this year, the following 
ntmiber of exiles have been provided for : — 
In the general houses, 2881 persons ; in pri- 
vate houses, 1197; and of tne Hebrew per- 
suasion, 312—4390. 

In this account are not included a great 
number of such, who, afier a short stay, were 
provided with the necessary clothes and tra- 
velling expenses to proceed further. The 
mortality has been, to the end of March, 673. 
Our only wish remains, that we may be ena- 
bled to continue our help for the most pressing 
wants till that much wished for period, when 
our guests mav return in safety to their libe- 
rated city." 

Translatiun of a letter, dated, Markranstadt, 

near Leipsic, 12ih of March. 16U. 

*' Among the places whteft have suffered 
SMst by the events of the war, our town in- 
dispntably may be numbered foremost. In 
the course of the last year, its inhabitants 
have lost all their homed cattle, pigs, geese 
and fowls, the entire produce of last harvest, 
their stock of fuel, intended for- the winter, 
and by the pillage on the 19th and 20th of 
Oetober, all their clothes linen and ready 

*«The hoasest the implements, the furniture, 
gates and doors, were either burnt, destroyed 
or dilapidated. The houses were more or 
J«8 rMveed to ashes ; and thus, alaa I all 

went to ruin ; consequently we remain witli- 
out bread, without wood, without cattle, 
without seed-corn, without implements of 
husbandry* and without money to supply these 

The infectious fever, moreover, has deprived 
a considerable number of families of their 
fathers and supporters ; and not only grown 
up persons, but very many fatherless and mo- 
therless orphans are witnout food, and the 
general misery which presses upon all alike, j 
prevents their being provided for here, so that 
they are reduced to the necessity of begging 
their bread in the country. 

(To he continuedn) 

REsoifltcES OF Massachuatts. In industry 
and frugality no State in the Union stands b^ 
fore old Massachusetts. The perfectly syste- 
matic manner in which business is there car- 
ried on, the division of labor which prevails 
in all branches of manufacturing industry, 
and the thousand little ' notions * which are 
annually produced* swell the product of her 
industry to an almost incredible amount By 
returns from the assessors of several cities 
and towns in that State, made to the Secre- 
tary of the Commonwealth during the past 
year, it appears that the agricultural produeis 
of the State for the year wer^ estimated at 
923,'i00,000; the whale, cod and mackerel 
fisheries, at $11,900,000, and the manufactur- 
ing products at 990,000,000 — making a grand 
total of il24,t35,264, (one hundred and 
twenty-four millions, seven hundred asd thk- 
ty-five thousand, two htmdred and sixty-four 

lu tne ninety millions of manufacturing 
products are included the ships built during 
the year. 

Massachusetts, however, is not only a great 
producing but a great consuming State. We 
have seen an estimate of the articles produced 
in other States and consumed in that State, 
amounting to some 942,000,000 ; showing the 
importance of that Commoaweallii. ts a 
producing State. Such industry not only aug- 
ments the wealth of the State, but increases 
the resources of the nation.— Aaft<m«/ Intel" 

English Testimont of Auerici.— u The 
Pilgrim Spirit has not fled. America ia n€|w 
strong in moral powei, and as looj; as she 
breathes the spirit of the religion of^the Pil- 
grims, we hope will continue, not only for the 
United States, but for Christendom and the 
world. In the great effort to co^^pass and 
subjugate the world to the cross, she will 
press into every field of action. Her Eagle 
stands with unfolded pinions, readv to take 
her flight to the ends of the earin, and in 
their upward and onward passsage to scatter 
Uesssings, richer and more precious than 
drops from the wings of the morning. — May 
those pinions never be ' (bided till the world, 
renovated and purified, shall repose beneath 
the sun of eternal love."— -Xroiu/. CArts. Exam. 




{ContiHued ftom. -pagt 88, Yol. 2.) 

Afier iJie cockcliafet lias wept from the 
ground, in iu last aimge, as it ia Iktc r^fc 
MDt<!d, that is, ae one of ihe colenptera. or 
beetlei, it spends eight or nine days in a aiaie 
of ioMtirily upon a iree. Ai nigbi, howerer, 
lika maDr other iosecti, it leares i(s retreat, 
and flin about in search oJ food. Then it 
i» tiiat il commilsiu ranges, which are sorae- 
tiraes exceediagly desiructiTe. Fortunately, 
they have but a shon time allolled ibem in 
thia state : f« ibey die at ihe end of eigbl or 
nine days, as the English naiaralists assure 
Ha, who hare bad much reason to study the 
habiu of an insect so injurious to tJie l^ttmera 
in their country. 

The female, a day or two before her death, 
digs a hole in the earil. about eighteen inch. 
•a deep ; and after depositing her e^a io ii, 
lakea her last flight to some tree, wheie she 
languishes a few houra and dies. 

"It appears from a paper printed in the 
Philosophical Transacifon. for \m. that 
these ioBccti committed great rmTasea in oar- 
Ucular districts in Ireland. ' These insecTB,' 
WT» Mr. Molmeui, ' were first noticed ia ibis 
kingdom in 16B8. They appeared on the 
Bouiheast coast of Galway, brought ihiiher 
by a southwest wind, one of the most common 
I raigbi almost say trade winds of this coun- 
irf . From hence ihpy ppnetrated into the in- 
[and parts towards Headfiwd, about ten miles 
north ol the town of Galway. Here and 
there m the adjacent country, multiiudes of 
thetn appearad amoog the trees and hedges 
in the dai-tiine, hanging hy the boughs io 
daslers, Ilka iha bees when they swarm. In 
thfa peaiure tbcr continued, with little 

motion, during ihe heat of the sUn i but to ■, 
wards evening or sunse' ibey wuuld all dis- > 
perse or lly about, with a sirange humming f 
noise, )jitc ihe beating of dislant drums, and / 
in such rast numbers, that ihcy darkened ihe t 
air Cur (be space of two or three square miles. X 
Tersons travelling on the rnad^, or abroad in } 
the (ieiita, found il very uneasy to make ' 
Ibeir wa}' through Ibem, ibey would to beat k 
and knock Uienisplves Bj^ainst their faces in > 
ibeir fliglit, and wUh such force as lu maka ( 
(be place smart, and loare a mart behind | 
them. In a thort lime after [heir coming, i 
ihey had so entirely eaten up and desiroyed ( 
all the leaves of the Irees tor some miles > 
, around, Ibai the whole couu try. though in the ) 
middle of summer, was lei) as bars as in the K 
d«pth of winter ; and ihe noise Ihey made, in ) 
gnawing the leaves, made a sound much re> ( 
sembling the sawing of (itnber. They also J 
came into tiia gardens, and destroved the \ 
buds, blossoms and leaves of all ihe fruit \ 
trees, so that they were left perfectly naked; \ 
nay, many that were more delioate than ibe \ 
rest, lost tljeir sap as well as leaves, and \ 
qniie withered away, so iliai ihey never re- ) 
covered again. Tiieir multitudes spread so i 
exceedingly, that ihey infested houtea, and \ 
became exceedingly offensive and trouble- \ 
Bonte. Their numerous yi>u<)g) hatched from } 
the e(ra;s which they bad lodged under grouad, S 
near t^ surface of the earth, did sliJl more \ 
barm in ilielr close reiireaaeot [ban all ihe ' 
flying Bwvins of ibeir parents bad done 
abroad ; for this deeiructive brooj, lying un- 
der ground, ate up thn roots of com and grass, < 
and thus consumed the support both </ man \ 
and beast. This plague waa happily cheeked \ 
several ways. High winds and wel mittlag ' 
weather destroyed manr millions of ibem in ! 
adav. The swine and poultry would ficd i 
and fatten on lhem.'\ 



i To thoM who lore a ninl walk, and find. 

rin rat woodland raueau, the «DJormenl 

} vbieh the sotiind« of aature is lo well calcu- 

laied lo gir« to a reflecting mind, ibe o[>eniDg 

J of (pring baa noany pleasing aniicipaiioDs 

' to offer. A.ia<»g ibeae the prospect of the 

j tfuif ranun of the birds and the flowers is 

ibecUef; and it im difficult to do full justice 

in words, to the ehatm which they bring to 

a peraon of genaine tast«, refined by refleo- 

ijoo, alighteiied arid enlarged bj eeience, 

•addireeied by practical piety. 

The feaibered risitanta of our Gelds and 
groTct, one which often claim* our aiien- 
lioD is that which is represented in oar priol, 
iboagh not with the eiactness which we 
eoold desire. 

Th« Knig-fiaher is a anisll and remarkably 
silent bird, and spends his time, from choice, 
in pctfect peace and eolilode, on the borders 
oux (Uesima. He is uaaally found sitting 
Bouonleas upoD the twig of some dead 
. bfanch over the water, clotetyobseTTbg what 
wet below; and now and then, without 
nraae m preparation, tnabes a plunge at some 
aoMll fiah, itflen ineffeeuially, but apparently 
wilboiit TcxaiioB or diacootagement. 

Mnntbvrlcaa inaianaes might be srodiiced 
of credulity (sayi BuBon, of the English King- 
fish^ raepecimg this bird. It it the Dttleroo of 
tbe anciait ikatnraltata, and was fabled to 
boUdiUnaston the wavea, during the most 
tnaqoil teaMna; and hence the poets have, 

in ail ages, tised the term halcyon days, 

denote a state of peace and felicity. The S 

ticiionB, which originated in pagan ignorance, < 

have been seriously adopted by Ambrose, < 

who tells us will) Kupersiiiious simplicity, J 
that ProTidence, to manifest his kindiii 
grants a perfect exemption from storms, 

ring the period that this bird requites to hatch , 

her young. ( 

At this season of the year, one of the moat « 

appropriate and pleasing subjecia lo which J 

nature invites our attention, i* j 

The Migration of Birds. ! 

We ahalL therefore inirodnce here ■ few ! 

temarks relating to it, from two or three j 

works on Natural Hiiiory, after urging out J 

readers to note down thedaies when they flrai < 

observe birds and inaecis of diffennt apecicB. < 

and to communicate their memoranda tu J 

some good-natured editor of their acquaint- ( 

aace. , 

" Hie migration of bird* is a subject 

wbkh comparatively lew observations have ' 

yet been made. Even Ifae precise perioda d ' 

their appearance and diaappearBDce in differ* , 

eni parts of Europe have not been Doled wiih i 

the necessary degree of atteniion ; aod until ' 
petsoDB properly i]ualilied shall underlabe the 
task, we must remain contented with vague 
notices and unfounded conjectures. The mi- 
graiion of Rshes, which is an ennally won- 
derful, if not equally interesting phenomenon, 
is, in a ^rent neaniie, placed beyond onr in- 
vestigation : but thai of birds, being observa- 




ciently acquainted with the species, might be 
illustrated by simultaneous exertions made at 
different stations along the coasts and in the 

The bluebird of America seems, toiiave a 
power of continuous Aiffht almost equal to 
that of the swallow, and among the mos^ in« 
teresting of established facts on the subject 
of migration is that which makes it necessary 
that this bird should pass at least six hun- 
dred miles over the sea. Wilson says ** No- 
thing is more common in PenosylTania than 
to see large flocks of these birds, in spring 
and fall, passing at considerable heights in 
the air, from the south in the former, and 
from the north in the latter season. The 
Bermudas are said to lie six hundred miles 
from the nearest part of the continent. This 
seems an extraordinary flight lor so small a 
bird ; hot it is a fact that it is performed. If 
we suppose the bluebird to fly only at the 
rate of a mile a minute, wliich is less than I 
have actually ascertained ihem to do over 
land, ten or twelve hours would be sufficient 
to accomplish the journey." 

The periodical migration of tbegaanet aP* 
fords an instance of a mixed nature. That 
bird arrives -eaxly in springt and is located in 
lour or five spots along the British coasts, of 
which may be mentioned the Bass Rock, 
Ailsa Craig and St. Kilda. In autumn the 
gannets (eave their breeding places, and are 
seen along the coast of England and in the 
Channel. In mild winters some individuals 
often remain, and even the whole flock has 
been known to winter In their summer resi- 
dence. Even when they all leave the breed- 
uig^ places,' many individuals do not extend 
iheir aniuial m'igraiion bevood the south- 
em coast of England, but where the exueme 
point of the range may be, has not yet been 

In all these cases the distribution of food 
seems to be the principal cause of the move- 
■laots of the birds; but in other cases it is 
clear that the rigour of the winter also acts 
as an excitmg cause ; yet it is doubtful whe- 
ther edd atooe be sufficient to drive birds 
AlMn theit northern batmis. Fiddfares a»d 
redwings, no doubt, laave the northern 
parts of Europe at the end of autumn, be- 
cause at that period the ground begins to 
be covered with snow, so that they are un- 
able any longer to procure food ; but they 
merely shift, so as to place themselves on the 
> limits of the storm, thair object being appa- 
rently more to obtain the necessary supplies 
than to evade the cold. In mild and open 
winters they remain until late in spring ; 
whereas, after snow has continued several 
weeks on the groun^, it is seldom that any 
are to be seen, As to swallows, it is evident 
that the same cause operates most powerfully 
on them, because, as we have seen, they are 
capable of bearing a^ much cold as other 
fttaall birds. 

How far the migrations of hirds may ex* 
tf])4^ b^s not| we believe, been yet Mttled in 

any one instance with a satisfactory degree 
of precision. In the beginning of Apjil the 
stork arrives in small flocxs in Holland, where 
it is sure to meet with a hospitable reception, 
and where it returns year after year to the 
same chimnev-top. In the be^nnning of Au- 
gust, when tne young are fully figged, it 
prepares for its departure, multitudes assem- 
bling from the surrounding districts, and 
chattering with their bills, as if in mutual 
congratulation. At length, on the appointed 
night, ihe whole band mount into the higher 
regions of the air, and pursue their south- 
ward course, until thev alight among the 
marshes of northern Ainca, and especially 
E^pt. where they have been seen in the 

On the subject of the migration of storks 
we may. quote the following anecdote, which 
appeared in several public journals : 

"Last year (1833) a Polish gentleman 
having caught a stork upon his estate near 
Lemburgh, put round its neck an iron collar 
with this inscription, < Hssc ciconia ex Polo- 
nia,* (this stork comes from Poland,) and set 
it at liberty. This year the bird returned to 
the same spot, and was again caught by the 
same person. It had acquired a new collar 
of gold, with the inscription, ' India cuni do- 
nis remiitit ciconiam Polonis^,' (India sends 
back the stork to the Poles with gifis.^ The 
gentleman, after having shown the inscrip- 
tion, to his neighbors, again set the bird at 
liberty.'' It is worthy of remark, that the 
stork emigrates on the approach of winter, 
even when circumstances of food or climate 
cannot operate, or can operate bui faintiv in 
inducing it to do sa Thus,' at Bagdad, 
which enjoys an extremely mild winter, and 
where even a slight degreee of frost is not 
usual, the stork regularly leaves the {dace 
against the approach of that season. 

In like manner the quail, which in spring 
is difi'used over all the temperate regions of 
Europe* is known to betake itself, in autonm, 
to the coasts of Africa, and to penetrate into 
Arabia and Persia. Notwithstanding the 
smallness uf their wings, they cross the Med- 
iterranean: they waix whole weeks for a 
favorable wind, repoeine on every sniall isle: 
hence they are taken by thousands on the 
Ionian isles and the coast of Asia. Should 
the wM change rapidly, great numbers of 
them perish in theses. Swallows have been 
seen crossing the Mediterranean in' autumn 
towards the African shores, but where their 
voyage terminates is yet unknown. 

It is remarkable that all migratory birds, 
when detaued ia captivity, manifest great 
agitation when the period of tkeir raigtatian 
arrives, insomuch that some of them, the 
quail in particular, oecasioaaily kill them- 
selves through their effbrU to escape. This 
agitation is always greatest at night, proving, 
together with geneial observation, that 
birds generally cmmnenea their flight at that 










I hare been in the habit during a great 
many years, of considering the uses of the 
Babbatb, and of observing its abuses. The 
abases are chiefly manifested in labor and 
dissipation. The use, medically speakin ;, 
is that of a day of rest. Tn a theological 
sense, it is a holy rest, providing for the in- 
troduction of new and sublimer ideas into 
the mind of man, preparing him for his fu- 
ture state. As a day of rest, I view it as a 
day of compensation for the inadequate res- 
torative power of the body under continued 
lahor and excitement. A physician always 
has respect to the preservation of the re- 
storative power, because, if once this be 
lost, his healing office is at an end. If I 
show you, from the physiological view of 
the question, that there are provisions in the 
law of nature which correspond with the 
divine commaiidment, you will see from the 
analogy that '' the Sabbath was made ibr 
man'' as a necessary appointment. 

A physician is anxious to preserve the 
balance of circulation, as necessary to the 
restorative power of the body. The ordi- 
nary exertions of man run down the circu- 
lation every day of his life ; aqd the first 
general law of nature by which God (who 
is not only the fi^iver but also the preserver 
and sustamer of life) prevents man destroy- 
ing himself, is the alternating of day with 
night, that repose may succeed action. But, 
although the night apparently equalizes the 
eircalation well, yet, it does not sufficient- 
ly restore its balance for the attainment of 
a long life. Hence, one day in seven, by 
the bounty of Providencci is thrown in as a 
day of compensation, to perfect, by its re- 
pose, the animal system. You may easily 
ddenniiie this questioot as a matter of fact 
by trying it on beasts of burden. Take 
that fine animal, the horse, and work him 
to the full extent of his powers every day 
in the week, or give him rest one day in 
seren, and you will soon perceive, by ihe 
superior vigor with which he performs his 
functions on the other six days, that this is 
necessary to his well-being. Man posses- 
siDg a superior nature, is borne along by 
Ihe very vigor of his mind, po that the in- 
)ury of continual diurnal exertion and ex- 
citement on his animal system is not so im* 
mediately apparent as it is in the brute ; 
bat in the looff run he breaks down more 
suddenly ; it aoridges the length of life and 
the vigor of his old age, which, (as to mere 
Minuu Pfver) o«f ht to be the objeot of his 
preaenratioD. I contidtr, thcreioie, that in 

the bountiful provision of Providence for 
the preservation of human life, the sab- 
batical appointment is not, as it has been 
theologically viewed, simply a precept par- 
taking of the nature of a political institution, 
but it is to be numbered amongst the natural 
duties if the preservation of life be admitted 
to be a duty, and the prenflture destruction 
of it a suicidal act 

This is said simply as a physiciant and 
wuhout reference at all to the theological 
question ; but if you consider further the 
proper efieot of real Christianity — namely, 
peace of mind, confiding trust m Qod and 
good will to man — you will perceive in this 
source of renewed vigor to the mind, and 
through the mind to the body, an additional 
spring of life imparted from bis higher use 
of the Sabbath as a holy day. 

De. F^i^ 

Horses toiihout Blinders. — From some 
experience in horses, 1 should think it best 
not to trust a horse at once that has been 
accustomed to blinders, as he would be apt 
to take fright if at all skittish : but for colts 
I would prefer that they should see ; and, 
once so broken to the harness, no blinders 
would ever be required. 

A considerable number of horses are apt 
to be scared when they see the top of a car- 
riage in motion, as if it were about to fall 
upon them : and this occurs only in thoae 
horses used to blinders. If the bridle has 
been lengthened in the headstall for a 
larger horse, when the rein is pulled it 
opens so that he is enabled to see through 
under it, and is very apt to run away. 

There is also an advantage that I do not 
recollect to have seen mentioned. In de- 
cending a pebbly or stony hill, a horse 
should be enabled to see where to place his 
hind feet, especially if loaded with much 
weight. Most of the blinders used forbid 
this, as they fall below, as well as project 
' above, the eye. 

Very many horses have been permanent- 
ly injured by placing their feet upon round 
or loose stones hi going down hilL A sad- 
dle horse never or seldom does thk, and 
they would if their eyes were uncovered, 
be as careful in harness as out of it. — 
' Selected* 


The fo1l6wing letter appears in the Ply- 
mouth Memorial, where it is introduced by 
a note from Mr. Joseph Cushman, contain- 
ing the following paragraph :— 
. It is proposed to erect a Mocnunent 





on some suitable spot, to the memory of Ro- 
bert Cushimn, the Pilgrim, and one also by 
the grave of Elder Thomas Cushman, to 
his memory, and that of hia wife Mary Al. 
lerton Gushman, who died in 1698, the last 
survivor of those who came in the May- 
flower, in 1620. We propose to do this by 
oontribations from the descendants of '< our 
common ancestors.'' 

The author of the letter below, we may 
remark, is a native of our own State, now 
an eloquent and acceptable minister in Bos- 
ton, but whose early life was spent in 
Brunswick, in this county. We have many 
others of the name. 

Boston, Feb. 24ih, 1846. 

To Joseph Gushman, Esq. 
My dear Namesake: 

I rejoice that you have undertaken to 
call the attention of the descendants of our 
common ancestor to the debt which as citi- 
zens of this countrjs they owe to his memo- 
ry ; and that you propose to erect, by means 
of a contribution from them all, so far as 
they can be reached, a monument on the 
spot near the Plymouth Rock where he de- 
livered his memorable discourse to his 
brother Pilgrims before his departure; and 
one also on that where ** lyeth ye body of 
that precious servant of God," his son whose 
place of rest is the only one, I believe of tha 
first pilgrim emigrants, which is certainly 

We sometimes speak of '^ the caprices 
of fortune:" I have often thought how 
strange and how unjutl^ sometimes, are the 
accidents of fame. How strange, how pas- 
sing strange that the man who was the chief 
instrument in the first settlement of New 
England — as is clear from his being the 
iminrmlY appointed agent of the Pilgrims 
to the Virgmia Company and to tl>e King, 
whoever else was associated with him in 
the different missions ; — the man whom 
Governor Bradford himself his colleague 
in the second mission, calls his ** own right 
hand f the i^an who first vindicated the 
enterprise to the world through the Press, 
and made the first public appeal that was 
ever made to the Protestant Uhristiaus of 
England in behalf of the religious interests 
of the Aborigines of America; the man 
who, to save the colony from %he perils to 
which he saw it ex]K)sed, wrote and de- 
livered, though neither Minister nor Elder, 
the first sermon ever published from a New 
England man, and the first ever written on 
New England soil ; the man whose devo. 
tioQ to his *' loving friends the Adventurers," 

led him, after securing with great difficulty 
the Mayflower and a skiifuf pilot for her, 
who had beei^ on the American coast, to 
take his own passage in the ric^etty Speed- 
well ; and after her third failure, to disem- 
bark to look afler and share the fate of those 
who must be left behind ; and, afler he had 
crossed the ocean, to return and live and 
die not only " separate from his brethren," 
but separate from his only son, that he 
might watch over their interests near a 
jealous and intolerant throne; — that this 
man, I say, should have been overlooked by 
seven generations, while scarcely a fourth- 
rate politician has risen to bluster about 
" liberty" and " glory of America," whose 
name has not been honored and pei^petuated 
as the a})pcliation of some portion of its ter- 
ritory ; is, I confess, a painful comment on 
the •* gravitude of Repuolics," and the jus- 
tice of posterity. While Garver and Brad- 
ford — successively his associates in negoci- 
ation, together with Standish and Winsiow, 
and Hopkins, and I know not how many 
other of the first Pilgrims in humble life, 
have been remembered and honored in the 
names of towns ; — while the very pilot the 
benefit of whose skill he surrendered has 
been immortalized in one of our islands; 
while even the loafer Billington who "slip- 
ped in*' among the Pilgrims at Southampton 
and *' was of no benefit to the colony, has 
been saved from merited oblivion by " Bil- 
lington Sea;" and while Geography and 
History have been vieing with each other, 
and Painting has violated the truth* in her 
eagerness to render homage to the fathers 
of the nation ; the name of CWAma»— a 
name to which New England and the coun- 
try owe more, if we speak of generative in- 
fluence, than almost any other on the page 
of American history — ^is still unborne by any 
country, town, island or mountain, or lake, 
or river, or rill in America. 

All this is to be attributed to what I have 
called one of the accidents of fame: the in- 
justice of which, however, is the more grie- 
vous, inasmuch as the very acts — the stay- 
ing behind to take care of those who had 
been lefV^and his return to and continuance 
in England as the Argus of the colony — 
which enhanced his title to grateful remem- 
brance, were the cause of his being thus 
forgotten by posterity. But he, no doubt, 
if cognizant of earth's afiairs, is better satis- 

* I allude to the Nau'onal Picture at Wash- 
iugtoo ; which places Carver among its ' 
fiffures of the Pilgrims at the embarcaUon in 
Holland, when, in fact, be was waiting their 
arrival at Southampton. 




fied that it should be so than you and I are. 
*^ I seek no name," said he, '< though the 
Wiemory of this action shall never die,^^ 

I hope it may suffice^ however, that past 
generations have shown such tender regard 
to his modesty : and that, by a union of all 
who know his blood to be overflowing in 
their veins, a monument at least, standing 
where the ashes of his fellow pilfirims 
slumber, may tell to the generations follow- 
iDg the part he bore in giving civilization, 
Christianity, and freedom )o the western 

Any service which I can render, beyond 
my pecuniary tribute, be assured, dear Sir, 
I shall consider as well as an act of filial 
piety to give. 

Yours most truly, 


- — — — ■ — — ^-— — - 

Miss Dtx. — We find in the last number of 
the Christian Examiner, an excellent article 
00 Miss Dix^s Remarks on Prisons and Prison 
Discipline. The writer referring to the pecu- 
liar and exalted labors of this mdefatigable 
lady in the case of humanity, says: 

<* Miss Dix's labors embrace the peniten- 
tiaries, jails, alms-houses, poor-houses and 
asylums lor the Insane, throughout the 
Northern and Middle Slates ; all ot which 
she has visited, turning alwajrs a face of 
gentleness eren towards crime, in the hope of 
comforting the unfortunate, of softening their 
hard lot, of sweetening the bitter cup, while 
she obtained such information with regard to 
their condition, as miglu when properly re- 
presented, draw towards them the attention 
of the noblic This labor of lo^e she has 
pursued earnestly, devotedly, sparing neither 
lime nor strength, neglecting no person, 
however abject or lowly, frequentinji the 
cells of all, and by word and deed seeking to 
strengthen their hearts. The melody of her 
voice still sounds in our ears, as she read in 
the long corridor of the Philadelphia Peni- 
tentiary a Psalm of consolation; nor will 
that scene be quickly effaced from the me- 
mory of any who were then present. Her 
Memoirs, addressed to the Legislatures of 
different States, have dirul.ed a mass of 
&eis, derived from, her personal and most 
minute observation, particularly with regard 
to the treatment of the Insane, which were 
renuurkablv calculated to arouse the sensibil- 
ities of a humane people. She is in • herself 
alone a whole Prison Discipline Society. To 
her various efforts may be applied, without 
suspicion of exaggeration, those magical 
words in which Burke has commemorated 
the kindred charity of Howard, when he says 
that he travelled " not to survey the sumptu- 
OQsness of palaces, nor the k^tateliness of 

temples ; not to make accurate measorementi 
of the remains of ancient grandeur, nor to 
form a scale of the curiosities of modem art : \ 
net to collect medals, nor to coUare manu- I 
scripts ; but to dive into the depths of dun- ;> 
geons, to plunge into the infection of hospitals, 
to survey the mansions of sorrow and pain ; 
to take the guage and dimensions of misery, 
depression and contempt ; to remember the 
forgotten ; to attend to the neglected ; to visit 
the forsaken and to compare and to coUaia 
the distresses of men.** 

When the celebrated Dr. Samuel Johnson 
was asked why so many literary men were 
infidels, his reply was, ** Becatise they are ig^ 
norant of the Bible." If the question be 
asked why the lovers of general reading so 
often fail to* acquaint themselves with the 
sacred volume, one reason that may he as- 
signed doubtless is» thev are not aware of its 
interesting variety. — 'This feature of the 
Bible is well illustrated by Mrs. Ellis, in the 
following eloquent extract of her recent work 
entitled the Poetry of Life. 

<*With our established ideas of beauty, 
grace, pathos, and sublimity, either concen- 
trated in the minutest point or extended to 
the widest range, we can derive from the 
scriptures a fund of gratification not to be 
found m any other memorial of past or pre- 
sent time. From the wonn^ th^t £[rovels 
in the dust beneath our feet, to the leviathan 
in the foaming deep— from the moth that 
corrupts the secret treasures, to the eagle that 
soars above the eyrie in the clouds — from the 
wild ass in the desert, to the lamb in the 
shepherd's fold — from the consuming locust, 
to the cattle upon a thousand hills— from the 
rose of Sharon to the cedar of Lelwnon — from 
the crystal stream gushinff out of the flinty 
rock, to the wide waters of the deluge — from 
the barren waste, to the fruitful vineyard and 
the land flowing with milk and honey— from 
the lonely path of the wanderer to the gather- 
ing of a mighty multitude— from the tear 
that falls in secret, to the din of battle snd 
the shouts of a triumphant host*-from the 
sol tary in the wilderness, to the satrap on 
the throne — ^fVom the mourner clad in sack- 
cloth, to the prince in purple robes — from the 
gnawing of the worm thatdieth not, to the 
seraphic visions of the blest — from the still 
small voice, to the thunders of Omnipotence 
— from the depth of hell, to th^re^ons of 
eternal glory — there is no degree of beauty 
or deformity, no tendency to good or evil, no 
shade of darkness or gleam of light, which 
does not come within the cognizance of the 
holy scripture; and, therefbre, there is no 
conception of the miod that may not find a 
corresponding picture; no thirst for excel- 
lency that may not meet with its full supply; 
and no condition of humanity necessarily ex- 
cluded from the unlimited scope of adaption 
and of sympathy comprehended in the lan- 
guage and in the spirit of the Bible.'' 







This excellent isli is one of the greatett 
ikVorites of the exteiiLsire and usefal Perch 
fiiroilTi and this is the season of the year 
when it appears in shoals along our co^st, 
and penetrates far up many of our rivers. ' , 

We haTe before introdaced it to oor read- 
ers, (Vol. 1. page 356,) but only for the pur- 
ine of explaining a remarkable peeuliarity 
in the structure of it*s eya^ We could write 
aereral pa«es on the habits and haunts of this 
taluable fish, and its congeners, several of 
which are among the most familiar to asjand 
our readers. The pefch family is one of the 
most useful to man, and most widely diffused 
in all climates and countnes. They belong 
to the hard*boned class of .fishes, (and to 
that divisioa of it which have pectoral, or 
side*fih8, placed exactly over their Te«itral* 
fins. They are distinguished from other fa- 
milies of fishes which have their fins thus 
placed, by one or more spinee in their fias ; a 
mark which the youngest and most inexpert 
fishermen are apt to be most frequently re- 
minded of, by the wounds they are so well 
calculated to inflict on every thing whioh 
seizes them. The Black*fish, Green perch, 
Roach, Poggy, and Sea Bass, though much 
differing in other respects from the Striped 
Baas, will all be found to resemble it in the 
positKNi of the fins, and in having spines. 
They are therefore to be set down as of the 
same family ; and whoever has once brought 
his mind to make such observations, aiul 
to dfaw lines of distinption founded upon 
them, as taught by men of science, will find 
a new satisfaction in contemplating the ani- 
mal kingdom. When he proceeds further, 
and Icari^ w^at important internal pecu- 
liaritiea of structure are oAen indicated by ex- 
ternal differences, he will begin to realize 
something of the superioir intelligence and 
pleasure with which the scientific man looks 
mpctk the wonderful and rarious machinery 
of the animal creation around us. 

The perches are almost universally active 
and powerful fishee, with hard andfiaky fiesh, 
both palatable, wholesome, and nutricious. 

Our Correupmidence* 

.4 /«to r$mark» on the Rose, hy a young ladff. 

It la, nc^ ^oaht, known to moat of yoor 
.leadern, that the species of the rote ammmt 
to the number of two hundred. 

' Th^ sp^ieii which is most fkmiliar to us, 
aa the Garden Rose, U Rosa Spinoaissima, 
(meaning, most thorny,) called tlie Burnet 
Rose, which consists of about two hundred 
double and single sorts. 

Frobablv all will agree with me in the 
opinion, that the Moss-Rose is the sweetest 
of all, its beautiful and delicate tinu, ao 
ingeniously and admirably arranged, as you 
must allow, most strikinglv relieved by the 
dark and mossy green which surrounds them. 
How can any one deny the existence of a Su- 
preme Being who examines His works * 

Burnet savs it would be as foolish to praise 
as to paint the rose, and, perhaps from such a 
notion, it might be that this fiower was ood-> 
sidered as the symbol of silence : for we are 
told, that the goddess Isis, and her son Har- , 
pocrates, were crowned by the ancient hen- S 
then with cfaaplete of roses. < 

, He also teUs us, that this plant will not 
bear the smoke, and that this is the cause of 
their not fiourisbing in or near larj^e cities.— 
The perftime of Attar of roses is procured 
from the Rosa Centifolia, as well as rose wa- 
ter. The same author Informs us that 61bs. 
of rose leaves will make a gallon of rose 
water, while from 200 to SSOtos weight are 
required to make one ounce of the Attar. 

Dressing Wounds. —I hfTVe beard a medical 
man complain of the ignorance, and even im- 
becility, which he meets with in many hou- 
ses, in which a female cannot be found, who 
can or will dress a wound or blister ;. or who 
knows how to foment a limb' or to apply a 
poultice : and that these and many other lit- 
tle offices, which can with most propriety be 
performed by a wife or a mother, are usmally 
done by the rude and careless handa of a 
faired attendant. Do you think that this kind 
of ignorance is disgraceful in a well-educaied 
female ? 

Until the moment arrives in which stich 
knowledge is practically required, it is quite , 
too much undervalued; and our conviction 
of its importance depends too much, also, 
upon the nrgencv of the case, which demands 
such offices, and upon the extent of our de- 
sire to alleviate the sufferings of our rela- 
tives. — From a late English boot. 






The rejection of arbitration, for the settle- 
meat of tbe Oregon qnestioa by our gov- 
ernment, baa excited condemnation in 
Europe, tbe ground taken being uncbrietian, 
tad tbe e xfteeakaw of ^o President dia- 

the slaves of the Pons and the Pan- 
fW— Tbe New York Colonization So- 
ciety, and the maoaffers of the Missionary 
Society of tbe Methodist Episcopal Church, 
have taken measqrea to relieve tbe pressing 
vraots of the slaves, who have been taken 
ialo Monrovia. 

The Power #/ a Mosquito. — The Pitts- 
borgh Commercial Journal says that mus- 
quitoes are very small insects, but one has 
been known to move a man weighing two 
bmid red pounds, and ke^ him moving a 
whole night. 

Great floods have caused severe injuries 
and losses of property, and even of life, in 
all parts of tbe eastern, northern, and some 
of tbe Middle States. Among tbe places 
mentioned, we have regretted to find many 
ID which we have friends, subscribers, or 
correspondents. The works on the Brie 
Canal have been injured in several places ; 
Albany has been flooded more than in 
1822, when tbe river rose higher than it 
bad done before within tbe memory of main ; 
and the papers are filled with accounts of 
dmsters to railroad lines, roads, bridges, 
villages, dK>., mncfa too numerous for us to 

A New John Gilpin, — The Lebanon 
(Ohio) Star tells a good railroad anecdote. 
The other day, when the cars stopped, oh 
the way to Xenia, for a moment, a oountry- 
man mounted tbe locomotive to see what he 
couU learn. << In tbe progress of bis in- 
vestigation be took hold of a orank, and 
giving it a turn, with the speed of tbe wind, 
off sprang the locomomotive, detached from 
the oar, while all that could be heard from 
Hie unkieky wight was — stop her ! stop the 
iking I But regardless of his cries on it 
went, whizzing and snorting, and was only 
arrested in its progress, at the distance of 
seven miles, by running ofi'the track. No 
barm was done — the only inoonvenience 
being the necessary labor and detention of 
getting back the truant locomotive, and the 
awful fright to its John Gilpin rider. 

A Feathered Patroness of the News* 
papers.-^The Marion (Va.) Pioneer states 
that it has a subscriber, a lad eleven years 
of age, who pays his subecriptkm in eggs, 
though having but one hen. 

VtcissUudes of Whaling.- — ^^A hlter 
dated Maui, Oct. 16, 1845, from on board 
the ship Josejpb Meigs, states that while on 
the N. W. coast, June 8, she bad a boat 
stove by a whale, and one mant Joseph 
Anken, killed, and another, BenjamiQ Og- 
den, badly hurt. The ship Qolcon^ of 
New Bedford, in May last, also had a boat 
stove by a whale, and two men killed, named 
Charles Robbins and John Montgomery. 
Heard that ship Huntress, Shearman, of 
New Bedford, put away from the ground in 
August, had two boats stove and two men 
wounded. The Qolconda, on tbe 20th of 
May, in lat 45 N. Ion. 177 W., was board- 
ed by a heavy sea, which swept away her 
two ice boats and did considerable other 
damage about the decks. — [Bost, Post. 

The law, to punish a destruction of, or 
injury to fruit and ornamental trees, is ex- 
tended over the State. The penalty is, for 
an injury assessed at 50 cts. to $1. — 
imprisonment for 30 days, and not over 60 
days confinement at any event. 

The law to em^ourage agnculture is, that 
when 30 or more persons meet, and elect 
officers, and raise $50, then the co. Audi- 
tor is to raise an equal sum, from $50 up 
to $200, or not over half a cent tax on each 
inhabitant This money is fi>i; premiums 
for improving soils, crops, manures, stock, 
implements, 6lo. A report is to be made 
annually to tbe State Society, or Board, of 
whom Benj. Ruggles, Esq. and Isaac Nis- 
wanger, of Belmont, are members. When 
the Belmont Society got under way, and all 
sails set, we shall notice, how well the agri- 
cultural ship plows the ocean wilderness, 
and surmounts the waves of weeds and 
stubble. — Ohio Paper, 

" Petbr Parley " heW a Levee on Sa- 
turday, at the residence of Mr. Hennen, in 
Royal street, which will long be remember- 
ed by the host of children who were present 
and listened to his delightful talk. Tbe 
Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Mayor, 
RoQorder, Teachers and Pupils of tbe 
public schools, and a great number of 
our citizens called on Mr. Goodrich to pay 
their respects. Mr. G. is about to return 
home. The blessings of young and old 
accompany him. — N. O.Pic.^ 










The following Ode was wriltcti 6y Ket. 
Elwathah DaVis. ttt a Peace Cooycniion held 
in Providence, on the 27ih January, in the 
midsi of the stirring appeals which were ad- 
dressed to the audience on that occasion : 
Not with the flafthin^ steel, 
Nor with the cannoa^s peal, 

Or stir of drum; 
But in the bonds of love 
Our white fla;^ floats above— 
Her emblem is the dore — 
'Tie thus we come. 

The laws of Christian light. 
These are our Weapons bright, 

Our mighty shield ; 
Christ 18 our leader high. 
And the brodd plains which Ita 
Beneath the blessed sky* 

Oqf battle-fields 

What is that great intent, 
On which each heart is bent, 

Our hosts amon^ ? 
It is that hale may die. 
That War's red curse may fly. 
And War's high praise for aye. 

No more be sung ! 

Thai all the poor may rest. 
Beneath their own vines bleat, 

In glorious peace ; 
That death and hell may yield, 
And human hearts, long steeled. 
By love's pure drops unsealed, 

From warfare ceaee. 

Oh ! then, in Gk>d's great name, 
Let each pure spirit flame 

Both bright and clear ; 
Stand firmly m your lot, 
Cry ye aloud, doubt not. 
Be every fear forgot— 

Christ leads us hefe. 

So shall eartk'a distant lands, 
In happy, holy bands. 

One brotherhood. 
Together rise and sing, 
Gifts to one altar bring, 
And Heaven's Eternal King 

Pronounce it good. 


The following beautiful passage fs from a 
Poem written by Geobob Vashon, a colored 
young man of Pittsburffh. They exceed any 
verses* says the Newark Advertiser, we have 
seen from a **8kin not Colored like our 
own :" — 

First, SpEiNG came tripping on from Sbuthem 

And strewed her sunny path with fragrant 


Bade the still brook from out its torpoi wake, 
Apd freed from icy bonds, tbe cafVtive lake^ 
Then smiling back upon the snfiitng iMid, 
Resigned the rule to SunMEa'a warmer hand. 
Earth, in the genial change rejoicing much. 
Glowed like a picture *ileeth a (luido's touch. 
And lovelier grew with each soeeeeding day. 
Till AuTtJMN seized the sceptre and the a way. 
She, to enhance the beauty of the scene. 
Tinged with rich brown each leaflet'a bril- 
liant men. 
Cast o*er the land her sad yet lof elr smile. 
Then sank betreath dread Wintbr*8 chilling 

Pread Winter, wfaro/ with no kmd feeNng 

Evoked, in envious rage, the blightning storm ; 
And conscious, that no ^ft she could bestow. 
To equffi Summer's, Spring's, or Autumn's 

Blew, spitefully, her freezing breath on all. 
And strove to crush earth *neath her snowy 

To Our Subscribers.— Those who wish 
to receive the* second volume, and have not 
paid for it, are requested to send $1 without 
further delay throtigh the Post-master, or by 
mail, without payhig postage. 

Those who wish to withdraw their names, 
are reqdested to return the last number re- 
ceived, with the name and addr^si^ It will 
be stopped forthwith. 

To ALL OUR Subscribers. — If each wfll 
procure one new subscriber, it will be ren- 
dering an important service to a new pub- 
lication, designed for extenaitte and lasting 



With numerous Engravings. 
Edited by Theodore Dwlght, 9r. 

le piihlithed weekly, at the oflke oC the Jhm Yodi 
Express, No. 112 Broadway, at 3 ceoli a Donbcr. (16 
pe^s large octaVo,) Ot, io subscribeis recehrfaig it bf 
mail, and paying iff advance, %\ a year. 

fttets torts. 

Back munbers can be supplied. 

PostHiasiers are authorised lo renit moaey. 

BndoM a Ooe Dollar BiP, without payiMM of pot- 
tage, «ih1 the work Will be sent for the year. 

'' The infiNrmation coataioed in this Woik is woift 
more thSn silver."— iv. Y. Ohtmr^Mr. 

*« ft should be iu everv family in the oomrtry.**— 
N, Y. BapHtt Rseorder. ' 

The New York Methodist Advocate speaks of It :a 
shnilar terms Also many other paftcrs. 

Editors of newspapers publfshing this ad- 
vertisement foi 3 months, will be furnished 
with the work for one year. 





mSsa,'-' 1 


TOL. U. 

i Nkw Yoxi. Satdxut. Ann 4. 1S46. 



Tbe Highlands of SootUnd invite our 
UtenlioB, by tbe rude boldnesa of their 
moanbuna, the dark valties and rav\nea 
which terve as roada between them, and 
the placid little lakes which they encloae. 
Bat the country haa borrowed its chief in- 
tcieat fioin the evenia and peraonages of 
hiitory, and the writings which have trans- 
Buiied them to poateriiy. 

Tbe scenery, when viewed without its 
inocititions, is generally destitute of the 
two other features which are commonly to 
be ngarded aa eaaeutial to its interest : vege- 
tation and inhabitants. 

Tbe hills are wholly destitute of trees, 
and the surface is oveTspread with t thin 
coat of heath, which gives a most unvary- 
ing and melancholy aspect to the scene, 
which ever way we Uirn. The population 

is very small, soattered, kA commonly 
hidden from view, amidst the recesses of 
the mountaias, while such traces of in- 
habitants as are diacorered, present a de- 
pressing picture of poverty and degradatioo. 

Many poeta and writers of fictions lavs 
labored hard to paint in interesting coIoD^ 
the character of the Highlanden: hot an 
attentive reader, on cool reoeotion, may 
easily see through the thin veil of nxnaBca 
which is otien hungoror igooTanoe, tuper- 
siition, pride and misery. They are idll 
poor victims of Rcme, who have been, to 
the present day, shot up from the intel- 
lectual and moral light, and the physical 
blessings, which the Re&imatioii iatrodueed 
into other parts of Scotland in the sixtsenth 

The hisioiioal interest of Scottish history, 


■mr\0-',y\,/y . 



i« chiefly connected with that period : for 
then first began a contest between real 
freedom and that power which ever was, and 
still is, her deadliest foe. 

• Sir Walter Scoa himself says, in the in- 
troduction to his << Minstrels of the Scottish 
Border :" — ^' We have no occasion to trace 
the state of the herders, during the long 
and obscure period of Scottish history, 
which preceded the accession of the Stuart 
fiimily." He remarks, that the earliest 
ballads are hardly coeval with James V. 
The only hints handed down of the nature 
of the warfare waged on the Scottish Bor- 
der, between the Saxons and Danes, are to 
be sought in the Welsh bards ; and they 
lead us only to the sad conclusion, that the 
words of Tacitus give it a just description : 

** Ubi solitudinem faeiunt, pacem appellant.*' 

IWhere they create a desert, they call it 
making peace.] 

Thus briefly does even Scott himself pass 
over many centuries, for the absolute dearth 
of materials. He adds, however, several 
pages, on the events of modem times, the 
habits and characteristics of the people, 
which are worthy of perusal, and are 
founded on well established history. The 
genuine taste for simple, natural poetry and 
sweet music, in which, in our opinion, 
the southern Scots, have excelled all other 
people, is thus alluded to by Lesley, in 
speaking of the March men : 

"Placent admodum sibi sua musica, et 
rhythmicis suis cantionibus, quas de ma- 
jorum suorum gestis, aut ingeniosis predan- 
di, precandive, stratematibus ipsi confin- 

A strain ormusio, well adapted to our 
taste, and combined with poetry, a cor- 
responding character, may make strong and 
enduring impressions; and whatever na- 
tural scene becomes associated with it in 
the mind, partakes of a deep and permanent 
mterest All persons have not the same 
taste. Education has its influence. But 
many admire the simplicity, sweetness, de. 
licacy, and high native refinement of Scotch 
poetry, and take a real, though it may 


sometimes be an indefinable pleasure in 
visiting the scenes of the barren but pic- 
turesque country to which they belong. 
Solitude has less to repel us, where the 
memory and the imagination find such ac^ 
tive and agreeable occupation. The district 
of Scottish song is strictly a very limited 
portion of Scotland, lying near the Bor. 
der: but scenes beyond have sometunes 
been entered^ by the poets ; and Scott has 
given us some brief, but beautiful descrip. 
tions of some of the lates, which lie north 
of that region. The wonder is, that he has 
Hone no more. He had a strange and 
lamentable reverence for superstitions. 
Among the notes of his "Complete Po- 
etical Works," with a mass of matter re- 
lating to a thousand childish traditions, 
fables, &c., will be found a variety of im- 
portant imformation : but the reader should 
be accustomed to separate wheat from chaff 
and pass over three quarters of the para- 
graphs before him. 

Pennant's Tours in Scotland, although 
not of the most recent dates, abound in de- 
scriptions of scenery, as well as historical, 
and other valuable matter. They are con- 
tained in* the third volume of Pinkerton*s 
Voyages, republished in this country, in 
quarto, which we have before recommended 
for family libraries. We copy from him 
the following characteristic descriptions of 
the liakes. 

'*It is an idle observation, that seemg 
one is seeing all of their superb watera : 
for ahnost every one I visited has its proper 
features. Loch Leven is a broad expanse, 
with isles and cultivated shores. Loch 
Tay makes three bold windings, has steep 
but sloping shores, cultivated in manv parts, 
and bounded by vast hills. 

Loch Rannock is broad and straight, 
has more wildness about it, with a large, 
natural pine-wood on its southern banks. 

Loch Tumel is narrow, confined by the 
sloping sides of steep hills, and has on its 
western limits a flat, rich, xvooded country, 
watered by a most serpentine stream. 

The Loch of Spinie is almost on a flat, 
and its sides much indented 





Loch Moy is small, and has soft features 
on its hanks, amidst rude environs. 

Loch Ness is straight and narrow: its 
shores abound with a wild magnificence, 
lofty, precipitous and wooded^ and has all 
the greatness of an Alpine lake^ 

Loch Oich has lofty mountains at a small 
distance from its borders: the shores in- 
dented, and the water decorated with isle3. 

Loch Loch \vant8 the isles; its shores 
slope, and several straits terminate on its 

Loch Awe is long and waving ; its little 
isles tufted with trees, and just appearing 
above the water, its two great sources of 
water at the extremities, and its singular 
kteral discharge cear one of them, suffi- 
ciently mark this great lake. 

Loch Lomond, the last, ihe most beauti- 
ful of the Caledonian lakes. The first view 
of it from Tarbat presents an extensive ser- 
pentine winding amidst lofty hills ; on the 
north, barren, black and rocky hills, dark- 
en with their shade that ccmtracted part of 
the water. On the west, the moimtains are 
clothed, near the bottoms, with woods of 
oak, quite to the water's edge ; their sum- 
mits lofty naked and craggy. On the east 
the mountains are equally high, but their 
tops form a more even ridge, para) J ^ to the 
lake, except where Ben Lomond, like Sau 
amidst his companions, overtops the rest. 



* Onward, amid the copse, 'gan peep 
A narrow inlet, still and deep, 
Afibrchng scarce such breadth of brim 
As served the wild duck's brood to swim. 
Lost for a space, through thickets veering, 
fiat broader when again appearing. 
Tall rocks and lofted knolls their face 
Cold on the dark-blue mirror trace ,- 
And farther as the Kunter stray'd, 
Still broader sweeps the channel made. 
The shaggv mounds no longer stood, 
Emerging irom the tangled wood : 
Bat, waye>encircled> seem'd to float. 
Like castle, sirded with its moat ; 
> ITet broader floods, extending still, 
Divide them from their parent hill, 
Till each, retiring, claims to be 
An islet in an inland sea. 

** And thus an airy point he won, 
Where, gleaming with the setting sun,, 

One bnraishM sheet of living gold. 
Loch Katrine lay beneath him, roU'd : 
In all her length, far^ winding lay, 
With promontory, creek and bay. 
And islands that, empurpled bright. 
Floated amid the livelier li^ht. 
And mountains, that like giants stand. 
To sentinel enchanted lana. 
High on the south huge Benvenue 
Down on the lake, in masses, threw 
Crags, knolls and mounds, conftis'dly hurPd, 
The fragments of an earlier world* . 
A wildering forest feathered o'er 
His ruined sides and summit hoar. 
While on the north, through middle air, 
Ben-an heaved high his forehead bare." 
{jMdy of the Lake. Canto L Stanza 13.) 

The following remarks we find m a note on 
the same page. 

** The clans who inhabited the romantic 
regions of Loch Katrine were, even until a 
late period, much addicted so predatory ex- 
cursions upon their Lowland neighbors. 
Graham says, (in his Sketches of scenery in 
Perthshire,) ' In former times those parts of 
the district which^ are situated beyond the 
Grampian range, were rendered almost inac- 
cessible by strong barriers of rocks, and moun- 
tains, and lakes. It was a border country ; 
and, though on the very verge of the low 
country, it was almost totally sequestered 
from the world, and, as i( were, insulated 
with respect to society. It is well known, 
that in the Highlands, it was, in former 
times, accounted not only lawful, but honor- 
able, among hostile tribes, to commit depreda- 
tions on one another ; and these habits of the 
age were perhaps strengthened in this district, 
by the circumstances which have been men- 
tioned. It bordered on a country, the inhabi- 
tants of which, while they were richer, were 
less warlike than they, and widely different 
by language and manners.** 

FermoiU.— This state was settled in 1763, 
by English, chiefly from Connecticut, under 
mats from New*Hampshire; admitted into 
uie Union in 1791 : capital, Montpelier^ One 
year's residence gives the right to vote to any 
citizen of the United States who will take an 
oath of allegiance. Area, 1 0,205 square miles. 
Population m laiO, 291,948. 

Maryland, — ^This state was settled m 1694, 
by English : acceeded to the Union in April, 
1788; capital, Annapolis. One year's resi- 
dence in the iState and six months in the 
country, gives the right to vote to every white 
male citizen. Area, 10,829. square miles 
Population in 1840, 469,233. 





CoMTnnrED fbom Vol. ILt fags 83. 


Town fMetmgs-^how eondueted.^Their ef- 
feet on the condition and character of the 
* . The following remarks oa the Town-Meet- 
ings of Goonecticat we copy from President 
Dwighl's Travels, (Vol. L, chap. 21.) The 
work was addressed to an English gentleman, 
and designed, Sn a great measure, to correct 
foreign misrepresentations and misconcep- 
tions of the condition and character of our coun- 
try : but It will be interesting to many of our 
readers, and profitable to some, to read a brief, 
deaf and practical riew of the go? emment, 
as it is arranged and planned on, not only in 
Conaecticut, but in New England generally, 
and with some variations, in many other 
parts of our country. The outline of the 
plan here given, with the reflections made on 
its principles and tendencies, may* have a 
salutary effect on those who may be led by 
them to reflect upon the character of their 

- In mv last letter I gave you a summary 
view or the Towns, and (Jounties, in this 
State; from which vou will perceive that 
they are both Republics, subordinate to the 
State; and that each town is, in som^ re- 
spects, subordinate to the County, in which 
it exists. It will be unnecessary for me to 
Biake any particular observations concerning 
the Counties. The towns, you will perceive, 
have many peculiar interests of great impor- 
tance ; are required to perform many impor* 
tant duties ; are invested with many valuable 
powers, rights and privileges; and are pro^ 
tected from ii\justice, and imposition, in the 
enjoyment of their rights and the perfor- 
mance of thbit duties. 

The Legislature of each to^, is, like that 
composed of the inhabitants of the coun- 
ties ; a minority of whom decides every 
question. The proceedings of the Legisla- 
ture are all controlled by exact rules; and 
are under the direction of the proper officers. 
The confusion, incident to popular meetings, 
and so often disgraceful to those of Athens 
and Rome, is effectually prevented. 

To this state of things many caases contri- 
bute. The towns are all of a moderate size, 
and population. The numbers, assembled at 
any town meeting, must, therefore, be always 
moderate. Of course, the noisy, tumultuous 
proceedings and rash measures, so generally 
found in great assemblies of men, are here 
unknown. The regulations, also, are marked 
with the strictest propriety. No person 
speaks without leave. The person who rises 
first, speaks first ; and no person interrupts 
him. The votes, and all the other proceed- 

ings, are conducted with a very honorable 
decorum. The most powerful cause, perhaps, 
of all this propriety is to be fotmd in the 
education, and habits of the people ; under 
the influence of which every person, after the 
meeting is adjourned, usuallv retires to his 
house ; and riot, noise and indecency, so com- 
mon on similar occasions in other countries, 
are here unknown. 

All the proceedim^ of these Assemblies 
are, also, matters of record ; and can be re- 
examined, complained of and rectified, at any 
subsequent period. " 

Their measures only affect their own con* 
cerns. They^ will not injure themselves: 
they cannot injure others. No clashing can 
exist between the towns themselves ; nor be- 
tween any town and the public: for their 
proceedings are valid, only bv law; and, 
whenever they contravene it, they are noth- 

By these local Legislatures a multitude of 
important concerns are managed, too nomer- 
ous, and unwieldy, to be adjusted bv the 
Legislature ot the State; and far better 
known by those, who actually superintend 
them, than by any other persons. They have 
a deep interest in these concerns ; and there- 
fore will not neglect them ; understand them 
perfectly, and will therefore regulate them 
wisely; are always present, and therefore 
can meet and act, on every emergency. 

In these little schools men commence their 
apprenticeship to public life ; and learn to do 
public business. Here the younff speaker 
makes his first essays : and here his talents 
are displayed, marked and acknowledged, — 
The aged and discreet, here see with plea- 
sure the promise of usefulness in the young : 
and fail not to reward with honorable testi- 
monials every valuable efibrt of the rising 
generation. The questions agitated, though 
affecting only local concerns, and a moderate 
number of people are still interesting, and 
often deeplv. At times they furoisn full 
scope fur the genius, imderstanding and elo- 
quence of any man ; are ably discussed, and 
command profound attention. The sober, 
busy citizens of Connectici^t are, however, 
very litUe inclmed to commend, or even listen 
to the eloquence, which is intended merelv 
for show. He, who would be heard with 
approbation, or mentioned with praise must 
speak, only because there is occasion to speak ; 
must speak with modesty, with brevity, to 
forwarder improve the measures proposed, 
or those which he substitutes; and not to 
show that he can speak, however inge- 

The Select-men, the proper town Executive, 
are intrusted with powers, which at first 
sight may seem enormous. They, are un- 
doubtedly great: and the trust, (the sphere 
of action being considered,) is high ; of 
course, it ought always to be, and usually is, 
committed to respectable citizens. But ex- 
perience hss abundantlv proved, that these 
powers are intrusted witn perfect safety, and 




inealeiilable adrantage to the Public An in* 
gtance, in which they hare been abused, 
has hardly been known, since the settlement 
of the State. Numerous and troublesome, as 
their serrices are ; these officers have in very 
few towns ever received any compensation, 
beside the consciousness of havmg been 
useful, and the esteem of their fellow citi* 

I have remarked above, that men learn to 
do public business by being conversant with 
the affairs of Towns. You will remember, 
that every town annually elects a considera- 
ble nnmlier of officers. Even the humblest 
of the^e offices furnishes opportunities for in« 
formation, and exercise for sagacity; and, 
collectively, they are suited to every age and 
capacity of man. Virtues are here tri^, and 
talaits occupied. In a manner, safe alike to 
the employer and the agent. On the one 
huid the capacity for business is enlarged ; 
and on the other the best proof is given, 
which can be given, of the proper preparato- 
ry qualifications for business of a superior and 
more extensive nature. In the closet no man 
ever becomes acquainted with either the con- 
cerns, or the character of men ; or with the 
manner in which busmess ought to be con- 
duet^ The general principles of political, 
science a scholar may understand, equally 
with those oi other sciences. But of business, 
which is necessarily done in detail, if done 
to any purpose, the mere scholar literally 
knows nothing. He mav be able to write a 
good political book : but he cannot do politi- 
eal business, because he has never done it. — 
A plain man, educated in the business town, 
will easily show him, that in knowledge of 
this kind he is an infant; and that, what- 
ever may be his genius or his acquisitions. 

At the same time, the business done here, 
is so various, so similar in many respects to 
that oi a Legislature, and so connected with 
the public pmice ; it returns so oden, occupies 
so many hands, and involves so many public 
offices; that the inhabitants become not a 
little versed in public affairs. Hence they 
are peculiarly qualified to judge of their na- 
ture. A Republican Government is founded 
on general opinion. It is, therefore, of the 
highest importance, that this opinion should 
be correct. No method, hitherto adopted bv 
mankind* has been equally successful with 
this, in forming that opinion, and in fitting 
men to judge well concerning governmental 
measures. A large proportion of the citizens 
of this State, have actually sustained one 

EUic office ; and multitudes, several : and 
ve of course been personally concerned in 
iranaacting public business. Hence they have 
already known by experience, the difficulties 
inddent to public concerns ; and are, in a de- 
gree superior to^hat is usually found else- 
where, prepared to form judicious opinions 
concerning the measures of the Leffislature. 
I have heard laws discussed by plain men 
with more good sense, than any mere schqlar 
could have displayed on the same subjects.-^ 


By these men they were canvassed as to 
their operation on the. actual interests of 
themselves and others. By a scholar they 
would have been examined as to their ac- 
cordance with preconceived general principleSi 
The former were certain means of determin- 
ing on the merits of a law; the latter, only 
probable, and very imperfect. 

From these facts it arises in no small mea- 
sure, that the citizens of Connectiout have 
ever exhibited a peculiar skill and discretion, 
in both judging and acting, conceroing public 
affairs. Every man, who arrives at the high- 
er offices of the magistracy, serves, almost of 
course, an apprenticeship in the concerns of 
the town. Here his character is tried. If 
he acouires the general approbation ; he if 
elected to the Legislature. There he under- 
goes a new trid ; and, if sufficiently ap- 
proved, is, in the end, chosen by the Free- 
men at large into the CounciL In this body, 
if his conduct is not materially altered, he la 
regularly pUced by the same suffrage, until 
he declines an election ; becomes disquali6ed 
by age, or dies. It may, I believe, be truly 
said, that under no €k)veniment are the in- 
cumbents of the higher offices equally secure 
of their places, as uAder that of Connecticut ; 
notwithstanding they are all annually dected 
by the voice of the Freemen* In the eight- 
eenth century three Govembra only vacated 
the chair by a deficiency of suffrages in their 

In several instances,^ powerful aftacks 
have been made on men in nigh office, either 
by rivals, or by enemies* Almost every such 
attack, however, has been fruitless. So far 
as my information extends, such attacks have 
secured to the objects of them,'all their for- 
mer friends ; and gained them many more : 
and, instead of diminishing their reputation 
and influence, have increased both, bevond 
what they could otherwise have acquired. 

Nor is this system of small efficacy on pub- 
lic happiness, as it furnishes the means of 
gratifying ambition. The offices are numer- 
ous. To the least of them some distinction 
is attached. When they are faithfully and 
prudently executed ; some degree of esteem, 
the controlling object of most numan labors, 
is regularlv obtained. Men, accustomed to 
move in a higher sphere, will naturally smile 
at these remarks. But they smile without a 
warrant. The wish in a himible man for a 
humble office, is just as rational as that, 
which prompts them to aim at the hi^ h em- 
ployments of State. In the same circum- 
stances they themselves would covet the 
same office. It is, however, sufficient for my 
purpose, that the facts are such as I^ave 
stated. These offices are actually coveted ; 
and those who obtain them are actually gra- 
tified. No easier, no more effectual mode 
hai ever been adopted in a free State, for 
quieting in so many minds, a passion, which, 
to sav the least, might otherwise seriously 
intrude upon the order and peace of the com- 
munity. , 








Extract from the Journal of an Italian 
Naval Officer. 


Commuiiicated for the Amer. Peony Magastne. 

The war of Soria was ended ; and the 
ueaty concluded between the Ottoman Porte 
and Mehemet Ali, seemed likely to bring 
about a peace. I trod the soil of Egypt ; and 
my ardent wishes, existing for many years, 
were now grati6ed. That country, for ages 
80 ^reat and celebrated, has now only a 
palsied arm, and eyes to weep over its own 
' misfortunes. In vain I sought for any ves- 
tifies of once great and magnificent ancient 
ilezandria. With the exception of a few 
mcmuments and palaces, there is not a single 
trace to be found of the school of Alexandria, 
Of of the baths of Cleopatra, or of the royal 
splendor of Alexander. AH has ]>erished, all 
8i«eps in the silence of ruin ; and every thing 
that remained of antiquity was destroyed by 
Tandal Mahomedism. The very nature of the 
soil has changed its appearance. The banks 
of the Nile present the beautiful grottos and 

\ delightfbl recesses of the times of Sesostris ; 

) but are not inhabited as then by a cheerful, 
hospitable, and industrious population, but 
are visited by vessels of different nations, 
moving up and down the stream. The shore 
is occupied by some thousands of laborers, 
who work without rest under the blows of 
soldiers. A few Eange, (light boats Qioved 
by oars and sails,) serve for carriages. The 
barks of the Delta, (generally larger than 
those of the Adriatic,) for passengers, ply 
from Rosetta to Cairo, with a crew of from 
three to thirty men. When the wind is con- 
trary and one is going up the Nile, the boat- 
men land, and, with a rq>e round their necks, 
drag the Eange slowly against the stream, 
often without rest or even food from morning 
till towards evening, when 'they stop to take 
some beans and doura bread. They then re- 
sume their cord for the whole night; and 
thus they continue their labors for a fortnight. 

I was astonished at the vigor and the 
complexion of the Arab race ; and at the 
same time at their patience and kindness ot 
disposition. It is necessary to imagine all the 
power of habit and religious belief, to under- 
stand how so energetic a people can submit to 
be driven by the blows oi a weak and corrupt 
aristociacy, and so willingly endure misery,: 
for nothing can equal the wretchedness of the 
Fellahs. Our poorest inhabitants of the 
cabins in the Alps, behold magnificent 
cities in view of their villages, but here the 
devations of ground open upon a wide waste, 
that seems never designed as a refuge for 
men. On approaching them, what a specta- 
cle of misery and wretchedness presents 

itself to the traveller ! The blind, idiots and 
leprous men, women and children, all lying 
on the ground, or upon a little old straw 
which serves them for a bed. 

Nothing is to be heard but Bakshees, Bak- 
shees ! The cry for money is general, and 
everywhere greets the traveller on his arrival, 
and at bis departare. Where are the numer- 
ous cities of antiquity? Ah, ancient Egypt ! 
Mother of the world ! as thy children call 
thee, in their beautiful and pompous language, 
thou who hast given all things to mankiikd : 
laws, arts, sciences, industry, why hast thou 
kept nothinfif for thyself? The miscalled 
Pompey's Pillar is the only monument which 
has resisted the assaults of time and disaster. 
Mohamed Ali has built arsensals, opened 
canals, and built granaries, but has done no- 
thing to meliorate the condition of the 
miserable people. 

'* Crudelitas unicum fundamentum imperii 

The French Quarter is the best part of 
Alexandria. The Frank Square offers a most 
beautiful appearance, being quite surrounded 
with palaces built in handsome modem style, 
where the foreign Consuls reside, like petty 
sovereigns, in the expensive and commodious 
manner ot Europe. Not far off is the mon- 
astery recently built, inhabited by monks of 
all kinds and colors, some waiting to be sent 
into the interior of Asia, others to remain 
here or to go to Europe. Here the Reverend 
fathers enjoy the business of doing nothing — 
U dolce far niente. Not being bound to ** di- 
vine self-tortures," not subject to strict obser- 
vances, thev indulge in what is strongly pro- 
hibited by tneir canons and vows. The Jesu- 
its do not fail to hold their place among the 

While I was one day on a visit to the con- 
vent, I met, amonf^ the monks a friend of my 
childhood, a Jesuit in profession and dress, 
but not in heart. Father Penna had left Italy 
four years before ; and not being able to pretend 
that black is white, and white black, had 
been sent to this convent as a punishment 

" I left Italy," said he, " m 183—, at the 
express command of the General in Rome, 
and went to Persia, without being allowed 
time to see, or to write to my father, or my 
mother. A Jesuit has neither country nor 
family. Not being skilled in the intrigues or 
the mysterious impostures which my order 
practice in Euroi>e, I was sent into the heart 
of Asia, to excite the people against the 
American Missionaries. But it was not my 
desire to go from the altar to battle, nor to 
change the cross for the sword, or the gospel 
for falsehood ; and, because I regarded those 
holy men with too much respect and venera- 
tion, I attempted nothing against them, 
though at the hazard of dra\^ng down upon 
me the anger and vengeance of our company. 
How many times did those excellent minis- 
ters put forth their exertions, and, when the 
fruits began to appear, all was overthrown, 
and their evangelical labors defeated by the 
emissaries of Rome. 






'* Rome» my fnend," added the speaker, 
"is a great machine, the master Key of 
which is the Jesuits. If they fall, you will 
see the Papacy cmmhle into ruins. There is 
a dose connection between them and the Ca« 
thoiic priests. Though the Jesuits have a 
more advanced post, the priests all take the 
same oaths by which they are bound. Ca- 
tholicism is one : its doctrine is one, its ob- 
ject is one.- The Jesuits are its militia ; and, 
when Rome thinks herself in danger, she 
calls her enemies her friends. 

" Here we govern * in partibus.' We have 
obtained the supremacy of this establishment, 
which was formed by the Franciscans. — 
Everything must be subject to our society, 
yet men believe them to be passive ; whole 
nations are subject to their absolute wilU and 
the governments serve them, by defending 
them or attacking others." 

As I passed along with Father Penna, I 
entered another hall, where I found another 
Jesuit, who, he told me, was Superior of the 
order. To draw his portrait, one must paint 
a man with the countenance of a hypocrite, 
ambidoos, restless and of base appearance, 
readily and exauaning letters and newspa- 
pers nrom different countries. Two young 
monks were waiting on him. The grand Je- 
suit placed a map near him, measured seve- 
ral distances upon it ; then, examining several 
maps, seemed to refer to some names of pla- 
ces, &c., in a volcmiinous geoffraphy. After 
thtt he turned to a globe, he placed the 
points of his compasses upon it, and said to 
himself in a low voice, as he marked several 
different countries: — *'This was ours; this 
would have been, but — ^; this is ours, and 
that will be !" 

Interrupted bjr my approach, he turned and 
Made me a Jesuit bow ; that is, with his eyes 
turned towards the floor, but so as to observe 
me, with an expression of disdain upon his 
lips. He then extended to me his hand ; and, 
to tell the truth, it seemed to me that I was 
in the grasp of a hungry tiger. 

^ Signor," said he, " Itmight have seemed 
impossible that the Society of Jesus could 
have laid its foundations in sdch distant 
coimtries !*' "Certainly," replied I; <«and 
aa Moutesquien says: 'If the Jesuits had 
not come before, Luther aiid Calvin would 
have been masters of the world.' "Look, 
air ;** said he, " from this chamber I govern 
not only Paris, but China ; not only China, 
but heretical America, and all the world ; and 
yet nobody knows how it is done." 

This Jesuit was a Provincial of the order, 
a Pole by origin, but not in heart. I met him 
aaain in 1842, in the island of Malta ; where, 
after having excited a ferment, and drawn 
together many followers, he formed a plan 
for introducing his order, even at the price 
of blood. The English government, in order 
to prevent a revolution in the island, the 
lacnfice of victims, and man^ consequent 
evils, sent him away by night in a steamer, 
which landed him on the coast of Sicily. 

The good Father Penna was despatched 
back again to Persia ; but, during four months 
which! spent in different paru of the East, I 
never agam met with him, or obtained any 
information concerning him. Oh traveller! 
whoever you may be, who passes through 
the country of Perm, I beseech you, make 
researches for Father Penna. I love him as 
a friend. Bless him, and listen to him as a 
friend of truth. 

R&iharkabU Escape and Presence' of Mind. 
As Mrs. Patterson, of this city, was crossing 
the Rail Road bridge, just south of Asylum 
street, last Monday morning, the train or cars 
from Springfield came down and nearly over- 
took her before she noticed them, when, in 
attempting to get off the track, at the south 
end of the bridge, she stumbled and fell ; and 
not having sufficient time to get upon the 
outside of the track before the cars overtook 
her, she had the remarkable presence of mind 
to arrange herself between the rails, with 
her face and person close to the ground, and 
also to untie her bonnet strings, when the 
whole train passed immediately over her 
without causing the least injury — except a 
horrible frifhu^Connecticut Courant. 


-—How modi 
Of hmnMi sympathy, sad love to Bod, 
Doih sorrow quicken in the hnmble sooL 

One mom within its mossy nest, 

A Violet lav concealed. 
And deep within its modest breast 

Were treasures unrevealed. 

The sun came forth, hut all in vain 

He sought with subtile ray, 
To pierce the sheltered nook, wherem 

The modest Violet lay. 


That sun has veiled his gdden eye» 

The clouds begin to lower, 
And from the darkly brooding sky, 

The torrents wildly pour 

The storm has found the hidden nook 
Where the sweet floweret lay : 

And bears upon the surging brook. 
The sheltering leaves away. 

Wan, dripping, from its lowly bed. 

The Violet lifts its eye, 
And the wind that rent its petals, waves 

Their perfume to the sky. 

Youthen Morning Vtsitor. 

NEw-j£B8ET.^Thi8 sUtc was settled m 
1627, by Swedes; conquered by the Dutch 
in 1625 ; submitted to the English in 1664; 
acceded to the Union in December, 1787; 
capital, Trenton. One year's residence in the 
State gives the right to vote, except to pau- 
pers, &c. Area, 6,900 square miles. Popu- 
lation in 1840, 373,306. 




Then is aomething so congenial to a le- 
fleeting mind in the toUtude of a grove, 
end the wildoeBS of nutoie in the retired 
wood, that we usually find persons of taste 
and outlivalion aetting a high value upon 
scenes of that ohamcter, in proportion to 
the degree in which they have mingled 
with meo, and derota) time to the study of 

The beauties of the forest and the grove 
are staig by many an English poet ; and a 
conespoiding taste is displayed to a travel- 
ler in that land, in a thousand country seats, 
cottages, and boxes, (as the humbler kind 
of mral residences are fiuniliaily denomin- 
ated,) by the oAre taken to surrouod them 
as muoh as possible with clusters of shady 
trees, and to cat off the view of every dis- 
cordant otgect, by thick-eet shrubbery. In 
France, however, and in some of the other 
continental countries, a more artificial taste 
still exists ; and, among the few country 
Tssideticea we find, belonging to citizens, 
the training and clipping of trees, in stiff 
and unnatural forms, ofiea present an aspect 
at first striking and singular, but commonly, 
we believe, disagreeable, and even painful 
to an Amencan eye. 

We can say, for our own part, at least, 

that even a short stay in countries where 
such a taste prevails, has always been suffi- 
cient to excite a strong desire !or the simple 
wildness of nature. To us, who are ac- 
customed to reasonable liberty, in thinking 
and acting, from our very in&ncy, it is plea- 
sing to see even the vegetable kingdom en- 
joying freedom; and this moral oijoy- 
ment is superadded at home to that of the 
beauty of nature. But there is a consider- 
ation, of a still higher kind, which often 
has its eSect even when we are not dis- 
tinctly consoious of it : we are surrounded 
by the works of God, unmingted with the 
works of man, and undefiled, undisturbed 
untouched by bis fingers. We recoUeot 
that we also are his creatures, and that " he 
is not far from any of us," for his active 
power is constantly shown in the slow bat 
constant growth of the humble violet and 
the mighty oak. The birds raise their 
voices ia his praise, with notes is sweet as 
those of Paradise, and our hearts must join 
in the song, if they are not as hard as the 
rocks beneath our feet. 

Iowa.— Tbis Slate was sallied by emigrania J 

chiefly from the northern and easierfl states ; ( 

admitted iato the Union as an independent J 
State. Match 3, 1845 j capital, Iowa Ciiy. 



The wtioI« du*, oi older, oT the fowli 
aSin peraliu innrett to the obtrva of tb« 
ftuhered nee. Olheii m&; be bold or bean 
tJinl, gncefol in motion, oi melodioua in song , 
bat theM ue either met with aa the coofidiog 
Inend* of man, oi eautr domeeticUedi and 
iiMful to him u food 

The firat eU« <A birda are known hj their 
loBg ukd erooked beaki and elawt, and the 
fona and ■tractofo of the latter, which ear 
able them to grasp, like thoMvof the cat 
speeiea; and b^ the fnriotii and rorecioas na- 
tnre, which betonga to animals, seizing and 
feeding on flesh. The Swimming birds are 
eaailf dialingniibed by webbed feet, and short 
lega, K> well adapted to their appropriate ele- 
ment ; while the long necks and legs of the 
Waders well correspond with their habits. 
The nnm«roiu and Tarioos Fetching birds 
•how, in the forms of the bill and the toea, 
that ibey feed on Tegetables or worms, and 
ihat iliejr can ttand upon (he iwiga of tneea 
more eaaUy and firmly than upon the grotmd. 
The Fowb alone e^ibit the strong leg and 
flat foot, 10 well^ adapted to walking and 
rannidg with great ipeed apm a Bat mrfiice, 
while the woakneaa of the bonea between the 
winga shows that they are generally but ill 
qmJified for a long or rapid flight. 

BoTeral species of the gallinactB, or fowl, 
an associated in oar minds with the earliest 

lecollectioos of childhood. They lolled iia, i 
at eTcnlDg, to sweet repose, with theii peace- ! 
fill, if not melodious notea; and welcomed tis < 
to the bright momioga of yoath, with roices ( 
which, in later years, strike ua like strains of , 
music, with the " memory of joys that are J 
past." Harmless, peacefnl and nsefol, they i 
are 6t compaoioos of the domestic scene; 
and their simple and guileless habits, with | 
the easy tabor of proTiding for them, snd the i 
reward which they yield their benelactors, in i 
baekeilula of ^gs, and -broods of chickens, | 
render them deserredly favorites among al- 
most every family of man, of whatever \ 
climate, langnage, or complexion. 

The Pheasant, however, is one of the fowl i 

tribe, ieaat known in our eoontry. It differs < 

greatly from the Partridge, which improperly |^ 

bears its name in our Middle States. The ( 
following description of the Pheasant proper, 

from Buffon, will enable every reader to draw ! 
the contrast. 

Next to the peacock, the pheasant, both ' 

for the vivid color of its plumes and their de- \ 
lightfnl miziurea and variety, is the moat 
beautiful of the winged tribea. No effects of 

the pencil can produce anything sogloaay ', 

and tirilliBni, or so delicately bl«)ded. Il is < 

repotted that Crossus, king of Lydia, when ', 

seated on his (hrooe, in sll the pomp and co^ J 

tume of rastem splendor, asked Solon if he i 

had ever seen any thing so magnificent. The J 

philosopher, unawed by Miyeaiy, and pridii^ J 





himitelf on his natire. freedom and simplicity, 
replied ; that, after having seen the beautiiul 
plumage of the pheasant, he could be daz- 
zled by no other nnery. 

The pheasant, however, is not only beauti- 
fal to the eye, but is also a peculiar delicacy 
ibr the table : but, as if shunning the protec- 
tion of men, it loves to inhabit the thickest 
woods and most unfrequented parts of the 
forest. Though removed .from its native 
warm and genial dimaies, it still preserves 
its innate predilection for freedom; and now 
lives wild and untamed among us, ornament- 
ing our parks and forests; where it feeds 
on acorns, berries, and grain. 

In a wild slate the hen pheasant lays from 
eighteen to twenty eggs in a season; but in a 
state of captivity, she seldom produces more 
than ten. in a state of nature, she hatches 
and rears her young with resolution, vigi- 
lance, and patience; but, when kept tame, 
she becomes remiss in these duties, and a 
common hen is generally made her substi- 

As of all other domestic fowls, there are 
many varieties of the pheasant : some white, 
some spotted, and others crested. 

Of pheasants which are not naturalized in 
England, but only kept in aviaries, we 
find the black and white Chiuese, the painted 
Chinese, the homed Indian, the Brazilian, 
and the peacock pheasant ; all eminently dis- 
tinguished by their beauty and general ele- 
gance of their form. 

American Sugar Crop, —While the whole 
commercial and reading world seem to be 
taken with astonishment at the increased 
production of cotton in the United States, the 
immensely rapid progress of other species of 
production is overlooked. The increase of 
the provision crop alone since 1830, is said to 
be equal to the whole production of that year. 
Only a few years since, nine- tenths of the 
sugar used in this country was the product of 
foreign labor. 

The culture of cane was first introduced 
into Louisiana from St. Domingo, by the Jesu- 
its as early as 1725-'6. The Malabar or Cre- 
ole Cane was first used— then the Otaheite, 
and finally the Ribbon, introduced from 
Georpa by Mr. Coiron in 1817. This last is 
now in general use— as it matures sooner and 
better resists an early winter. The manufac- 
ture of sugar was commenced in 1784 near 
New Orleans— product 3,000 lbs. per acre- 
quality equal 10 the best St, Domingo Mus- 
cavado. In 1784 Louisiana was ceded to 
Spain, and the culture ceased till 1791. In 
1796, one plantation produced a crop worth 
$12,000— still the progress of the culture was 
alow, and there were only a few plantations 
under culture when the cession to the United 
States took place. From 1803 to 1817, the 
extent of production is not known. In 1818 
it reached 25,000 hogsheads— and cattle was 
the only power used. In 1822, steam was in- 
Uoduced, and the product extended to 30,000 


hogsheads. From that tmie to 1840 the 
crop continued to increase until it reached 
119,000 hogsheads. Since the passage of 
the tariff act of 1842, the extensiooof the 
culture has been exceedingly rapid. The 
crop of 1844-'5, amounted to 204,913 hhds. 
of 1000 pounds each— equal to 204,913,000 
poiinds. Each hogshead, it is estimated, 
yields at least 50 gallons of molasses. The 
whole consumption of the United States is 
wtimated at 350,000,000 pounds. So that 
if the culture mcreases with equal rapidity 
for ten years to come, Louisiana, Texas and 
Florida will produce every pound required 
in the Union. 

We learn from the article from which all 
these facts are taken, that Cane is now cul- 
tivated in nineteen parishes in Louisiana, 
wid preparations are making for extending 
the culture to five others. The number of 
sugar estates in 1843-'4, was 764— slaves 
employed, 50,670— steam engines do., 408— 
horse do., 354— capital invested •60,000,00a 
Durrag the present year it is estimated that 
410 Cotton Estates wUl go into the Sunr 
business!! -^ 

Until 1831 it was supposed that the Loliis- 
iana Sugars were too weak for refim'ng, but 
the introduction of the vacuo process has 
proved the incorrectness of this opinion, and 
some six estates are now oigaged in the pro- 
duction of white Su^, and such are the im- 
provements now going on, that the writer in 
the Review is of the opinion that in a few 
years Louisiana will supply the whole Union 
with the white Sugars, directly from the 

" The extent of Sugar lands embraced in 
the above parishes, and which could be pot 
mto cultivation at the ordinary expense of 
clearing and draining, would be sufllcient to 
supply the whole consumption of the United 
States ; by applying to our low, flat lands, 
for a few years, the artificial draining of Hoi- 
land, and more particularly to die iract on our 
Western coast, between the sea and the Mia- 
sissippi, lands enough could be reclaimed to 
supply, besides, the consumption of a large 
portion of Europe.**— 5<w>anjKiA RepukOcan. 

Curious.— In the middle of the St. John's 
river, (says the St. Augustine Herald,) and 
about a mUe South of Picolata, a pine tree 
has planted itself recently. It stands per. 
fectly erect, and as near as we could judge, 
about 20 feet out of the water, and appears 
in full foliage as if growing. Snags and 
sawyers are common in the Western waters, 
and are feared by the steamboats, as shoals 
and breakers are at sea; but not one, we 

J resume, ever dreamed of such in the St. 
ohn's River. The wonder is, how such a 
tree became transported from terra firma and 
planted in its present position.— iV. F. Ex* 

Tennessee.—ThiB state was settled in 1765- 
bjr emigrants from North Caroliha and Vir- 
gmia ; admitted into the Union in 179a 








(C oH T mUlD FEOH VOL. II.» FAOB 114.) 

We flpoke in oor last of that mom appalU 
iDg Tista in the history of man — the retro* 
speet along the Ime of papal saecession. To 
prepare our minds to consider the biography 
of their living successor, let us cast a hasty 
glance at those periods when it most darkened 
the horizon of Europe. The following out« 
line we copy, with abridgement, from a re- 
cent book, written by a distinguished Frenph 
author; and although it is shocking to our 
own taste and feelings, lo peruse, and much 
more so to prii^, details like these, we have 
thought it our duty to place them on record 
in the cdumns of an American popular and 
fiunily magazin^ We would, with all our 
hearts, that we might have been permitted 
to draw a more pleasing picture : but Ame« 
rican parents and children must know the 
truth, and will know that we are not to blame 
because we tell a sad story, when we lay it 
before them* 

Sketch of the History of some of the Popes, 

Mahomed appeared in the seventh centu- 
ry : a skillful impostor, he founded a new re- 
ligion, and the greatest empire iu the world. 
&vinff been banished from Mecca, he re* 
assembled his disciples, established the 
foundations of his theogony, and proceeded 
to make the most surprising conquests. 

The bishops did not yet arrogate to them- 
selves a temporal jurisdiction ; but the weak- 
ness of the Western Empire gave rise to a 
scandalous usurpation, which has covered 
Europe with butchery, disasters and crime. — 
Pepin, King of France, connected himself 
successively with the Popes Zacharias and 
Stephen, and, in order to make amends in the 
eyes of the world for his usurpation of the 
crown of FVance, and the murder of his bro- 
ther, be gave up to the Holy See the do- 
mains of Romagna, which had been taken 
from the Lombards. Stephen IIL, a hypo- 
critical prince, delayed not to display his new 
power oy the excess of unrestrained ambi- 
tioo. Under Stephen VI., fury was at its 
hekht : the clergy were divided into factions, 
and the Pope was elected in tbe midst of 
carnage. The pontiff, after the victory, had 
the eyes of his predecessor Constantine II., 
blinded, and his tongue torn out. 

Charlemagne invaded Lombardy, seized 
upon the inheritance of his nephews, robbed 
his fiither-in-law, as a punishment for having 
defended them, had him dragged to Lyons 
loaded with chains, and condemned to close 
his life in prison. Leo IIL then placed a 
golden crown upon his head, and a purple 
robe upon bis soldiers. But the successors of 
Charlemagne were unable to preserve the in- 

fluence at Rome which this usurper had ob- 
tained, by yielding up the lands be had taken 
from the Lombards. 

Pascal I., with criminal audacity, caused 
the eyes of Theodore, primicerius of the 
Romish Church, and also those of bis son-in- 
law, Leon, to be put out, and their heads to 
be cut off, in the patriarchal palace of Late- 
ran, because they had been faith!!ul to Lo- 
thaire ; and, on the death of the pope, the 

Seople opposed his intermit, and wished to 
rag his body through the streets of Rome.*- 
His successor, Eugene, caused the removal, 
from the sepulchres of pu trifled corpses, 
the disgusting remains of human bodies, to 
send them to France, Germany and England, 
and sell them to Christian Europe. Sergius 
publicly carried on a shameful trade in all 
the offices of the church. Leo IV., had the 
impudence to insure impunity to the bishops 
for tbe most enormous crimes. 

AAer the death of Leo, a woman mounted 
the chair of St. Peter, celebrating mass, cre- 
ating bishops, and having her feet kissed by 
princes and people. 

In the ninth century the Greeks and Latins 
separated. Ridiculous] disputes produced flf- 
teen centuries of murders ; and carnage, and 
frightful wars, with nineteen bloody schisms, 
stained in the West the See of Rome. The 
Arabs and Turks enslaved tbe churches ci 
Greece and Africa, and established the Ma- 
homedan religion on the ruins of Christianity. 
The Roman. Church maintained itself in the 
midst of troubles, discord and ruins, and, 
during that epoch of anarchy, the bishops and 
abbots of Germany all made themselves 

Srinces, while the popes acquired absolute 
omination in Rome. 

Stephen VIL ordered the tomb of Formosus 
to be broken open, took out the body, and 
had it carried into a synod which had been 
assembled to de^de it The frightful corpse, 
arrayed in pontifical robes, was interrogated 
in the midst of false accusations and clamor, 
in words like these : " Why did you, while 
a Bishop, in a spirit of^ mad ambition, 
usurp the See of Kome V* Then the Pope 
had him stripped of his sacerdotal garments, 
cut off three of his fingers and threw them 
into the Tiber. 

Sergius took the pontifical chair, and led a 
life defiled bv debauchery. His son became 
pope, under the title of John XII.» and sur- 
passed him in monstrous crimes. The cardi- 
nals and bishops accused him of incest, homi- 
cide, profanation, blasphemy and shameful 

Gregory V. had the feet of John and Cres- 
centius cut off, and also their hands, tongues 
and ears ; and when thus mutilated, made 
them walk through the streets of Itome.— 
Benedict IX. was raised to the holy See at 
the age of twelve years, by the intrigues and 
the gold of Count Toscanelle, and soon aban- 
don^ hiniseli to excessive immorality. The 
Romans, at length, weary with his crimes, 
drove him from Rome and nominated another 






pope, Sylyester III. Benedict, with the aid 
of lu8 reiatioiiB, again got possession of the 
Holy S(m; but, finding himself the object of 
execration, and presaging a fall, sold his 
place by an act of simony, consecrated a third 
pope, named John XX., and then retired to 
the palace of his fath^ and abandoned him- 
self to crimes. 

Three anti-popes scandalously divided into 
three portions the patrimony of the poor, and 
seated themselves, one at St. Peter's, another 
at St. Marv Maggiore, and the third in the 
nalace of the Lateran. A priest purchased 
nx>m the three oopes their titles to the papa- 
cy* and succeedeg them, under the name of 
Gregory VI. 

Hildebrand, the Monk of Cluny^, the poi- 
soner of popes, usmrped the pontifical chair, 
under the name of Gfregory Vll. He launch- 
ed his anathemas against kings, incitcMl wars, 
filled (tomaay and Italy with conflagrations, 
carnage and murders, excommunicated the 
Emperor of Germany, stripped him of the 
title of king, released his people from their 
oath of allegiance, stirred up the princes to 
rebel against him, and finally reduced him to 
such a miserable condition thai he lost his 
reason. The king went to see the pope in 
the depth of winter, fasting, barefooted and 
in his shirt, with a pair of scissors in one 
hand, and a broom in the other. 

Adrian, the son of an English beggar, 
made the Emperor Barbarossa hold his stir- 
rup for him ; and required the famous Arnold 
of Brescia to be delivered up to him to be 
burned alive, because he had preached against 
the luxury of priests and the abominations of 

Alexander ordered that the emperor should 
come and ask his pardon in the presence of 
the assembled people, without his robe and 
crown, with a beadle*s rod in his hand, and 
throw himself down with bis face in the 
dust. While he lay thus before the gate of 
the church, Alexander placed his foot upon 
his neck and trod upon nim, saying—'* Thou 
shalt tread upon the basilisk, and trample 
upon the lion and the asp." 

Celestine IT., for the sake of gold, crowned 
Henry IV., who r^ewed the sacrilege of 
Stephen VIL, hy digging up the body of Tan- 
cred, to have his head cut off by the execu- 
tioner; put out the eyes of >oung William, 
the son of Tancred ; condemned Uount Jour- 
dan to punishment, by fastening him nakc^ 
to a chair of hot iron, and crowning him 
with a hoop of the same, which was nailed 
to his head. 

Innocent IIL ordered crusades to be preach- 
ed against the infldels, increased his treasury 
with the wealth of lations, and treated with 
Saladin, to prevent him from restoring the 
holjr places to the Emperor of Germany. — 
This pope established the monstrous tribunal 
of the Inquisition ; then preached a crusade 
against the Albigenses, robbed EUtymond VI., 
Count of Toulouse, of his estate, and sent St. 
Dominic, with power to persecute the unfor- 

tunate Vaudois with fire, sword, and torments 
unheard of. The crusaders got poesession of 
the city of Buziers; the terrible Dominic, 
with toe crucifix in one hand, and a torch in 
the other, incited to cama^; and sixty 
thousand corpses were buried m the ruins of 
that city, which was destroyed by fire. Tou- 
louse, Carcassonne, Alby, Castduiudary, 
Narbonne, St. Gilles, Aries, Marseilles, Aix 
and Avignon were derasted by the armies of 
the pope. Rajrmond, being brought before a 
legate, naked to the girdle, and barefoot, wu 
beaten with rods, and dragged by a cord 
round the tomb of a fanatic monk who had 
been massacred by the people. 

Gregory IX., to support his ambition and 
the unbridled luxury of his court, raised tax- 
es in France, England »nd Germany, excom- 
municated Kings, incited nations to revolt, 
and caused himself to be driven away from 

Martin IV. mounted St Peter*s chair, and 
formed a compact with Charles d'Anjou: the 
one a political tyrant, and the ferocious usurp- 
er of Siciljr — the other a hoi v tyrant 9f Rome. 
His cruelties aroused general indignation ; and 
a vast conspiracy was formed under John of 
Procida. On the the third day of Easter, 
1282, at the hour of vespers, the signal of 
slaughter was given ; and at the sound of 
the clocks, the cry of death was heard in all 
the cities of Sicily. The French were mas- 
sacred in the churches, public squares and 
houses; murder and vengeance eyerywhere 
prevailed ; and ten thousand corpses were the 
trophies df the Sicilian vespers. 

Boniface VIU. became pope, after assassi- 
nating his predecessor. He outraged nations, 
set kings at deflance ; persecuted the Ghibe- 
lines, the partisans of the Emperor of Ger- 
many ; invented the jubilee, in order to brioff 
the riches of Europe into his treasury, and 
excited so deep a hatred against himself, that 
the States assembled at Paris to try him. 

The Archbishop of Narbonne accused him 
of simony, assassination and usury ; of dia- 
believing the Eucharist, and the immortality 
of the soul^ of employing violence to obtain 
the secrets of the confessional ; of vices which 
cannot be named, and of using the money 
received for indulgences, to pay the Saraoena 
for invadlnff Sicily. 

Clement V. and Philip le Bel accused the 
Templars of enormous crimes, and condemn- 
ed them to the most frightful punishments, 
that they might seise upon their immenae 
treasures. At the order of the king, the 
Grand Master of the Templars, aocompiinied 
by hi9 knights, was led to punishment, to be 
burned alive, in the presence of cardinals nnd 
priests, who coolly contemplated the burning 
and bloody stake. After sharing the apoUa 
of the Temphirs, he preached a new crusade 
against the Turks, sold indulgences, and, 
joining ridicule to infamy, gave each cru- 
sader the right to release four souls from pur- 
gatory ' 

(T« be eonttnued.) 






PsiDB versus Tbttch. — There is no sin^e 
obstB^e which stands in the way of more 
people in the search of truth than pride — 
Ther bare once declared themselres or a par- 
tieaw ofrinion, and they cannot bnng them- 
tdrea to think they comd possiUy 1^ in the 
wrcog; coosequently thejr cannot persuade 
themselres of the necessity of re-examining 
the foundations of their opinions. Toao- 
knoiwledge and give up their error, would he 
a aiill severer maL But the truth is, there 
ii more greamess of mind, in candidly girihg 
up a mistake, than would have appeared in 
escaping it at first, if not a rery shameful one. 
The surest way of aroiding error is, careful 
eiamination. The best way for ieavinff 
room for a change of opinion, which should 
shrays be provided for, is, to be modest in 
ddirering one's sentiments. A man may, 
without confusion, give up an opinioD which 
he dedaied without arrogance. 

Names; — ^Emma is from the German, and 
flicnifies a Norse ; George, from the Greek; 
ft Farmer; Martha, from Hebrew, Bitterness, 
the beaatiful, though common name Mary, 
is Hebrew, and means a Drop of Salt Water, 
a Tear; Sophia, from Greek, Wisdom ; Su- 
8sn, firovn Hebrew, a Lily ; Thomas from 
Hebrew, a Twin ; Robert from G^erman, fa- 
in ComiciL 



OBiTu.AET.~Died, at Wilhraham, March 
8th, Mr. Joshua Walbbidgb, aged 88 years, 
a Revolutionary soldier. Mr. walbridge was 
bom in South Brimfield, now Wales. He 
eari^ entered the revolutionarv struggle, and 
coDcmued four years and a half in the service 
of his country, and was engaged in several 
important battles. At the sanguinary battle, 
of Valley Forge, while upon the retreat, he 
discovered his uncle. Major Walbridge, who 
bad been wounded in the head, in the early 
put of the enga^ment, and left for dead by 
to soldiers. Finding him still alive, he re- 
solved to save him. He bathed his head, he 
moistened bis lip with his canteen, and was 
10 engaged that he heeded neither the retreat 
of his comrades nor the advance of the ene* 
my until they w^e nearly upon him. His 
micle urged him to leave Jiim to his fate; 
but yoong Walbridge, nothing daunted, shoul- 
dered his uncle, and with giant strides, amid 
ibowers of British balls, bore him from the 
field, and triumphantly regained his regiment, 
with thdr Major upon his back. He was a 
patriot* Asa volunteer, he joined CoL Shep- 
ird, and was at Springfield actively engaged 
tgamst Shays, in his msorrection. He after- 
^rds settled in Wilhraham, where he spent 
tke remainder of his life. — Mass. Rejmb. ^ 

Cktiog to Ijsw 
An upper and a lower mill. 

Fell out about their water. 
To war they went— that is to law— 

Resdved to give no quarter. 

A lawyer was by each engaged. 

And hotly they contend^. 
When fees mw slack the war thmr wag'd 

Their judged were better ended. 

The heavy cotL^f remaining still, 
Were settle*': wtthout bother. 

One lawer took the upper mill, 
The other one the other. ' 



8weet wilding tufls that, 'mid the waste, 

Your lowly beds expand ; 
Though bj no sheltering walls embraced. 

Nor tramed by beauty's hand : 

The primal flowers which grace your stems 

Briff ht as the dahlia's shme. 
Found thus, like unexpected gems. 

To comfort hearts lise mine. 

'TIS a quaint thought, and yet, perchance, 
Sweet blossoms, ye are sprung 

From flowers that over Eden once 
Their pristine flagrance flung ;— 

That drank the dews of Paradise, 
Beneath the starlight clear ; ^ 

Or caught from Eve's dejected eyes 
Her first repentant tear. 

Soidlers on Skates; or the SkloMere of 


Norway, says Elliot, yields a race of 
men, sailors from the cradle, with a line of 
crafl which places her in a condition to de- 
fend herself against Russia, without incurs 
ring the dread of a simultaneous invaskm 
on the part of Denmark. Perhaps, too, 
that peculiar description of soldiers, who 
fight on skates or snow-shoes, and who can 
run with rapidity and facility on ground 
over which a pedestrian would painfully 
move with toil, with tardmesa and &tigue, is 
not the least important acquisition Sweden 
has gained with the ceded territory. 

As 80 cursory a mention is made of this 
remarkable body of men, it may interest 
some reader of these letters to form a better 
acquaintance with them through the medium 
of Sir Capel Brooke's description. The 
following account of the Skiolebere is ex- 
tracted from the 8th chapter of his Travels 
through Norway. 

<<The uniform of the Skielobere, or 
regiment of skaters, is light green ; and in 
Summer they are chasseurs, and armed with 




fliers. As soon as the snow falls in suffi- 
cient quantity! and is in a state to bear them 
well, they commence their winter ma* 
ncBuvres, in this singular kind of skate.-— 
The left skie is shorter than the right, to 
enable them to turn quicker in wheeling. 
They are covered with seal skin, that the 
men may ascend the mountains with great- 
er ease and safety ; the hair preventing the 
skie from sliding backward. The speed 
with which these skaters perfoi^m their dif- 
ferent manoeuvres is very astonishing : they 
slide along the frozen surface of the snow 
like lightning, and go down the steepest 
precipices with inconceivable velocity. 

" The Skielobere have frequently been 
employed with great success against the 
enemy, in the wars with Sweden. Indeed, 
an army would be completely in the power 
of even a handful of these troops ; which, 
stopped by no obstacle, and swift as the 
wind, might attack it on all points : while 
the depth of the snow, and the nature of the 
country, would not only make any pursuit 
impossible, but almost deprive them of the 
means of defence ; the Skielobere still 
hovering round them like swallows, skim- 
ming the icy surface, and dealing destruc- 
tion upon their helpless adversaries. 

<< A pair of their skies, which I brought 
to England with me, are six feet five inches 
in length." 


Extracts from a letter of an Italian 

friend abroad. 

** Last summer I read in the North Brit- 
ish Review, I think, that Great Britain 
and the United States only could be called 
Christian countries. This assertion, so far 
from our received notions about the extent of 
Christendom, seemed to me the result of 
fimciful arithmetic. But I had not spent 
four weeks in London, before I became 
convinced, that it is a fearful truth. What 
1 soon read there, and saw and heard from 
travellers and residents in most continental 
nations, drove me to acknowledge reluc- 
tantly, that the faith in, and the practice of 
the Gospel, had nearly seen, on the Conti- 
nent, their last days. And so shocking was 
the picture of the prevalence of infidelity, 
hypocrisy, superstition and immorality, pre- 
sented to mv mind, that, had I consulted my 
feelings, I should have re-orossed the At- 
lantic immediately, not to be an eye-witness 
of it. 

'^ I stopped a Sunday at Boulogne : there 

was no indication of a Christian people 
there. It was Sunday in my almanac, not 
in Boulogne. I came to Pans : still worse : 
for net only working, trading, travelling go 
on there on Sunday as briskly as on any 
week day, but the evening, and to a great 
extent the afternoon of the Sabbath, are set 
apart for a more general and noisy exhibi- 
tion of ^hows, and indulgence in all kinds 
of disorderly amusements." 

The Roman Catholic clergy of Paris, 
as our friend informs us, have given up all 
attempts to meet Protestants in argument, 
and address themselves wholly to the task 
of impressions upon the people, by a dis- 
play of ceremonies. He has visited the 
principal churches ; and finds that long pro- 
cessions, pplendid vestments, the smoke of 
numerous censers and thundering of or- 
gans are greatly increased, &r beyond the 
practice of former years ; and yet the con- 
gregations are usually small, and they con- 
sist almost entirely of women. 

A similar state of things prevails through- 
out France: for the colporteurs have car- 
ried the bible into all parts of the country, 
as well as of the metropolis ; and this, with 
the inquiries and discussions to which it 
has led, has inclined in my minds to imder- 
value a religion of forms, while the mass of 
people are still too ignorant to proceed far- 
ther than to feel the neglect of what they 
been brought up to! 

After all the parade and expense about 
public education, the common schools are 
now in the hands of Ignorantin monks ! 
Truly a promising name, especially as it 
is justly applied in its legimate meaning. — 
Their instructions are limited almost wholly 
to two branches : the Catechism of Rome, 
and the art of 'walking without looking 
from the ground. Our friend justly ex- 
claims : — What has France or mankind to 
hope for from such a generation ? 

Let us, American parents, stimulated 
by such a melancholy example, begin to 
prepare our children to do double duty in 
their day, as enlightened patriots, philan- 
thropists and active Christians : for France, 
at least, promises to do but little of the work 
the world will need. 





F^9m a Tmmg Zadif^ 


Ab tliis it a faYoiite Bruit id our country, and 
it probably mach pnzed and admired by many 
who would like to know more of its nature, it 
maf be well to give some account of it The 
following facts and remarks are taken from 
Burnet's Outlines of Botany. 

The Orange is a tree or shrub, with 
almost slways smooth stems and branches. 
ItB jmce 18 balsamic and the plants are cover- 
ed with leares, flowers and fruit, with recep* 
tades of easeotial oil. The flowers are regu- 
lar and united, color white, red or yellow, and 
Teij fragrant. 

Aldiooffh originally a tropical plant, it is 
coliinted in the temperate latitudes, and im> 
ported into this country (Ebagland), in such 
abondaoce as to rie in plenty and cheapness 
with our nati?e fruits. 

The Orange has been belieyed, by some 
ckmcal commentators, to be the golden apple 
of Ueaperides. 

Citnu Aurantium is the Orange or Golden 
Apple. This is the sweet orange, too well 
mowii to need description, and too highly 
eneemed to admit of praise. Its Tarieties, 
like those of most cuitirated fruits, are many. 
The most important are, 1st, the Common 
Swtet Ormge, 2d, the China, 3d, the Majorca^ 
4ih, •Jie Niu, 5th, the Geneva, 6th, the Thick' 
rinded Portugal, 7th, the Teat-Fruited, 8th, 
ihe DnMe Flowered, 9th, the Ribbed, lOih, 
mMdta or Blood-juiced, 11th, the St. Mi- 
chaeTs, and 12th, the Oporto, or Pipeless pot 

Citms Vulgaris is the bitter or Seville 
^^tvige; of which, like the preceding, there 
ve sereral varieties. But they are less cul* 
umed, as, althoagh preferred for medicine, 
% are less palatable for food. 

Citms Decumana is the Shaddock, so call- 
^ after the captain who first introduced it to 
the West Indies from Chma. It is a large 
hudsome fruit, but not so pleasant in its &' 
jw as the (»ran2e. It will, however, keep 
"^ and good longer at sea, and hence is 
Jwnable. There are several other species of 
Ciirw, whose fruits form pleasant food : such 
M (he C, Nobilis ; both the rhind and pulp of 
which are eatable. This latter is called in 
vhioa the Mandarin, and is considered the 
n«t delicate of the whole.'' D. B. E. 

. tomPT.— The celebrated Pate de Jujubes 
"made by taking raisins, stoned; 1 pound 
« currants, pickled Jujubes, opened—each 
* 02.; water, a sufficient quantity; Boil 
™«B, strain them by pressure. Add sugar 
n Ihs., previously made into a mucilege, with 
xpe water, and strained. Evaporate the 
viKde gently, and pour it into moulds, and 
I loish by drying it in a stove and th&i divide 


Will any of our readers send us a trans- 
lation ? 

Cabo Bditobb — A poco a poco, Pinvemo 
andando spanre, la terra ritornerk a novella 
Tita, coprendosl di verdure e di fiori, abbilen- 
^ ^^«"» di tutte le sue belene, dandoci 
sedute e scene piecevoli degne per meno 
d eccelente pemello di conservame una me- 
mona im conaimile. 

In Italia i pittori ed i giovani studenti com- 
Inciano i loro perigrinaggi, copiando veduti 
al naturale, o ornare di freschi bellissimi, 
d ogni genere e d'ogni sUle le dimore cam- 
pestn. Nel vostro paese avete, certamente. 
pitton buonissimi ; ma P Italia, come sapete, 
VI supera ; perch^, nido, in ogni tempo, delle 
arti, dejpP mjfwii, del bello, e cosi ella invia 
aitrove i suoi fi^li, o questi esuli per la tiran- 
nia de' govemi s'espatriano postrando alle 
altre nazioni le loro doti, omando gli altri 
paesi de loro esimj lavori. 

A voi, come benefico in tuttl i tempi agl' 
esuli Itaiiani, raccomando il Signore Ottavi- 
ani, Romano, celebre disiffnatore, allievodell' 
Academia di Roma, pro&ssore non ha guar! 
ne' primi e reali collegi di Frenda, ed ore 
stabilito cosi, ofirendo al publico Americano i 
suoi servigi, onde colla sua pregievole ability 
e CO suoi meriti possi centinuarsi quella fama 
ch' ha saputo coltivarsi allrovi. Egli conosce 
il disegno a fondo ; e percid a niuno inferiore; 
pittm a fresco, m figure, in gottico ed in or- 
nati, in veduta detro natura. 

Documents illustrating the History of New 


The report of Mr. Brodhead, wh6 was ap- 
pointed by the legislature of this State, in 
1839, to proceed to Europe to procure docu- 
ments relating to the Colonial history of the 
State, contains much interesting information 
concerning the depositories of records in 
England, Frence and Holland, with a cata- 
iogue of the numerous papers procured or 
copied by him, and now deposited in Albany. 
We shall be able to make only a few ex* 
tracts and notices from this volume of 374 
pages; and therefore we must pass by unno- 
ticed many subjects which would afford much 
gratification to our readers. Having paid 
considerable attention to certain periods of our 
colonial history in past years, and visited 
many places important in the French and In- 
dian wars, we have had an opportunity to 
know some of the points on which further 
information was desirable. We are happy to 
add, that the catalogue now before us shows 
that many of those blanks appear to be am- 
ply supplied. 





JTbr tk$ Anuriem Pinny Magaxins, 

God, thou know'8t how sad to me 
The mem'ry of departed friends. 
Comet when, at gath'ring night, I tee 
Alone the gloom that eyening sends. 

Foototeps, familiar to my ear. 
Seem to ai>proach my opening door ; 
I silent wait, in vain, to hear 
The Yoices I shall hear no more. 

Their smiles, and words, and looks, more 
Than younger friends know how to gire: 
Sach hearts, soch tones,^I*m deaf and blind, 
Or else such men no longer li?e. 

1 lore. to rove again the field, 
In filney, oft in youth I trod : 

for their dear sakes the flowrets yield 
Their breath from erery humble sod. 

The summer's eyening breeze is sweet 
Again through that gay window wide, 
Where four ol us in love did meet — 
But two have sunk beneath the tide 

Which time is ever pouring on ; 
And far beyond the reach of mind 
The'ye pass'd ; and, though we follow soon 
As they were then, we still are blind. 

God, thou know'st, what keen distress 
These recollections wakn in me ; 
But in each pang of grief I bless 
The comfort that I find in Thee. 


ENIGMA, No. 2. 

I am composed of 15 letters. 

My 15, 4, 6, 4, 13, 4 is a sandy desert ; 

My 14, 2, 8 is a river in Russia ; 

My 5, 13, 2, 4, 1 5 was a city of Asia Minor, 
Tisited by the Apostle Paul ; 

My 13, 6, 2, 3, 9 is a river ia France ; 

My 15, 4, 8, 12 is a city in Arabia ; 

My 11, 9, 8, 3, 9, 13 is a lake in Sweeden ; 

My 1, 2, 13, 10, 4, 8 is a celebrated river in 

My 11, 7, 13, 15, 12, 11 is a city in the 
Russian dominions ; 

My whole is the name of a distinguished 
American divine. H. C. B. 

Farmer' a Club, March 24t :— Capt. Wil- 
son, of the ship Ganges, presented to the 
Club, a speoimen of some very fine, large, 
well filled, sweet yellow wheat, raised at 
Alexandria, in Egypt. He also set up, in 
the Repository, a most remarkable piece of 
sculpture in white marble, dug up in the 
same place. It is very much broken, but 
seems to represent a person astride of Pe- 
gasus, striking down with a weapon a lion, 
which 18 seen crouching beneath the winged 
horse. The carving of the features of the 
rider is quite delicate and artistical, and the 
position of the figure is graceful in the ex* 

Alarming Inoemdiabt Fibb. — Between six 
and seven o'clock on Tuesday evening, fire 
was communicated by some vile incendiary to 
the rooms at the head of each main flight of 
stairs on the Barclay and Vesey street sides 
oi the Astor House, in the sixth story, one of 
which was almost immediately discovered l^ 
a young woman attached to the house, and 
who had left the room about four or five 
minutes before. The bed and bed-clothes 
were on fire, but with great presence of mind, 
and considerable injunr to one of her hands, 
she extinguished the flanles. 

It is feared that a gatig of incendiaries have 
recently visited our city. Besides the City 
Hotel, on Monday night, which was fired in 
a precisely similar manner with that of the 
Astor House, last evening, in an unoccupied 
room on the 6th stoiy, there were three or 
four attempts at incendiarism the same night, 
viz., in Ceaar, Little Green and William sts, 
and one or two other places. 

To GiTB SiTBscBiBBBS. — ^Thosc who wish 
to receive the second volume, and have not 
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mail, without paying postage. 

Those who wish to withdraw their names, 
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Ebttid bt Thbodoeb Dwiobt, Ja., ) 

j Piirci 3 Ci 

:ini, SiNsLI, o> 

Vol. U. 

New York, SiTURDir, April ] : 

1. 1846. 

No. 10. 

1 ? 

! la 

■■ -jfi 



ffS tie 



" f il 

^ I S e 

- ~l' s 







it hardly needs to be remarked, that Broosa 
stands on an extensive plain, in view of a 
range of noble mountains. 

The uniform line of the houses is suffi- 
cient to show, that they are buih on an un- 
Tarying level ; and if the view were ex- 
tended to the right or the iefl, the broad and 
uniform surface would be seen spreading 
for miles on either side, planted with gar- 
dens and shaded with thick and countless 
groves of mulberry trees. 

This large, populous and l)usy town, 
although now hardly second to any other 
in the Turkish dominions, and formerly tlie 
capital, for one hundred and thirty years 
before the capture of Constantinople, occu- 
pies a site undistinguished in ancient days. 
Its name is familiar to many of our readers, 
and must have a peculiar interest with those 
interested in the culture of. silk, since it de- 
signates one of the most valuable varieties 
of the mulberry. 

We have but to figure to ourselves the 
extensive and irregular terrace which oc- 
cupies that important part of the interior of 
Asia Minor, where were situated the coun- 
tries of Galatia, Cappadocia, Phrygia and 
Lycaonia, with the cities of Lystra, Derbe, 
Iconium and Antioch of Pisidia. The 
plain is bordered by mountains on three 
sides, being open only towards the east, 
having Olympus on the north, and Taurus 
on the South. Mr. Scbreider speaks of no- 
ble forests of oak and birch on the north, 
and yellow pine on the sides of some of 
these mountains. 

^rom its borders the land descends by 
gradual slopes towards the shores of three 
seas : the Black, the iEgean and the Medi- 
terranean ; and in those regions were situated 
the ancient Pontus, Bythmia and Pamphy- 
lia on the north ; on the West Lydia, My- 
sia and Troas; and on the south, Caria, 
Lycia, Cilicia and Paphlagonia. Within 
those districts are the sites of nearly twenty 
cities of antiquity whose names we find in 
the Scriptures. 

The situation of Broosa is near one cor* 
ner of the broad terrace above mentioned. 
and at the foot of the range of Olympus. 
Our countr3nnan Mr. Goodell in describing 
the scene as he enjoyed it from one of those 
elevations, speaks of it as exceeded by 
nothing in the whole empire except the 
capital itself. Turning our eyes to the en- 
graving, we may form some conception of 
its general features. The long ranges of 


many of the buildings, indicate the wealth 
of the inhabitants ; some of the numerous 
slender towers shooting above, serve the 
criers, who five times a day, call the Mos- 
lem to prayers in the name of Mahomed ; 
and here and there a wide dome shows the 
position of a mosque. One of those towns, 
or minarets, may be seen near at hand, on 
the left of the print, with the narrow balus- 
trade, in which the crier lakes his stand, 
after having ascended by a winding stair 
case within ; and the two indolent Turks 
on the terrace below, smoking their long 
pipes, are such figures as might be seen in 
many a splendid mansion in the city, quics- 
cent almost all day long, except when 
roused by his voice giving the cry of Illa- 
illahee 1 

Broosa may be called the City of Silk 
Worms, and the surrounding country the 
Land of Mulberry Trees : fortlie inhabi- 
tants make vast quantities of silk, and the 
environs are beautifully shaded with mul- 
berry groves. Great joumbers of persons 
are employed, in the season, in gathering 
the leaves and transporting them to the city. 
The camels seen on the great road before 
us, on their way into Broosa, may be sup- 
posed to be laden with panniers of these 
loaves, as many animals of that kind are 
constantly employed in this description of 

The Broosa Mulberry was introduced 
into the United States a few years ago, by 
Charles Rhind, on his return from an 
official residence in Constantinople. A 
plantation was formed on the North River, 
from which trees were taken by many fiir- 
mers for propagation. The losses suffered 
by wild speculations, however, caused the 
neglect of almost every rational plan for the 
establishment of the silk manufacture ; and 
but a few single trees, and one large grove 
of the Broosa mulberry are now known to 
remain. The proprietor of the latter in- 
formed the N. York Farmers* Club, a few 
weeks since, that he had above 20,000 trees 
in' fine condition, and finds them able to en- 
dure the climate of this vicinity. The 
opinion of some others is, that it is not the 
best species for our country : but more ex- 
periments are desirable. 

** The provinces of Asia Minor," (says 
the Missionary Herald,) '* for natural aitrac- 
tions, are to be numbered with the must fa- 
vored portions of the earth. At present, 
notwithstanding the oppressive and even de- 
solating influence of the government and of 
the dominant religion, they are estimated to 
contain upwards of 4,000,000 of people ; 

















and anciently the population must have 
been much greater. Asia Minor, when 
traversed by the apostle Paul, is said to have 
contained no less than 500 rich and popu- 
lous cities, connected together by public 
highways, substantially built and paved. 
There paganism and civilizatiout tnough 
opposed in nature, were associated perhaps 
in the highest degree possible. The doc- 
trines snd rites of polytheism were embel- 
lished and sustained by the highest efforts 
of wealth and genius. Art, learning, 
riches, power, policy, prejudice, the splendor 
of literature, and the force of genius, were 
aJl arrayed on the side of superstition ; as 
i[ it were the intention of the all- wise God 
to demonstrate the baleful influence of mis- 
takes concerning his nature upon mind in 
the highest stages of human cultivation. 

" The church of Antioch, in Syria, sent 
into Asia Minor two missionaries: one a 
young man from the schools of Tar- 
sus and Jerusalem, the other a native of 
Cyprus, and perhaps more advanced in 
years. Behold them landing in Pftmphylia, 
with a single attendant, and he, alarmed by 
the hardships and dangers of the enterprise, 
^rsaking them almost immediately. 

•* Cehold this same young man entering 
the port of Ephesus in a Corinthian galley, 
accompanied by two mechanics. While 
desoending, with his companions, from the 
Corinthian vessel, and mingimg with the 
crowd, suppose that some sage of Ionia was 
standing by, and was told that these persons 
were come to render the temple of the great 
goddess Diana despised, whom all Asia and 
the world worshipped. With what scom 
would he have regarded such chimerical 
enthusiasts ! And yet, in the space of four 
years, through the blessing of God on the 
labors of these missionaries, and those of a 
young and eloquent preacher from Alex- 
andria, the danger of this very result, by 
common consent of the inhabitants, had be- 
come most imminent. And thus it was 
everywhere in Asia Minor. Not more 
than a dozen preachers are named in the 
New Testament as connected with the mis- 
sions in lesser Asia, and only three of these 
were apostles. 

" Bith3mia was reserved for the Apostle 
Peter ; and we find the gospel firmly rooted 
there when Pliny, the celebrated Roman 
governor of Bithynia, came into the pro- 
vince not many years after the death of 
that apostle.'' 

Fortunate Loss, — Many years ago a lady 
sent her servant, a young man of about twenty 

years of age. and a native of that part of the 
country where his mistres^ resided, to the 
neighboring town, with a ring which required 
some alteration, to be delivered into the hands 
of the jeweller. The voung man went the 
shortest way, across ihe fields; and coming 
to a httle wooden bridge that crossed a small 
stream, he leaned against the rail and took 
the ring out of its case to look at it. While 
dqpg so It sUpped out of his hand and fell 
into the water. In vain he searched for it, 
even uniU it grew dark. He thought it fefl 
into the hollow of a stump of a tree under 
the water ; but he could not find it. The 
time taken in the search was so long that he 
feared to return and tell his story, thinking it 
incredible, and that he should often be sus- 
pected of having gone into evil company and 
gamed it away or sold it. In this fear he 
determined never to return; he left wages 
and clothes, and fairly ran away. This seem- 
ingly great misfortune was the making of 
him. His intermediate history I know not : 
but this, that after many years absence, either 
m the East or West Indies, he returned with 
a very considerable fortune. He now wished 
to clear himself with his old mistress ; ascer- 
tained that she was living ; purchased a dia- 
mond ring of considerable value, which he 
determined to present in person, and clear his 
character by telling his tale; which the credit 
of his present condition might testify. He 

then took the coach to the town of ; and 

thence set out to walk the distance of a few 
miles. He found, I should tell you, on alight- 
ing, a gendeman who resided in the neigh- 
borhood, and who was bound for the adjacent 
village. They walked together, and in con- 
versation, this former servant, now a gentle- 
man, with graceful manners and agreeable 
address, communicated the circumstance that 
made him leave the country abruptly many 
years before. As he was telling this they 
came to the very wooden bridge. «« There," 
said he, «♦ it was just here that I dropped the ,J 
ring, and there is the very bit of old tree into 
the hole of which it fell— just there." At the 
same time he put down the point of his um- 
brella into a hole of a knot in the tree, and 
drawing it up, to the astonishment of both, 
found the very ring on the ferrule of the um- 
brella. I need not tell the rest, but make this 
reflection—Why was it that he did not as 
easily find it immediately after it had fallen 
in ? It was an incident like one of those 
told by Pamel], which though a seeming^ 
chance, was of purpose, and most important. 
— Blackwood, 

Atalanche, — At East Burke, Vermont, night 
oi 25th ult., a small house was overwhelmed 
by an avalanche of earth from a high and 
very steep bank in the rear. Mr. Charles 
Newell and his wife, both aged and decrepid 
people, were taken from the rums as they 
lay in bed, evidently suffocated by the mud 
and water, with which they were found cov- 
ered.— iV. y. Sufu 




Cousequencei of bit Cireer* 


(CoMTmuiD PBOM Vol. II., paok 1 19.) 
Extracts from a letter from Markranstadt, 
Dear Leipsic, March 12tb, 1814, to the En- 
glish Committee of Relief for Germans dis- 
tressed by the late war. 

The letter says that money had been giv* 
en to sufferers not able to procure the neces- 
sary subsistence, nor to replace out of their 
own means the loss they have sustained in 
the demolition of their houses, in cattle, in 
household furniture and in working tools— 
hence the moderate proportions in which it 
has been dealt out barely enable the husband- 
man to purchase a cow, or the people on the 
river wherewith to re-establish their boats, 
and the mechanic just enough to fit himself 
out again in a manner commensurate with 
the extent of his business; for, while every 
one had more or less of a ffarden behind his 
house, he was enabled to xeep a cow, and 
from the joint produce, which he carried dai* 
ly to market, could procure a livelihood for 
himself and his family. This he is now to- 
tally deprived of, inasmuch as the houses 
have been burnt to the ground, and the cat- 
tle driven within the fortress for the mainte- 
nance of the garrison; nor were they even 
suffered to enjoy the benefit of some previous 
communication of the calamity about to be- 
(all them; but one morning about four 
o'clock, a party was ordered to sally out 
by torch-light, and while some set fire to their 
houses, others stole and carried away what- 
ever these miserable people had been striving 
to save by throwing out of the windows, so 
that the major part of the inhabitants in the 
suburbs is now, from a comparative aflluence, 
reduced to a state of the most abject poverty. 
It is a heart-rending scene, to see a mass of 
people once so decent in their app^rance and 
so comfortable, sitting upon the ruins of their 
dwellings, eagerly searching for anything 
that might by chance have escaped the eagle 
eye of their enemy, and wringing their hands 
through disappointment and despair. 

From the above detail you maj be enabled 
to form some idea of the loy which this kind 
and liberal donation has diffused throughout 
this place, and the intelligence of which has 
reached me on a dvLj when we were threaten- 
ed with the calamity of inundation. Qod 
has not forsaken us, was the universal cry ol 
all, with tears in their eyes. 

Extract from the Report for the Association 

for Belief ibr the environs of Leipsic, dated 

May 9. 

The annexed table presents to our generous 
benefactors on the Thames, the particulars 
of a loss, which, indeed, is infinitely small in 
comparison with the magnitude of the gain 
which the world derives from it ; but severe 
and irreparable to those who have therewith 

purchased advantages of which they them- 
selves are deprived ; and who, weeping over 
the grave of^ their departed prosperity, are 
prevented from partaking of the general joy 
of emancipated humanity. Even now, after 
an interval of seven months, the philanthro- 
^ pist wanders with horror over those fields of 
' desolation, amidst the lamentations of fami- 
lies reduced to beggary. Our zeal, therefore, 
to procure for this unhappy country every 
possible relief, is redoubled, and with it also 
our gratification to all those distant friends 
who assist us to accomplish this object. — 
In this table are included onlv those villages 
and places comprehended in the vast field of 
battle,* and only such damages and losses as 
our country neighbors sustained during tbose 
tremendous days of October, and gr^at pains 
have been taken by the superintendents of 
districts, to obtain correct statements as well 
by making inquiries op the spot, as by the 
appointment of various assistants, and a dili- 
gent comparison of all accounts, and to re- 
cord with the pen of truth what needs no 
exaggeration — a labor not less interesting in 
a historical point of view, than necessary for 
the equitable distribution of the donations 
received, the peculiar difficulties of which 
have delayed tne transmission of this survey 
longer than we wished. One principal head 
could not be introduced into the table, as 
there was no certain standard for making a 
calculation; we allude to the loss arising 
from the devastation of the fields and coun- 
try, and the indirect injury sustained by the 
delay or the total prevention of the operations 
of tilling and sowing many lands, and which 
is the more ctmsiderable, as this battle was 
not,, like most of those upon record, fought 
upon barren uncultivated heights, but extend- 
ea over fertile plains and a country in high 
cultivation. To various circumstances com- 
bined with this, it was owing that the last 
engagement inflicted so fatal a wound on the 
prosperity of our neighbors ; and that after so 
many marches and countermarches and en- 
campments of fapiished troops, after so many 
requisitions and scenes of plimder so frequent- 
ly repeated by a licentious soldiery, the sword 
of desolation cut off at once the remaining 
resources of the whole country. 

The first breathing time occurred at a pe- 
riod when the country had to fulfil too im- 
portant duties, and possessed too limited 
means, to direct its attention to particular 
districts: it was oblij^ed to muster its last 
remains of strength for the general conflict. 
There were also duties of a secondary order 
to be performed: the wounded required at- 
tendance, and the dead, the rites of sepul- 
chre — both in countless numbers. Individual 
exertions could here avail but little. The 
next neighbors had to struggle with their own 

* The number of villages is 63. The tout 
loss incurred by these vilages is upwards of 
two millions and a half of dollars, at 4s. 




149 ; 


necessities ; all the stores were exhausted ; 
the boundless mass of misery deferred many 
a feeble attempt, and disease, moreo?er, began 
to make dreadful rarages. Such were the 
difficulties with which our association, has 
from its first institution, had to contend, not 
indeed in vain, but vet so that we have but 
a distant prospect or our recovery; We pay 
the tribute due to benevolence, and acknow- 
ledgments to merit Joy at the final deliver- 
ance of our countrv, and benevdenee, the 
virtue of the age, have opened to us their 
stores both far and near. The inhabitants of 
our city have not only rabed spontaneous con- 
tnbutions, but their humanity has also become 
industrious and ingenious, and talents have 
vied with wealth. Artists of both sexes have 
sacrificed the productions of their skill, and 
by various exhihitions* have oi>ened the hands 
of their friends to humanity in the way of 
pleasore. Neither have foreign countries dis- 
appointed our expectations. But above all, 
the donations of Britain, which have inscribed 
her illustrious name with indelible characters 
on the records of benevolence, have enabled 
OS to make the wished for beginning of our 
disttibatioasw— We have given away 26,272 
bushels of seed com, and about 10,000 rix 
dollars in tnoney» in Jproportion to the most 
urgent necessities. We are about to com- 
mence a second distribution, for which fresh 
contributions continue to be received. But 
with the increase of our means, the claims 
npoQ ua increase in a still greater degree, and 
our own wishes and plans are extended. The 
&te of the helpless children, who led their 

C rents amid tne storm and horrors of the 
ttle, still demands our particular attention. 
We are also desirous of contributing to the 
rebuilding of the churches and schools in 
places which have been completely im- 
poverished, and are unable, from their own 
resources, to undertake their re-edification. 
We wish to assist them to recover, as speedily 
as possible, the most valuable of their posses- 
sions, and to assemble them again in those 
sanctuaries, where, in the feeble recommence 
ment of their temporal prosperity, they may 
eiijoy the celestial consolation, and the bless- 
ings resulting from social worship. And yet 
the sight of the most pressing want claims all 
our aid and ail our funds. Our hopes of the 
accomplishment of the plans to which we 
have alluded, flow from various near and dis- 
tant sources, but our principal trust, we hesi- 
tate not to say, reposes upon England, upon a 
nation which alone stands unimpaired in 
strength and pro6];>erity, and whose wealth is 
exceraed only by its magnanimity. 

Letter from hisMiyesty the King of Prussia, 

to the London Committee. 

With particular satisfaction I have obser- 
ved that my dominions have obtamed a dona- 
tion of 19,200/., which has been granted by 
the Committee for the Relief of the Distressed 
in Germany, and other inrts of the Continent. 
The more important this aid has been at a 

time when the war lef\ no means wherewith 
to relieve the evils which it produced, the 
more I feel myself bound to present my thanks 
to the Committee : but am convinced that the 
Committee will find, in the peace which has 
been conquered, their highest reward for 
what they have done for the wel&re of the 
common cause. 

* Letter from the Deputies from Hamburg, 

dated July 16, 1814. 

The undersigned, Deputies from the Free 
Hanseatic City of Hamburg, to his Royal 
Highness, the Prince Regent, and the GK>vem- 
ment of Great Britain, avail themselves of 
the earliest opportunity, conformable to the 
n[>ecial instructions they have received from 
the Senate and citizens of Hamburg, to ex- 
press the unfeigned sentinaents of gratitude 
and veneration entertained by them for the 
great exertions and most extensive support 
afibrded by the Committee and Subscnoers 
for reUevioigjlhe distress in Germany, and the 
liberal share granted to their unfortunate 
town, whose inhabitants were once no less 
conspicuous for the extent of their charitable 
depositions than thev now are for the just 
feelings of esteem which they now entertain 
towards all those good men m this coimtry, 
that have saved from utter destruction so 
great a number of victims, by their timely 
assistance. As no place has suffered to the 
extent that Hamburg has done, so none has 
experienced more symptithy and interest in 
its favor, and which, it is trusted, they will 
deserve and experience the continuation there- 

John Hobhouse, Esq. who has lately re- 
turned from Germany, has communicated the 
following details from his personal observa- 

In advancing from Laun,'a town on the 
river Eger, in the Austrian dominions, towards 
the Bohemian frontier, the effects of the long 
and tremendous struggle between the French 
and the Allies at the commencement of the 
late contest begin to be seen and felt 

Between Topliu and Dresden, 500,000 men 
were encamped for three months, and it is at 
one post north of Toplitz that the most deci- 
sive signs of war are visible. Prussia, Kleim, 
Arbessan, NoUerdorf, across tba Russiaa Ge- 
berge to Peterswalda, not a village is stand- 
ing. Fifteen or twenty hamlets through 
which the road passes to Dresden are fired 
and gutted. Amongst the ruins of a village, 
perhaps a single chimney is seen smoking, 
and around it are eight or nine families m a 
wretched situation. In ahorU from Toplitz 
to Dr$sden, a dtstanee of seventy English 
tnilest once fertile and foivlous, not a single 
village remains. An mteetious disorder is 
univesally prevalent. The Postmaster gene- 
rally warns travellers iR>t to stop. I saw 
many dying, and one man actually died as I 






From the froniiew of Saxony to the capital, 
the eye is presented with one wide waste of 
plain, littered with straw, and dotted with 
numerous bodies of horses. The small towns 
and villages on every side of Dresden are level 
with the ground. The fields are totally un- 

The town of Dresden has suffered little or 
no damage ; but it is crowded beyond its re* 
sources by the multitudes that have taken re- 
fuge in it from the destruction oi the villages. 
This is the cause of much misery. Towards 
Meisson, two posts, there are again tremen- 
dous evidences of war. This is also the case 
with the portion of country towards Frey- 
burg, which was the scene otthe battle fought 
previously to the great events of Leipsic. 
Only two flocks of sheep did I see, until ap- 
proachmg Leipsic, and not two herds of cattle. 
The plains round Leipsic had the appearance 
of straw yards, strewed with the carcasses of 
men and beasts. The suburbs of Leipsic have 
greatly suffered. 

The field of battle comprehended more 
than sixty villages, all of which nave been 
completely plundered, and many burnt. In 
this whole range, extending to the distance 
of ten miles round the city, there are scarcely 
to be found either animals of any desciiption, 
or com, or hay, or any implements of agricul- 
ture. The houses that still remain are unin- 


The catching of the tunny fish constitutes 
one of the principal Sicilian amusements 
daring the summer months, and the curing 
and sending them to foreign markets makes 
one of the greatest branches of their com- 
merce. These fishes do not make their ap* 
peartince in the Sicilian seas till towards 
the latter end of May. At which time the 
TonTutros^ as they call them, are prepared 
for their reception. This is a Kind of 
aqtiatic castle, formed at a great expense, of 
strong nets, fastened at the bottom ofihe sea 
by anchors and heavy weights. These 
tcmnaros are erected in the passages amongst 
the rocks and islands that are most frequent- 
ed by the timny-fish. They take care to 
shut up with nets the entry into these pas- 
sages, all but one little opening, whicn is 
called the outward gate of the tonnaro. 
This leads into the first af^rtment, or, as 
they call it, the hail. As soon as the fish 
have got into the hall, the fishermen, who 
stand centry in their boats during the season, 
shut the outer door^which is no more than 
letting down a small piece of net — which 
eflectually prevents the tunny from return- 
ing by the way they came. They then 
open the inner door of the hall, which leads 
to the second apartment, which the^ call the 
ante-chamber, and by making a noise on the 

surface of the water, they soon drive the 
tunny-fish into it As soon as the whole 
have got into the ante-chamber, the inner 
door of the hall is again shut, and the outer 
door is opened for the reception of more 
company. Some tonnaros have a great 
number of apartments, with different names 
to them all — the saloon, the parlor, the 
dining-room, &c. ; but the last apartment is 
always styled la Camera della Morte — the 
chamber of death. This is composed of 
stronger nets, and heavier anchors than the 
others. As soon as they have collected a 
sufficient number of tunny-fish, they are 
driven from all the other apartments, into 
the chamber of death, when the slaughter 
begins. The fishermen, and oflen the gen- 
tlemen, too, armed with a kind of spear or 
harpoon,attack the t>oor,defenceless animals, 
on all sides ; which now giving themselves 
up to despair, dash about with great force 
and agility, throwing the water over all the 
boats, and tearing the nets to pieces. They 
often knock out their brains against the 
rocks or anchors, and sometimes even 
against the boats of their enemies. You 
see, there is nothing very generous or 
manly in this sport 

The taking of the Pesce-Spada, or sword- 
fish, is a much more noble diversion. No 
art is made use of to ensnare him, but, with 
a small harpoon, fixed to a Ion? line, they 
attack him in the open seas, and will often 
strike him at a very considerable distance. 
It is exactly like the whale fishing in 
miniature. As these fish are commonly of 
great size and strength, they will sometimes 
run for hours afier they are struck, and af- 
ford excellent sport. I have seen them 
with a sword four or five feet long, which 
gives them a formidable appearance in the 
water, particularly afler they are wounded. 
The flesh of these animals is excellent. It 
is more like beef than fish, and the common 
way of dressing it, is in steaks. The fish- 
ing of the Pesee^Bpada is most considerable 
in the sea of Palermo, where they have 
likewise great quantities of eels, particularly 
the Moreno^ so much esteemed amongst the 
Romans, which I think is indeed the finest 
fish I ever ate. But it is not only the large 
fish that they strike with harpoons — they 
have the same method of taking mullet, do- 
ries, a kind of mackarei, and many other 
species; but this is always performed in 
the night. As soon as it is dark, two men 
get into a small boat ; one of them holds a 
lighted torch over the surface of the water ; 
the other stands with his harpoon ready 
poised in his hand. The light of the torcn 







soon brings the fish to the surface, when the 
harpooner immediately strikes them. A 
large fleet of boats employed in this kind of 
limbing make a beautiml appearance on the 
water, in a fine summer night. 

The coral fishery is chiefly practiced at 
Trapani. They have invented a machine 
there, which answers the purpc^e much 
beyond their expectations. This is only a 
great cross of wood, to the centre of which 
is fixed a heayy, hard stone, capable of car- 
rying it to the bottom. Pieces of small net 
are tied to each limb of the cross, which are 
poised horizontally by a rope, and let down 
into the water. As soon as they feel it 
touch the bottom, the rope is made fast to 
the boat ; they then row about all over the 
coral beds — the consequence of which is, 
the stone breaks ofl'the coral from the rocks, 
and it is immediately entangled in the nets. 
Since this invention, the coral fishery has 
tamed out to considerable account. 

The people of Trapani are esteemed the 
most ingenious on the island. They are the 
authors of many useful and ornamental in- 
ventions. An artist there has discovered a 
method of making cameos, which are a per- 
fect imitation of the ancient ones engraved 
oa the onyx. They are done on a kind of 
hard shell, from pastes of the best antiques ; 
and so admirably executed, that it is often 
difficult to distinguish the ancient from the 
modern. These, set in gold, are generally 
worn as bracelets, and are at present in high 
estimation among the ladies of quality. I 
have seen cameos that have cost two hun- 
dred guineas. — Migliore. 




BIastodon Cotton. — The bolls of this 
Cotton are said to be much larger, and the 
staple much finer than that of tne ordinary 
Cotton. We see thirty bales of Mastodon 
Cotton, raised in Lowndes County, Missis- 
sippi, were sold at Columbia, in that State, 
at sixteen cents per pound. 

R. Abby, of Yazoo City, (Miss.) to the 
President of the Agricultural and Mechan- 
ics' Association of the State of Louisiana, 
says: — ^the product of the Mastodon, on 
either the river bottoms or uplands, is greater 
than that of the common Mexican Cotton of 
the country, and that in many respects, it is 
a mdch more certain crop. The picking 
of the Mastodon is somewhat better than our 
common Cotton, the balls being about double 
the size. It hangs in the ball slightly tighter 
than our other cotton, which prevents it 
from &iling out in the field, but still not so 
tight as to make but, perhaps, a barely per- 
ceptible diflTerence in the picking. It gins a 

little harder than the common Cotton.—- 
Upon the whole, the Mastodon is the easiest 
to raise and prepare for market, pound for 

I give it the same distance and the same 
cultivation. The gin for the Mastodon, 
should have wider grates than common, in 
consequence of its great length cf staple ; or 
if the common gin be us^, it should run 
slow, or it will cut the fibres. The Masto- 
don cannot, I think, be ginned on the roller 
gin, as some purchasers and cotton brokers 
have suggested, in consequence of its strong 
adherence to the seed. 

The general len^^th of the staple is about 
two inches, and it is regarded in New Or- 
leans as being of remarkable strength and 
firmness. My own present crop is the first 
and only crop of Mastodon ever raised in 
the United States ; a part of this was sold a 
few weeks since in the New Orleans mar- 
ket, by Messrs. Bucknor & Stanton, at six- 
teen cents round. — Other little parcels have 
sold at various prices, ranging as low as 12^ 
cents. These cottons, so far as I know, 
were ^all handled in the common rough 
manner. My own was both picked and 
ginned very roughly. — Tallahassee SentU 

The average export of bread from the U. S. 
to all foreign countries, for the last 14 years, 
amounts only to 5,505,162 bushels ; or, if we 
deduct the average imports, to about 5,000,000 
bushels. Nor do our exports keep pace with 
our population. In 1831 we exported 9,441,- 
100 bushels, with a population of 13,000,000 : 
being 23 quarts per head upon our popula- 
tion. In 1844, with a population of 19,600,- 
000, we sent abroad 7,751,000 bushels, being 
only 13 quarts per head. A falling off in our 
suq>lus of nearly fifty per cent ! But '31 was 
an unusually large crop ; let us take an ave- 
rage of three years; say 1831-2-3. In these 
years, we have an average export of 6,120,000 
bushels ; in the vears 1841-2-3, an averag^e of 
6,220,000 bushels, being an mcrease of 11 per 
cent ; while our population is increased about 
33 percent. 

Faial Flowers. — Recendy in London, a 
young lady went to bed in good health, and 
was found the next morning dead ! The phy- 
sicians who were called in, declared that the 
sole cause of this catastrophe was the poison- 
ing of the air by the exhalations of a quantity 
of lilies found in two large vases on a low 
table in the room. — iV. F. Express, 

American Bihle 8oeiety.--Th9 managers 
of this institution on Thursday elected Hon. 
Theodore Frelinghuysen, President, by a una* 
nimous vote. 





There are several pariicularlf prominent 
I and striking pojnia or land in Ihe world, and 
' ihiiisone of them. If the Cape of Good 
) Hops bad eTen been a low, flal, marshf, or 
' barren piece of ground, jis posiiion would 

> hare given it a great degree of inierest. The 
I extreme aoothem termination of Africa, or 
I rather of the vast eastern continent, muat of 

> necesaitjr be an important piece of earth. 
) North of it no ahip can sail : south of it 
i ships pass, and aaTies may always God a free 
' passage, an almost boundless range, without 
, the fear of any abstmction. Its precise lati- 
' lude and longtitnde must be regarded by iha 
! larigator who would canr the treasures of 

I EvTope or America, to Asia, bf this route, 
[ or bring back the products of India or China, 
I in exchange. The verp mention of its 
I name carriea the mind back to Bartholomew 
' Diaz, the Ponugpese discoverer of the 
I fifteenth ceniary ; and (o the change in the 
I old eoutte of trade across Palestine, com- 
' meneed in the reign of Solomon, and rich 
enoofh to create and to sustain, in the tnidst 
I of the deserts, magnificent cities like Tad- 
' moi and Persepolie, 

We have before given a view of the same 
distinguished promontory from the sea. (See 
Vol. 1. page 469,) but as we had more to 
say than we then found room for, we now 

insert a sketch, from a somewhat different ' 
point of view, to introduce the followiug ez- ' 
tracts, descriptive of the Cape ol Good Hope 
and its environs, from Reynolds' "Voyage 
of the U. S. Frigate Potomac" in 1831-4. 

Cape Town is besutifully situated on a [ 
plain, and is overshadowed by a stupendous i 
rock or monntain. The streets are spacious, ' 
and intercept each other at right angles, with | 
Kreat exactness. The houses are mosilv of 
stone, and white-washed wiihont, which 

fives them a nest and cleanly appearance. — ! 
'here are few bnilt over two stories, on ac* ' 
count of the winds, which blow sometimes | 
excessively strong. TEie residence of the . 
governor and the public buildings are suitable 
to the purposes for which they are used, bat | 
possess nothing which deserves particular de> i 
scripiion. The public square presents a neat ; 
appearance, and is kept in fine order, and | 
there are some pleasant promenades in the ' 
environs, tastefully overshadowed with spread- 
ing branches of oak. The progress of litera- 
ture is very promising. The public library is 
an honor to the colony, being unrivalletl in 
any colonial annals. The librarian is editor 
of ■' The Literary Oautle." A museum has 
been established, two infant schools, flourish- 
ing academies and the South Afncan College, 
founded in 1B29. The climate is healthy: 
the mean lemperalure G7l-3° Fahrenheit, and 
the temperature of the coldest month 57°, 
and of the hottest 79°. As in most warm 
climates of a temperate zone, the wind com- 
moiily blows cold in snmme.. 



Wban Qaeen Viciorii. with h«r conaott, 
PriiMe Albert, nude their risk to Scotltuid, 

< tb«j were entertained ij a Hightaod lord 
/ with the ezhibitioD of a national dance, in 
) the iijle and eoatame of old timea. Our 
I print gires a riew of the casile, and the yard 
? in which the perfonnance took place, with 
S the royal pair looking on from a balcony near 

< one of the ancient toweri. The display was 
) ipohen of aa very different from any which 
> baa been made all along the roale purtued 
I throogh Rngland, where the Queen had been 
( invited to inspect fine buildings, railways, 
S machines, benerolent, lilenry and scientific 

imiiaiioDs, kc Ice., and listened lo ed- 
dreuee, containing alluaione to rarioas ob- 
jects ol public importance. 

On reaching the Highlands of Scotland, 
however, that country so justly celebrated 
lor ita natural scenery, (ie« page 139, in our 
tail numitr,] the lonnd herseil among the 
remains of a people speaking one of the 
dialects of the language which prerailed 
thmogfaoat Sreat Briiain in the timeof Jolins 
C^sar, and retaining superstitions, and other 
remnants of many centuries. To this m- 
markable pbenomeoMi we have already al- 
luded, and to its eaose. It is one which 
strikes every intelligent traveller with interest, 
btcanse it presents hiatorical relations of 
great raritp, and of considerable importance. 
That it has much to gratify, in other respects, 
«a do not affirm ; and are disposed to leave 
each reader to come to his own coadnsion on 

that poini. The changes which have been < 
gtung forward for three centuries in England, 

in opinions, in practices, in the whole lUle i 

of society, like the waves of th» ocean, in | 

frequent and regular succession, have crossed, J 

without obstruclioD, the boundaries of the < 

old sister kingdom, but have broken and ( 

slopped at the mountainous regions which lie J 

beyond, being hardly able to sprinkle with < 

their spray the rude and barren abode of the i 

ancient race. \ 

Among the most conspicuous and striking < 

peculiarities of many different people, are t 

their dances ; and they have often been ' 

described with great minuteness, while ' 

writers have generally neglected to make i 

knovm and even to investigate the religious , 

and other ideas with which they are often | 

connected. In many instances thev have ' 
been found to be intimately interwoven with 

systems of supetstition and observances, wild , 

and strange, or ezlravagant and prepostetons, i 

which ihey tend to keep alive and to per- ' 

JVr(. Pttasants, the venerable mother of 

the lamented John Hampden Pleasants, ao J 
knowledges, through the Richmond Republi* 

can, the receipt of a letter, conlaining a aura < 

of money, from an intimate friend of her la- J 

menied son. The Trustees of the family left . 

by Mr. Pleasants have received contributions ' 

from eiiiieuB of Mobile, Ala., amoimting to | 

$252 50. They have invested the funds i 

already raised, in Virginia Slate Slock, ihe ' 

interest of which goes to ihe support of the \ 
aged mother of BIr. P. and to educate his 
oiphsn children.— JV. Y. Exprttt, 




From Mr. Ward's Journal of Curwcn, 

In this estimable and noble family, the ini- 
mortal Washmglon passed four years of his 
youth. And as ii was ihe periud when 
character usually receives its stamp, there is 
no doubt that the formation of his was essen- 
tially in6uenced by the association. 

The Hon. Col. William Fairfax, a eon of 
Henry Fairfax of Towlion Hall, Yorkshire, 
and a grandson of Thomas, the fourth Lord 
Fairfax, lost his father when very younff, and 
was educated under the auspices of his Uncle, 
Lord Lonsdale, (ever styled the good.) at 
Lowther School, in Westmoreland. Here he 
acquired a good knowledge of the classics as 
well as modern languages. At twenty-one 
he entered the army and served in Spain 
during Queen Anne's war under his Uncle, 
and afterwards in the expedition against the 
Isle of Providence, then in possession of pi- 
rates. Upon its reduction he was appointed 
its Governor, but the climate disagreemg with 
him he resigned his commission and removed 
to Salem, Massachusetts, in 1724, where he 
resided for eight years as collector of the cus- 
toms, and a magistrate, esteemed and respect- 
ed bv all. His wife died during this period, 
and he was united in a second marriage to 
Debora, daughter ot Francis Clarke, £s(|., of 
Salem, a gentleman of the first respectability. 
Three children were the offspring of this con- 
nection, viz. Bryant, William, and Hannah. 
He sailed from Salem with his family for the 
South on the 17th of June, 1734, and settled 
first in Westmoreland County, Virginia, near 
the Washington familv» and afterwards in 
Fairfax County, where he erected a beautiful 
villa on the Potomac adjoining Mount Vernon, 
which he called Belvoir. He long sustained 
the offices of Lord Lieutenant and keeper of 
the rolls of the county, collector for t^'outh 
Potomac, and President of the Council of Vir- 
ginia. He was highly accomplished and emi* 
nently distinguished for public and private 
virtue and religious principle. He died Sept. 
3, 1757, aged 66. WaJ^hington, on leaving 
his command on the 23d of April, 1755, thus 
addressed Col. Fairfax:—*! cannot think of 
leaving the County without embracing the 
last opportunity of bidding ro\J farewell !' 

His eldest son, George W. Fairfdw, suc- 
ceeded to his father's estate and employments. 
In early life he was for a while co-surveyor 
with Washington to bis kinsman, Lord Fair- 
fax. In 1753 he was a candidate for the 
house of bur£;e8ses ; and Washington, then 
just 21, deeply interested in his success, was 
encaged in a personal altercation in his be- 
half, with Mr. Payne, a friend of the rival 
candidate; and it may be well to remark in 
passing, that finding himself the agressor, he 
made an apology, and that forever secured the 
friendship of Mr. Payne. This is the only al- 
tercation it is believed which Washington 

was engaged in during his long life. Mr. 
Fairfax took an unfavourable view of the re- 
volutionary movement, and long before the 
appeal to arms went to England, ^o critical 
was his arrival there, that be passed in the 
river Thames the ill-omened tea which event- 
ually caused the rupture between the mother 
country and her colonies. It is probable 
he is the friend referred to by Weems in the 
following paragraph of his book, (p. 67.) 
'Lord Fairfax happened to be at Mount Ver- 
non when Washington received advice frum a 
friend in London, that the Tea Ships were 
going to America, and said to him, ** Well, 
my Lord, and so the ships with the gunpow* 
der lea, are, it seems, on their way !" 

•Why, Colonel,' replied his lordship, • do 
you call it gunpowder tea V To which he 
responded, ' Because I fear it will prove in- 
flammable, and produce an explosion that will 
shake both hemispheres.' 

Part of Mr. Fairfaxes estates were confisca- 
ted on account of his principles, and the heavy 
reverse of fortune obliged him to abandon bis 
seat in Yorkshire, lay aside his carriage, and 
remove to Bath. Here he so lived as to save 
large sums, which he sent for the use of 
American prisoners. He died 3d of April, 
17S7, in his 63d year, lamented for his many 
virtues and accomplishments. 

The Situation of the Lowell Factory Otrls, 
The labor of the mills is considered much 
more honorable than the labor of domestic 
life. Compared with domestic labor the mills 
are not desirable ; — in a family, the ffirls can 
earn four dollars a month, while in the mills 
a girl will earn more money, exclusive of her 
board, than can the ablest man on a farm. 
The girls seek the mill as a place where they 
can earn money, with which they can gratify 
the almost universal desire for dress. Many 
of the girls, too, come to the mills to accumu- 
late money, with which to provide for the 
day upon which they shall enter on a new 
era in their lives. , 

From Santa Fe. — Another company of 
Mexican and American traders arrived at St. 
Louis on the 25th ult. from Santa Fe. They 
were robbed of their horses and mules on the 
plains by the Pawnee Indians. The Eutaw 
Indians had killed five Mexicans and wotinded 
one on the Santa Feroad. 4no'ther company 
were some days travel behind this company, 
having also experienced some obstruction from 
the Indians. All was quiet at Santa Fe. 
The]^ had Just heard of the revolution in 
Mexico, and the troops at Santa Fe were o«- 
dered below immediately. The gold mines 
of New Mexico had been worked with un- 
usual success during the year, increasing the 
demand for goods. It is estimated that ooe 
million of dollars will probably be invested in 
that trade this year. This company brought 
with them 450slbs. of gold, in dust, and ex- 
pect to return with a lieavy stock of goods 
this spring.— iV. Y. Expreu. 



\ ' This derormed fiah may well be inirodiiced 
, here, aa a good foil (or tbc gracefal and ele- 
gant Stri[ied baea, wboae figure we presented 
; in our 8th oamber, (page 120.) Probably no 
' peraoo ever observed a fiah of ihia fomily fai 
) ibe Sral uroe, wilhoat a feeling of aatooieb- 
, mmc mingled witb diaguat ; and for the fact 
I menticHied by Cuvier : that they " preient a 
I eharacier, which, witb reapect to vertebrated 
J animals, is perfectly anique — the total want 
I ol aymmetiT in the bend," 

The appearance of this fish is inch, as to 

{ give one tbe idea that it baa been crushed by 

•ome great weight, and ibrown into a atate 

' tA distortioD. 80 that, if tbe fint feelittg is 

! disgust at ita annatural and disagreeabte form 

; aad aspect, the second is wonder at seeing it 

' alive. The general form ia not unlike that 

\ of a common fiih, except that it is roandisb 

and very thin ; but, instead of having both 

« alike, and swimming with ita back op- 

wards, it is dark-«olored on (»« side end 

almost white on the other, has its eyes both 

placed ca the same side of tbe head, the 

I mouth distorted, so as nearly to correspond 

with them, and lies and moves in the water 

) 00 ooe side. Yet ita fine are placed nearly 

] lite those of other Sshes of the Third Order, 

' called Malaeopltrigii Svibraehiati, or soft-fia- 

< ned fishes: viz., the ventral placed under 

\ tbe side or breast fins. The back fin and 

' tbe anal fin are, however, very extensive. 

I In eonsideriag the relative position of the fins 

' of the Bounder, however, we must place him 

I in en upright poailion, otherwise tbe word' 

) "nnder" will not apply to the ventrel fins. 

The fiovnder ia a valuable salt-water fish, 
I thon^ seldom more than eightur nine inches 
I ia length, and very tbiii. It ia delicate and 
I wholeaome, though not highly flavored. It 
appears co our sea coasts early in the Spring, 
I and ia taken with great ease, even along 
I the wharves of many of oar teaporis. Its 
^ abundance renders it an important article of 

food in New York, for teveral weeks m 
March and later. Crowds ol men and boys, 
with wagona and banowes, then assemble at ' 
Pnlton market and other places, at an early 
hour, to procure their daily supplies from the | 
fishermen, for the city and many neighboring 

But we have miroduced this, partly as a 
specimen of a whole family, the flat-fish or 
P/sni— the seccxid &mily of the Order above 
mentioned. They all have a striking resem- 
blance, except in size. Several highly es- 
teemed English and European fishes belcng 
to this family ; the dory, the sole, tbe lurbol 
and the place. In this country our largest 
and best is the halibut, which sometimes 
weighs 300 potmds and even more. It is 
very remarkable, that this fish was considered 
of no value in our country until wiihin a few 
years, no psrt of it being eaten except the 
fins. Now it forms an important article of 
food, and the tins are the mly part rejected 
This is a new evidence of public ignorance : 
for the fins are highly gelatmoas and very 
delicate, nntricious and fit for cooking in 
several ways. 

FiscntiTtoH OF Sebfehts. — From perse- 
vering inquiries I have become conviacei], that 
the power of taBcioalion which has been at- 
tributed to serpents, vipers as well as adders, 
is not a false or vulgar flciioo. It has fre- 
qaenily occurred to persons travelling through 
forests, 10 witness the poor little birds, while 
uttering a plaintive cry, descend from branch 
to btancb, attracted, as it were, by some oc- 
cult power, and yield themselves up wiihin 

e of their eiecniioner. Tbe ibread of 
tnis charm is broken by whisking a switch 
through the air ; no doubt, from that fact, 
that the whistling of the air frighieos the 
serpent, aod thus paralyzes its magnetic ef- 
fiuvium, What is the mechanism ef this 
incredible fascination, which so perfectly re- 
calls to one's mind tbe fable of the Sirens? 






Tbia iaiect, >o nearly reseinbling our Ame- 
Tican horn-bug, though siill more formidable 
ia appearaace, like ir, is perfecUy harmleaa 
when unmolested, and then ia only able to 
inflict a Bliglil wound by seizing the Anger 
. wiib its strong and sharp pincers. 

The following description of it and its 
) habits, we borrow from & lale popular work 

on entomology. 
I One of Ihe l&reesi of the indigenous insects 
> of England, is the stag-beelle, Lucanui c«r- | 
( V1I1. It is chieily lound in narrow, shady 
) lanes, generally on an oak or elm tree. The 
/ perfect insect Hitach* the roots and leaves 
< of I' ose trees. It lies concealed In their 
S stumps during the day, and feeds only during 
} ihe evening. Linnfeus, however, slates, that 
i its food is the juice which exudes from de- 
^ cayed oaka. Their young burrow in ihe hark 
<| and hollows of trees, and tbcie undergo the 
s usual meiainorphoses. 
i IiH larva, which perteetly resembles that 
5 ot the other true beetles, is also found in the 
V hollow of oak trees, residing in the fine ve- 
S getable mould usually seen in such cavities, 
? -and feeding on the softer part of the decayed 
i wood. It IS of a very considerable size, of a 
S pale yellowish or whiiiih brown color, and 
/ when stretched out ei full length roeasores 
\ nearly four inches. When artived at its full 
S sixe, which, according to sonie, >■ hardly 
^ sooner than the fifib or sixth year, it forrat, 
i by frequently turning ilself. and nioisleoing 
S it with its gluiinous saliva, a smooth oval 
i hollow in ihe earth, it lies, whence, aRer 
\ Teraaining peifectlysiill for [lie space ol near- 
^ ly a njonth, divests itself of its, skin, and com- 
mences pupa or chrysalis. 

It is now much slioner than before, of a 
rather deeper color,and exhibits, in a striking 
manner, tbe rudiments of the large extended 
jaws and broad bead, eoconspicnous in ibe 
perfect insect: tbe legs are also proportion- 
ally larger and longer than in the larva state. 
The ball of earth in which this chrysalis is 
contained is considerably larger than a hen's 
egg, and of a rougher eiienor and surface. 

and p 

n oih and polished within.— ! 

gives birth to the complete insect, which < 
usually emerges in ihe months of July aud ) 

Bingley has a mRrvelloos story of their i 
■opposed rapacity, which, if not gravely slated ) 
by iho reverend editor ol ihe Animal Biogra- ' 
pfiv, as related (o himself by one of his own 

miimale and intelligent friends, might have ) 
been supposed by the general reader lo have \ 
been borrowed from the Travels of ihc v 

" Aa iniiinnieand intelligent friend of the i. 
editor informed bim that he had often found i 
several heads of these insects together, all ) 
perfectly entire and alik-e. while (he trunks \ 
and abdomens were nowhere to be found; 
sometimes only the abdomens were guie, and ) 
(be heads and trunks were left together.— ( 
How this circumstance took place he neva J 
could discover with any certainly. He sup- ) 
poses, however, that it muit have b«en mi 
consequence of the severe battles that some- \ 
times take place among the fiercest of ibe in- ) 
sect tribes; but, their mouths not seemiug i 
formed for animal food, he is at a loss to ( 
guess what becomes of their abdomen. They ) 
do not fly till meal of the birds have retired I 
to rest, and indeed, if we were lo bUppoae S 
that any of ibem devoured them, it would be ', 
difficult to say why the heads or inmks should 
be rejected.' 

OHio.->This Stale was settled in 17S8, by < 
emigrants principallv from New England; ' 
admitted into the Union in ISOl ; voters, tne ! 
year resident in the State preceding the elee- ■ 
lion, having paid or been charged with Siaie \ 
or county lax ; ctpiial, Columbua. Area, 
3U,U00 square miles. FopulaiiMi in 1840 — 

litDiiNA.— This Stale was settled in 1730, \ 
by French ; admitted into the Union in 1816; • 
voter, one year resideni in the Slate preceding J 
the eleciion, enliiled to vote in cooniy of re- j 
sidence; capital, ludianapoli*. Area, 36^000 i 
square miles. Population in 1840, 685,866. 







Continued from page 140, Vol, IL 

John XXII. seized the tiara, seated him- 
self on the pontificial throne, and said ; " I am 
pope.*' To con6rm his usurmition, he launch- 
ed anathemas Against the Emperor of Qer* 
many and the £ing of France, persecuted 
sects, baraed heretics, excited nations to re- 
bdlion, anned princes, inundated kingdoms 
with hi9 monks, preached new crusades, stole 
benefices, and shut up in his treasury twenty- 
five miUioQB of florins, wrung from all quar- 
ters of the Christian world. 

dement VI. purchased from the celebrated 
Joanna of Naples, the county of Avignon for 
three hundred thousand florins, which he 
nerer paid ; and declared her innocent of the 
murder of her husband Andrew, whom she 
bad assassinated* 

Under Urban VI. began the greatest schism 
that ever desdated the West ; two popes were 
raised to the pontifical chair. Urban VL, at 
Rrane, and Clement VIL, the Aniipope, at 
AT^rBoo, with their successors, for fifty years 
excited bloody wars, and excommunicated 
one mnother : on the side of Urban were rang- 
ed Italy, Naples, Hungry, and Spain : France 
supported Clement V II. ; and robbery and 
cruelty were everywhere committed, by the 
orders of Clement, or the fanaticism of Urban. 

The wretched and culpable Joanna sent the 
pope forty thousand ducats, to sustain her 
party; and to expess his gratitude, he had 
her strangled at the foot of the altar, the pon- 
tiff haying induced Charles de Duras, the son 
of Joanna, and heir to her states, to commit 
this execrable crime. That prince having 
refused to share the spoils with the pope, the 
fury of Urban was directed against his cardi- 
nals, whom he suspected of favoring the 
party of Charles de Duras ; and, baving had 
them pvt into loathsome wells, their e) es put 
OQt, their finger and toe nails torn off, their 
teeth broken, and their flesh torn with red hot 
iron daws, he then had their mutilated bodies 
while yet warm, put into bags, and thrown 
into the sea. 

Clement VIT. occupied the chair of Avig- 
non, raised enormous taxes from the churches 
of France, to enrich the cardinals and satify 
the luxury of his court 

The two popes laid Europe waste by their 
own armies, and those of their partizans : 
forioiis passions extinguished the feelings of 
humanity ; and treason, poisoning, and mas- 
Bscre everywhere prevailed. The cardinals 
assembled a council at Pisa, and pronounced 
the sentence of deposition against both the 

Alexander V. undertook to confirm the 
union of the church, to reform the morals of 
the clergy, to give offices to virtuous men, and 
died of poison, administered by order of Car- 
dmai Balthazar Bossa. That assassin had 
the conclave assembled ; and, getting a ponti- 
ficial mantle, threw it over his shoulders, and 
died : *' I am Pope." The cardinals, in ter- 

ror, confirmed the election of John XXIII. ; 
but the deposed popes, Benedict XIII. and 
Gregory XII., revived their pretensions to the 
See of Rome. A horrible war, excited by 
anathemas, covered Prussia and Italy with 
blood. The empire had three emperors, as 
the church had three popes ; or rather neither 
Kome nor the empire had any head. A gene- 
ral council assembled, and proceeded to de- 
pose Pope John XXIII. The bishops and 
cardinals accused him of murder, poisoning, 

Martin V. had John Huss and Jerome of 
Prague burnt alive; those chiefs of a new sect 
who preached against the disorders of priests 
and the ambition of pontiffs, and brought men 
back to the sentiments of humanfty. He 
then organized a crusade to subdue Bohemia. 

The legates of the pope and emperor took 
command of their armies in person, to compel 
the Hussites to receive the communion in 
both kinds, bread and wine. Wonderful mad- 
ness ! For so puerile an object, Germany 
was given up to the horrors o/ civil war. But 
the cause of the people triumphed ; the em- 
peror's troops were beaten in many engage- 
ments, and the army of the legates was cut in 

Felix V. was appointed Pope, and Ea<'ene 
IV. became anti-pope ; the councils of "fIo- 
rence and Basle excommunicated each other ; 
and depositions, violence and cruelty succeed- 
ed, y itieleschi, archbishop of Florence, was 
Msassmated by the order of Eugene ; king- 
doms were divided, by taking sides for one or 
the other, and reviving the schism, which 
lasted till Eugene's death. 

Under the pontificate of Nicholas V., occur- 
red the memorable capture of Constantinople 
by the Turks. The pontiff, having been soli- 
cited by the Grecian ambassadors to afford 
them some assistance in troops and money, 
roughly refused ; and the loss of that power- 
ful city must be attributed to the perfidy of 
the Roman court, which sacrificed the ram* 
part of Christianity, and basely betrayed a 
nation which it ought to have protected. 

Sixius VI. devoted all his care and solici- 
tude to increase his own riches. He increas- 
ed the taxes, invented new offices and sold 
them at auction. 

Innocent VIII. succeeded Sixtus ; and his 
election co5t him, in casiles, benefices, and 
golden ducats, more than all the treasures 
of the Holy See. 

The Grand Master of Rhodes delivered to 
Pope Innocent the young prince Zizime, to 
shelter him from the persecutions of his bro- 
ther Bajazet. The Sultan of Egypt sent am- 
bassadors to offer the pope four hundred thou- 
sand ducats, and the city of Jerusalem, in 
exchange for that prince, whom he wished to 
place at the head of his troops, to march to 
the conquest of Constantinople ; and engaged 
toffive up that city to the Christians: but the 
Sultan Bajazet paid a larger ransom ; and the 
pontiff retained, Zisime a prisoner in his 






We now euter apoa the reign of a pope, 
who, in the opinion of all hisloriane, \h the 
most abominable of all the men who ever 
spread terror throughout the world. Depra- 
vity before unknown, insatiable cupidity, un- 
bridled ambition, and cruelty beyond that of a 
barbarian, such were the qualities of Rode- 
rick 6orgia« who was made pope under the 
name of Alexand<?r VI. 

Under the pontificate of Innocent, assassins 
and oanditti had increased to such a degree* 
that the cardinals, before entering the con- 
clave, were obliged to garrison their palaces 
with soldiers, and to range cannon upon the 
avenues. Rome had become a public mar- 
ket, where all sacred offices were for sale. 
Roderick Borgia publicly bought the votes of 
twenty-two cardinals, and was proclaimed 
pope. Armed with sacerdotal power, his 
execrable vices displayed themselves without 

The immoderate ambition of the pope went 
beyond all bounds ; all laws, human and di- 
vine, were trampled under his feet. He 
formed alliances and broke them ; preached 
crusades, laid taxes on Christian kmgdoms, 
inundated Europe with his leg^ions of monks, 
seized upon the riches which they brought 
him, and called Bajazet into Italy to oppose 
the King of France. At a later period his 
policy led him to court the aid of Charles 
VIII. ; and, under the protection of the French, 
he undertook the ruin of the little sovereigns 
of Romagna — had some poignarded,and some 
poisoned, filling the minds of all with fear, 
and preparing the absolute domination of 
Italy for Csesslr Borgia. 

Finally, Alexander VI., having invited to a 
supper in the vineyard of Cardinal de Cometo, 
two cardinals whose estates he designed to 
obtain by ** inheritance," took the poison 
which he had intended for them. 

Luther, a monk of the order of the Augus- 
tinians, abandoned his retirement, stood up 
in opposition to Leo X. and to the commerce 
of indulgencies, drew after him nations and 
kin^ with his new doctrine and power of his 
genius, and wrested one half of Europe from 
the tyranny of the popes. 

Clement VIL, by his acts of perfidy, excited 
the anger of the Emperor Charles V., and 
Rome was given up to pillage for two entire 

The army of the Catholic king committed 
more atrocities than the pagan tyrants ever 
invented against tMe Christians in three hun- 
dred years. The wretched Romans were 
hung by their feet, burned, and cut with 
lances, to compel them to buy ransoms ; and, 
in short, they endured the most frightful pun- 
ishments to expiate the crimes of their pon- 
tiffs. Catholics and Protestants covered Ger- 
many with conflagrations, murders and ruins. 

Paul III., when he became pope, poisoned 
his mother, in order to secure his succession. 
After this he became infuriated against the 
unfortunate Lutherans. His nephews became 
the executioners of his cruelty, and were not 
afarid to boast in public of having caused 

rivers of blood to flow deep enough to swim 

Under this rei^ Ignatius Loyola founded 
the order of Jesuits. 

Calvin, a man of sublime spirit, raised his 
powerful voice, and continued the progress ol 
religious reformation. 

( To be coniinued.) 

The scceders of a body of German Catho- 
lics at Cincinnati, preparatory to the organ- 
ization of a Ohurcn in communion with the 
new German organization, is said to have so 
excited the zeal of the order of the Jesuits in 
the great valley ol the Mississippi, that some 
persons look for extraordinary missionary en- 
terprises in that portion of oar country. — N. 
Y. Express, ^ 

Nulrittve matter in grain, Sui. Wheat 74 
per ct ; rye 70, barley 65, oats 56, beans OB, 
French do. 84, peas 75. 

Nitrate of Soda of excellent quality, is 
found on the coast of Africa, in beds 15 inches 
in thickness, on the surface of the ground. 

American Institute, — The lower apartments \ 
comprising the Model room, which novy con- < 
tains several hundred various articles, and 
contrived for useful purposes, arranged so 
that each of them can bo perfectly examined, 
first meets the view. Next to this is the hall 
for public meetings, handsomelv fitted up for ; 
the accomodation of citizens who attend the 
Farmer's Club, Lectures, Conversational 
meetings, and the meetings of the Institute, 
and extremely convenient, being on the first 
floor— looking into our beautiful Park — and 
capable of containing two or three htmdred 
visiton;. This room was first occupied about 
a week ago by the Farmer*s Club, and about 
one hundred members were present. 

The Library room con tarns every conve- 
nience lor the visitor^-boih for reading and 
writing. All the best periodicals of Europe 
and America, on useful subjects, are there, 
the newspapers, and as valuable a collection 
of books as any library of like extent known 
to us. All these things are free to all men 
without price. If any one desires to become 
a member of this Institute — which gives him 
anH his family the freedom of the Annual 
Fairs in addition to the universal privileges, 
he can be admitted for three dollars, subiect 
to an annual payment of two dollars, and as 
a member he then has a vote on all questions 
in the Institute, and becomes eligible to any of 
its ofllices. 

We earnestly recommend it to all the 
members of the Farmera' Clubs throughout 
the Union, to exchange grafts and seeds with 
each other, at their various meetings, and not 
to let the present season pass. — ^JV. F. Bxfrews, 

There were manufactlired in Boston during 
the past year, 925,000 worth of visiting cards ; 
932,000 worth of loco-foco matches ; #38,000 
worth of pickles and preserves ; and lard oil 
to the value of 9114,150. 










, 6 


Governor DaYis, of Hong Kong, in his 

work on the Chinese, gives us a drawing 

and description of this ingenious species of 

Windlass in use among that singular people. 

The following we copy from his words, Vol. 

U., chapter 18. 

In the science of mechanics and machinery^ 
the Chkiese, without possessing any theo- 
retical rules, practically apply all me mechan- 
ical powers, except the screwt Vith consider* 
able effect. The graduation of their common 
steelyard must have acquainted them with 
the conditions of equilibrium in that class of 
lever, or the relations between the long and 
short arm, and the power and weight. They 
use it constantly for weighing, not only the 
commonest articles, but the most valuable, as 
ffold and silver. The puUy is applied on 
board their vessels, but always with a single 
sheave, and apparently as much for the pur- 
pose of giving a particular lead to the ropes, 
as with a view to the mechanical advantage 
gained by iu The application oi the tooth 
and pinion is ezemplined in the representa- 
tion of a rice mill, moved by water, at page 
37 of Barrow's Travels. Thev seem to un- 
derstand, in practice at least, that power and 
velocity vary inversely in machinery ; as, for 
instance, that power is gained, or time, ac- 
cording as the moving force is applied either 
to the circumterence, or the axis of a wheel. 

It is remarkable that they should seem al- 
ways to have po^ssed that particular appli- 
cauon of the principle of the wheel and 
axle, by which the greatest power is attain- 
ed widiin the least space; and, at the same 
time, with the greatest simplicity, as well as 
strength of machinery. The cylinder a h 
consists oi two parts of unequal diameter, 
with a rope coiled round both parts in the 
same direction, the weight to be moved be- 
ing suspended by a pulley in the middle. 
Every turn oi the cylinaer raises a portion of 
the rope equal to the circumference of the 
thicker part, but at the same time lets down 
a portion equal to the circumference of the 
thmner; and, as the weight is Suspended by 
a pulley, it rises at each turn through a space 
equal to one half the difierence between the 
wptLn. of the thicker and thinner parts of the 
cylinder. The action of the machine, there- 
fore, is very slow ; but the mechanical ad- 
vantage is great in proportion, or, in other 
words, " power is gained at the expense of 
velocity," according to an invariable law of 

The overshot water wheel is used com- 

monly iu com mills, wherever the nature of 
the country affords streams available for the 
purpose, in cottages a domestic mill was 
frequently seen by our embassiesi, composed 
of two circular stones put in motion by a 
single man or boy, or sometimes an ass or 
mule, the power being applied at the end of 
a lever fixed in the uppermost stone. 


Whoever has adopted a systematic plan of 
family arrangements, for the formation of 
good intellectual and moral habits, will find 
her system very defective, until she adds ar- 
rangements for the religious improvement 
of her children nnd her domestics. Some 
parents flatter themselves that they have ac- 
complished a large share of their duties, 
when they have taken precautions to supply 
their children with means of education, and 
endeavored to guard them against bad influ- 
ences from without. But; unless they take 
special care to have religious objects in view, 
they will have reason to lament their igno- 
rance of the great principle in education, 
without which nothing else can produce what 
we most need, and their disregard of the 
great object of education, which, if we fail to 
attain, we must confess is the only thing 
whose loss is irreparable and ruinous. 

Our Maker, in placing us in families, has 
surrounded us with the happiest combination 
of influences favorable to the implanting and 
growth of religion which the human mind can 
imagine. If there had never been a model of 
such a design presented to one of us, if we had 
never seen a family, the utmost stretch of in- 
vention could never have conceived the col- 
lection and arrangement of materials and ma- 
chinery, so simple yet so complex, so delicate 
yet so poweiful, as that which God has dis- 
posed around us, when we take our seats at 
the fire, when we are assembled at the fami- 
ly board, or move in the house in the per- 
formance of domestic occupations. And let 
it be remembered, that no difierence of cir- 
cumstances can destroy this machinery or in- 
terrupt its movements, or defeat its objects. — 
Are you in a family ? That is enough : there 
you have these influences, or a large share of 
them, at your control. Whether in a splen- 
did mansion, encamped under a tree or lodged 
in a cave, the mother has her kingdom 
around her, her sceptre in her hand, her re- 
sponsibility alive, and the loftiest motives 
calling her to action. 








Hope is a star to ffuide and cheer 
The pilgrim on his weary way, 

Its light forbids each rising fear. 
And peace and joy blend in its ray. 

Hope is a tower on yonder plain, 
Beyond the dark domain of death ! 

The traveler sees the shining fane, 
And pants to breathe immortal breath. 

Hope is an anchor to the sonl, 
Entering within the sacred veil \ 

The winds may ribe, the billows roll, 
Yet all is safe— it cannot fail ! 

Hope is the pathway to the skies, 
The shining path which prophets trod : 

The peaceful road where all the wise 
Are journeying homeward to their God ! 

Hope IS the medicine of life, 

A balm for every human ill ; 
She calms the passions, quells their strife. 

With healing whispers, " Peace, be still." 

Hope is a flower of sweet perfume, 
A plant exotic— from the skies ; 

It sheds its fragrance o'er the tomb. 
But in iu native clime it dies. 

If 'lis a star of brilliant ray, 
A beacon tower, an anchor sure, 

A fragrant plant, a peaceful way, 
A medicine, the soul to cure ; — 

Why do not all the boon receive, 
And break the bondage of despair ? 

Renounce their sins, on Christ believe. 
And learn his easy yoke to bear ? 

the habitable globe were intersected by the 
iron highways for the nations. The amount 
or principal, if divided among the 214,000,- 
000 in habitants of Europe, would put 918,69 
into the hands of every individual. 

The debt of the Netherlands)-, contracted, 
as all national debts are, to meet the ex- 
penses of war, past or prospective, amounts 
to $665,000,000. To liquidate this debt, 
would require a tax of three dollars and 
twelve and a half cents on every inhabitant 
of Europe, and 75 cents on every individual 
on the globe. Divided among the popula- 
tion of Holland, the share of each inhabi- 
tant would be $266. The wages of labor* 
ing men throughout the world probably do \ 
not average 20 cents a day. — Then, at that 
rate, three thousand three hundred and 
forty millions of hard toiling sons of labor 
would have to work one day in order to foot 
this war-bill of little Holland ! 

Solution of Enigma No. 8, (No. 9, page 
144.) — Jonathan Edwards. — Sahara, Don, 
Troas, Rhone, Sana, Wenner, Jordan, War- 



The King of England took from the 
pockets of his subjects $4,000,000,000 to 
replace the Bourbons on the throne of 
France. The interest of this sum, at 5 per 
cant., would be $200,000,000 ennually ; 
which would go so far to place the 
truth on the throne of this alienated world, 
as to support a standing army of 400,000 
missionaries of the Gospel in pagan lands, 
and Christian lands paganized by systems 
of grinding oppressions and moral degrada- 
tion. The interest of the money thus 
wrenched from the hard, lean hands of the 
toiling people of Great Britain, would build 
10,000 miles of railroad every year; until 

Description of the seeds of several valuable 
trees, — Catalpa. Small, flat seed, in a wing, 
like paper. Arhor Vita, small, angular and 
pointed. Yellow Locust^ small & bean-shaped. 

To OtTR StTBscRiBERs. — Those who wish 
to receive the second volume, and have not 
paid for it, are requested to send $1 without 
further delay through the Post-master, or by 
mail, without paying postage. 

Those who wish to withdraw their names, 
are requested to return the last number re- 
ceived, with the name and address. It will 
be stopped forthwith. 



With numerous Engravings. 
Edited by Theodore Dwlght» Jr* 

Is published weekly, at the oflloe of the New Ywk 
Express, No. 112 Broad w^ay, at 3 cents a number, (16 
pag-es large octavo,) or, to sobsoribere receiving it by 
mail, and paying in advance, $1 a year. 

6 sets for $5. 

Back numbers can l>e topplied. 

Postmasters are authorized to remit money. 

Enclose a One Dollar Bill, without payment of pos- 
tage, and the work will be sent for the year. 

" The information contained in this work is worth 
more than silver."— iV. Y. OUerver. 

** It should be in every fiunily in the country." — 
N. Y: Baptut Bseorder. 

The New Yorlc Methodist Advocate speaks of it in 
similar terms. Also many other papers. 

Editors ot newspapers paUishing this ad- 
vertisement foi 3 months, will be furnished 
with the work for one year. 







OBlDWiaKT.jK., ) 

I Ptiei 3 OinrmS 

SOl.t, 0* 


Nkw Yobk, SiTUBDiY, APRIL 18. 1846. 

No. 11. 


Cfc £■!: E c s 

S ^ S -c - ■- 

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■«5 S jf = £ c 

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quois in New York ; as the general simi- 
larity of language abundantly proves. 
Their customs and manners offer a great 
variety, as well as their dialects, having 
been endlessly modified by time and cir 
oumstanoes. Their funeral rites, however, 
resemble each other at least in one particu- 
lar, viz., in recognizing a future state of 
existence, and a supreme disposer of events, 
mingled with the darkness and gloorn of 
superstitions. How affecting a picture 
do these, and millions more of our poor fel- 
low-men present to us, in different coun- 
tries, when assembled around their de. 
cdistd friends t How deeply do they feel, 
and how sadly do they express the need of 
consolations which they cannot find ! How 
strongly do their dejected and despairing 
countenances seem to look to us for the 
comforts, the peace and joy of the Gbspel, 
which *^ has brought life and immortality to 
light !" 

The engraving on our title page, is de- 
signed to ulustrata the burial of a child, as 
it actually occurred at Sandy Lake ? The 
following description of the scene has been 
furnished bv Mr. Syroat, of ihe Ojibwa 
mission. Efe obtained it from an eye wit- 

**A child was brought to the grave, 
drawn on a train, or Indian sled, into which 
a &vorite dog had been harnessed. Ar- 
riving at the grave, the dog, still remaining 
in the train, was shot, and the medicine 
man, standing over it, addressed it thus : 
* Qo on your journey to the spirit land. 
Long and weary is the way you have to 
go. Linger not on the journey, for preci- 
ous is the burdeu you carry. Swim swiftly 
over the river, lest the little one be lost in 
the stream, and never visit the camp of 
its fathers. When you come to the camp 
of the white headed eagle, bark, that they 
may know who it is you bring, and come 
and welcome the little one among its kindred 
band.' The body of the child was then laid 
in the ffrave. The dog was placed beside 
it, with a kettle of food at its head, to sup- 
ply it on its journey. A cup containing 
the mother's milk, was also put into the 
grave for the dead child. 

<< In explanation of this ceremony it may 
be proper to state, that the Ogibway suppose 
the soul to take a long journey after deathj 
before it reaches the camp of its fathers. 

There is a vast plain to be crossed, on which 
there is but liule game ; and a deep, rapid 
river to be passed on a floating log over 
which tiie traveller, with great difficulty, 
must make his way. If he be an infant, 
the danger and difficulty are increased by 
its helplessness. Hence the idea of sending 
with it the favorite dog, to guard and help 
it on its way. 

** In the engraving the mother holds in 
her arms a roll, decorated with beads and 
feathers, and encompassed with a scarf of 
broadcloth, highly embroidered. Thia roll 
is intended for a memento of the decease, 
and is always seen in an Indian lodge afler 
the death of a friend* It is generally pla- 
ced upright in the spot where the deceased 
used to sit, dressed with the same orna- 
ments and bands that he wore : and when- 
ever the family eat, a portion of the food 
is set before it If it be a child who has 
died, the mother sets its little cup of milk 
before it, wraps it in the cradle bands of 
her dead infant, and bears it about with her 
wherever she goes, as a memorial of her lit- 
tle departed one. 

^ The engraving also presents an Indian 
place of burial. The graves are generally 
surrounded by a small enclosure of logs 
and covered with a roof to protect them 
from the rain. On an Indian grave the 
snow or rain is never discovered to remain. 
Hence, with pious care, you see them in 
mournful groups, aAer a storm, carefully 
removing all the snow from the graves of 
their friends. At the head of the graves is 
a small cylindrioal post, painted in stripes 
with Vermillion. If he be a warrior who 
is hurried, bands of dancing warriors are 
portrayed on the post Sometimes a piece 
of board is placea at the grave, cut round 
with notches, as in the picture. On it the 
« totem," or family name of the deceived, 
is inscribed. A flag of painted cotton, and 
sometimes one of feathers, is placed at the 
grave. They also set in the earth a num- 
ber of small rods, twisted to a coil at the 
end, notched and painted with vermillion. 
These indentions indicate the number of 
the war excursions of the deceased. Those 
painted with red show the number of the 
enemies he has slain." 

Mr. Catlin, in his Western Travels, gives 
many drawings and descriptions illustrating 
the ceremonies and superstitions relative to 
Indian funerals. Coxe furnishes some re- 
specting those of Oregon. The following 
extract from the quaint, but intelligent and 







Jmrnane William Wood, we select from that 
scarce book, « New England* s Prospea^'' 
pablished in London, in 1634: — 

Although the Indians be of lusty and 
healthful bodies, not experimentally know- 
mg the Catalogue of those health-wasting 
diseases which are incident to other Coun- 
tries, as Feavers, Pleurisies, Callentures, 
Agues, Obstructions, Consumptions, Subfu- 
migations, Convulsions, Apoplexies, Drop. 
sies. Gouts, Stones, Tooth-aches, and Mea- 
sles, or the like ; but spinne out the threed 
of their dayes to a fiure length, numbering 
three-score, foure-scores, some a hundred 
yeares, before the worlds unirersall sum- 
mooer cite them to the craving Grave. But 
the date of their life expired, and Deaths 
arestment seazingupon them, all hope of 
recoverv being past, then to behold and 
heare their throbbing sobs and deepe-fetcht 
sighes, their griefe-wrunff hands, and teare- 
bedewed cheekes, their doleful cries, would 
draw tea res from Adamantine eyes, that be 
bat spectators of their mournefull Obsequies. 
The glut of their griefe being past* they com- 
mit the oorpes of their dicea^ friends to the 
ground, over whose grave is for a long time 
spent many a briny teare, deepe groane, and 
IrisA'like bowlines, continuing annuail 
mournings with a blacke stiffe paint on their 
faces: These are the Mourners without 
hope, yet doc they hold the immortality of 
the never-dying soule, that it shall passe to 
the South-west Elysium^ concerning which 
their Indian faith jumps much with the 
Turkish Alchoran, holding it to be a kinde 
of Paradise, wherein they shall everlasting- 
ly abide, solacing themselves in odoriferous 
Gardeas, fruitful Corne-fields, greene Mea- 
dows, bathing their tawny hides in the coole 
streames of pleasant Rivers, and shelter 
themselves from heate and cold in the sump- 
tuous Palaces framed by the skill of Na. 
tnre's curious contrivement ; concluding that 
neither care nor paine shall molest them, 
but tliat Natures bounty will administer all 
things with a voluntary contribution from 
the overflowing store-house of their Elyzian 
Hospital 1, at the portall whereof they say, 
lies a great Dogge, whose churlish snarl- 
ings deny a Pax inirantibus, to unworthy 
intruders : Wherefore it is their custome, 
to bury with them their Bows and Arrows, 
and good store of their Wampampeage and 
Mawhackies ; the one totiflright that aflront- 
ing Cerberus f the pther to purchase more 
immense prerogatiues io Paradise. For their 
enemiea and loose livers, who they account 
unworthy of this imaginary happiness, they 

say, that they passe to the infernall dwel- 
lings of Abamochoj to be tortur«J according 
to the fictions of the ancient Heathen. 

First Newspaper iif Viroihia. — It 
was said in a JVirginia newspaper, some 
years ago, that the first newspaper in that 
Slate was printed in 1780, at Williamsburgh 
the seat of government The conditions 
were conspicuously placed at ihe head of 
the paper, and ran thus: — ** All persons 
may be supplied wiih this paper at Fifty 
Dollars a year, and Imve advertisements of 
a moderate length inserted for ten dollars 
the first week, and seven dollars for each v^ 
week after. The paper was issued once a \ 
week, which made the cost to subscribers 
about ninety -six cents a number. 

This was 173 years after the settlement of 
Virginia ; 64 years after it had been settled, 
Gov. Wm. Berkley, who exercised the ma- 
gisterial oflice for 38 years, in his answer 
to the enquiries of the lords of the colonies, 
said, *• I thank God that we have not free 
schools nor printing, and [ hope we shall 
Dot these hundred years ,- for learning has 
brought disobedience and hereay and sects 
into the world; and printing has divulged 
them and the libel against the government. 
God keep us from both 1" Lord Effingham 
who was appointed Governor in 1683, was 
ordered expressly " to allow no person to 
use a printing press on any account what- 
ever V'—N. Y. Paper. 

This violent opposition to the printing 
press has been shown more recently upon 
the same spot. It will be remembered that 
that the Hon. H. A. Wise thanked God that 
there was not a newspaper in that [his] dis- 

A Wolf Chasb. — A couple of Rocky 
Mountain Wolves escaped from their cage in 
the Menagerie of HerrDriesbach, at Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, on the 11th ult. At the time 
there were four men in the building. Herr 
Driesbach, Paul Morgan, Abraham Siii- 
mer, and Arthur Crippen, but accustomed 
as they were to such animals, ]hat were fas- 
tened in difierent parts of the building, with- 
out apprehending personal danger to them- 
selves. Crippen ran out of tlie building to 
get a pitchlbrk, when closing the door after 
him it fastened itself which fastened him 
out. Morgan hastened to take care of the 
riding monkey when one of the wolves at. 
tacked him and got him down, and af> Shi- 
mer ran to his assistance, he was attacked 







and overpowered by the other wolf. At 
this moment Driesbach was the only one dis- 
engaged, and picking up a chair, he dashed 
it to pieces to obtain a round for a club. 
With this, at one blow he disabled the wolf 
that had attacked Shimer but the other held 
with a death grip and required repeated 
blows ; nor did he relinquish the attack un- 
til he was knocked dead. The disabled 
one was afterwards shot. The men were 
badly bitten, and had they been alone would 
inevitably have been killed , for one of them 
was already feinting.— /Sow. Post. 

The defects and extravagances of fashon* 
dUe literary «<y/«.— Frequently does this sub- 
ject come up to miod, when, in the course 
of our daily search alter various pleasing and 
useful compositions for our readers, we meet 
with specimens of writisg, marked with the 
degrading seal of false taste. To us it is as 
the brand of a felon, imprinted upon a fellow 
man. The great common cause of literature 
seems injured by it, while the apprehension 
of future mischief casts a still sadder gloom 
over thOsfuture. 

We have often felt stimulated to write some 
of our own views of true and false style : 
but the fear of doing the subject too far un- 
worthy service, has postponed the under* 
taking from time to time. Neither have we 
opportunity at present, if we had the courage, 
to make the attempt* We have, however, 
felt, a desire to ask the opinion of our readers 
respectmg the style of some, even moral 
classes of authors, who have suddenly become 
popular with a portion of our countrymen. — 
We have had a desire to contrast them with 
a few lines, somewbat corresponding in sen- 
timent, from authors of standard reputation, 
partly for the purpose of acquainting our 
yoimger readers with the fact that there have, 
been rules established by writers of acknow- 
ledged authority, and that literary taste is 
not an unballanced, unsettled thing, afloat on 
the wave of fashion, blown hither and thither 
by the gusts of cicitement, and in danger of 
sinking forever. This truth, it is to be feared, 
many of the rising generation are not likely 
to learn, either in the family, or in the school, 
or by mingling with society amidst the flood 
of new books which reaches them. 


Good Advice, — ^There is much good 
_.nsft in the foUowinff advice, which, if put 
into praotio6» would be to some purpose. 

^ If any thing in the world will make a 

man feel badly, except pinching his fingers 
m the crack of a door, it is, unquestionably, 
a quarrel. No man ever feils to think less 
of himself after, than he did before one — it 
degrades him in the sensibility to disgrace 
on the one hand, and increases the power 
and passionate irritability on the other. 
The truth is, the more quiet and peace- 
ably we get along, the better, both for our- 
selves and neighbors. In nine cases out of 
ten, the wisest course is, if a nun) cheat 
you, quit den ling with him ; if a inun slan. 
der you, take caro to li\e so that nobody 
will believe him. — No matter who he is, 
or how he misuses you — the wisest way is 
to just let him alone ; for there is nothing 
better than this cool, calm, and quiet way c? 
dealing wiih the wrongs we meet with." 


On the succeeding page will be found the 
commencement of a tale with this title, of 
the strict truth of which we are satisfied, as 
we are acquainted with the source from 
which it IS derived. We have obtained 
the original narrative not without much pains. 
There are many Italians who have accounts 
to give, of the most distressing and affecting 
kind, but which, on account of different cau- 
ses, are not likely ever to be made known to 
the world. Any man in Italy, especially in 
Home, if known to have written a single page 
of what we now publish, would become at 
once exposed to persecution. Our correspon- 
dent knows his danger, but has taken precau- 
tions accordingly. Our readers will excuse 
us from giving his real name, and from dis- 
closing that of the town in Italy in which he 
last was. 

We have before expressed strong wishes, 
which many of our countrymen feel, that au- 
thentic details of Italian, and especially Ro- 
man society, may be published and read. Our 
people will then be qualified to judge for 
themselres. If they do not then begin to 
pity the Italians, to love and pray for them 
to sustain the plans and operations of the 
Christian Alliance, with general acclamation, 
and speedily fill Italy with Bibles and other 
blessings, we snail be compelled to admit 
our ignorance of them. 

American philanthropists and christians, 
one word more. We have long believed 
that truth, presented in a manner becoming 
iu natuie, is more interesting, as well as 
more nsefbl, than fiction. 









BVitiMi fir tkt Ameriemm Pmmff Mtgazttu, 

Past First. 
Rome and fhe Prfesfv* 

A convent may be called, in our day, a col- 
JectioQ of men of all colors, with few good 
and true. Modestly and succinctly I shall 
fire details of certain events, which may be 
sofficient to throw light upon the life of an 
exile. Other relations which have been pub« 
lished, may indeed make known much of the 
sufferings of exile aod imprisonment : but few 
are there of those who have personally ex- 
perienced these, who have felt a disposition 
to expose the condition of that great city, 
Rome. One, however, has caken the firm re- 
solution to do it ; and will feel proud to tell 
the pure and sacred tmih, not under the dic- 
tatioQ of any selfish motive, but for conscience 
sake, and for the public good. 

The Papal government consists of the pope, 
oudinals, prelates, bishops and priests. The 
pope governs everything, temporal and spirit- 
ual ; the cardinals control everything, and 
I the prelates take every thing ; the bishops eat 
every thing, and the priests drink every thing. 
The monks! O, the monks! They smg 
morning and night, and sleep all day. 

The social classes in Rome are three ; the 
nobles, priests and servants. The nobles are 
dependent on the priests, the priests on the 
servants, and their morals are : to be false, hy- 
pocritical and vile; being the worst pest of the 
Roman population. It is wholly incredible, 
the perfidy and impostures on one side, and 
the stupidity and idiotic credulity on the 
other, which these men uke advantage 
of, to fleece the poor dupes, who trust them 
in spiritual things, and confide in the promises 
(^ eternal life with which they impose upon 
them, under as many different shapes and 
tricks as Harlequins: the poor miserable 

Soch is the human race! Under the 
mantle of the religion of Christ, with the 
ennobling doctrines of the GKispel, the eccle- 
siascics carry on a traflSc, a regular system of 
merchandize, the most ignoble and base, to 
which the ancient city is almost entirely de- 

Who can deny what I am going to affirm I 
J gpeMk to those who have been in Rome ; 

and I say, that there are several thousands 
of priests in that city, and that of these at 
least two thousand are so extremely poor, 
that they have to go every one from Peter to 
Paul, as we say, to find their neit mouthful 
of food. They are all the while on the hunt, 
to find somebody who will pay a paolo or fif- 
teen baiocchi for saying a mass, that they may 
be able to pay for their breakfast or dinner. 
Each of these men keeps a little book, in 
which he writes the names of all who have 
ever given him anything, that he may know 
whom to apply to in future. Some of them 
ar more successful than others, and on 
special days sometimes collect as much as 
fifty or sixty paoli. 

Then there are other priests, who drive a 
brisk trade in Holy Bones, which they declare 
to be the real remains of martyrs of the 
church. Many others are there also, who 
conduct a traffic in pieces of the ch>thiog of 
the Patriarchs of the church, &c ke. This 
crowd of active churchmen are certainly to 
be regarded as men of taste and virti^ ! 

Which of you, my readers, who have been 
in Rome, can pretend, that in any particular, 
or in any respect, even one of these declara- 
tions is colored, or exaggerated ? But this 
is only the outside of Roman society. Only 
find your way into the interior of domeatto 
afl'airs, and see how sometimes the husband* 
or the son, becomes the slave of the Tensu< 
rato, or of the Friar ! Oh ! the terrible in- 
fluence of those monks ! How many times 
have they ruined fathers and sons, only be- 
cause the poor wretches were able to see, 
and to comprehend the trdth! A single 
word from the mighty friar would be suffi- 
cient, and is sufficient, at this day, to make 
the nnfortimate husband or son disappear, 
and to plunge him into the dark prisons of 
Castel St Angelo ! And then, at the q>portnna 
hour, amidst lamentations and distresses he 
has caused, the same imperious priest comei» 
and makes just such conditions with him as 
suit his pleasure or his interests. 

Debased and trodden down in the dust* the 
poor Romans live in a state of panic fear, and 
spend their mournful days under the fatal 
rule of the Turkish cask-masters, and petty 
tyrants, who compose the papal government 
Some of our readers may perha|)s suppose 
tint this sketch is exaggerated : but we will 
leave the decision to the public, and to Intel* 
ligent and candid travellers. In the sequel' 






of these essay • we tvill proTe, by facts, that 
we haTe been very moderate in the declara- 
tioQs we have made. 

In Umbria, a ponti8cial slate, was born in 
the present century, a person whom we will 
call Mario : the son of nprijht and respecta- 
ble parents. He had hardly left a seminary 
of the Jesuits, in which he was a pupil for 
aereral years, when he began to feel the 
heary weight of the fanatical and exagger- 
ated doctrines of those Reverend Fathers: 
and he soon felt and expressed a desire to en- 
ter the right path of reason and good morals. 
Possesssing just sentiments and noble ideas, 
no evil influence could divest him of the bet- 
ter opinions and principles which he had 
adopted* Not so with the Reverend Fa- 
thers ; and they never lost sight of him, but 
prepared for him an asylum, in which they 
hoped to extinguish the fire of his young and 
ardent spirit, by making him, at some future 
day, its melancholy inhabitant. The reada 
will see, in the course of this authentic story, 
what was the plan, and what the result. 
Let us first proceed to take up in order, and 
present to the view of the reader, the prin- 
cipal personages concerned. 

Don Paolo Piani, a Jesuit, a priest, and 
an old Franciscan, might be almost 32 years 
of age, tall, heavy, and lean, with high and 
thick eyebrows, but small eyes, sunk deep in 
their sockets, and nose narrow above, but end- 
ing like a wide-mouthed chimney, a large 
moath destitute of lips, an oblique and dis- 
turbed look, a complexion of a bright bilious 
green. If Lavater or Chillo had seen him, 
they would have been struck with dismay. 
I This man arrived at Urbino from "Rome as 
poor as Jabbus : but he wss soon engaged as 
house-keeper in the Jesuit seminary of that 
city. It is tmnecessary to say, that the So* 
eiety, or Congregation of Ignatius LoyoDeii 
oxlsu in every part « of Italy, and governs 
•very thing by all soru of means: that is, 
first by enslaving the eoescienees of women 
and old people, like serpents, the Jesuits 
insinaate themselves into tbe best families, 
learn all their secrets, and use their knowl- 
edge and power for the basest purposes. 
Tkns it was that Piani, in the course of two 
years, became as rich as he could desire, and 
had ruined about a dozen families, among 
which was that of Mario. So far did he 
succeed in infatuating his poor blinded vie- 
lims, by his counsels, that Marions uncle be- 

came a bankrupt, and had to part with his 
property until nothing remaiocd. Piani se- 
cretly purchased a manufactory of his, and 
an estate called Santa Caterina, which were 
sold at a great loss. Being the confessor of 
the aunt, she advised him to take it all, for 
the love of God, and gave him also an 
office in the cathedral, after having been thus 
robbed in so holy a manner. All these par- 
ticulars are historically exact. 

Mario, though a youth, and of little ex- 
perience, was yet able to see through the 
black perfidy of Piani : but what could he 
do? All was lost; and deeds and words 
would have been alike in vain. But a singu- 
lar idea came into his mind, a plan to punish 
the wretch ; and we will hereafter take up 
the clue of events, to show what was tha 
success of his scheme. 

At the epoch of which we have been 
speaking, a new Bishop arrived from Rome, 
the old one having died, who was a small 
young man, but a fine fellow. The new one 
was Petro Tassinari ; and he had the bear- 
ing of a drum-major, rather than that of a 
Roman apostle, being one of those figures 
which you may meet with in the deepest re- 
cesses of Germany : large, square eyes, such 
as might have come from a new world, and 
a nose short and small, with a wide mouth 
almost destitute of teeth, a forehead an inch 
and a half high, over which htmg his coarse 
and wiry hair, of the color of sumach, a pair 
of the broadest kind of shoulders, and a cor- 
poration like an old ape. Ill short, if he had 
not worn the dress of a bishop, he would in* 
evitably have been taken for one of the shoe- 
makers from the other side of the Tiber. 
Such was his physical man : as for his moral, 
he was base and wicked, presumptuous, ig- 
norant and sensual : a great eater and drinker, 
yet studied in his manners, and sometimes 
ingratiating to those against whom he had 
nefarious intentions. 

The year 1826 was a most faul epoch for 
the patriots. The Papal government made 
every exertion to ^discover those who were 
discontented with its misrule, that is, those 
young men whom they knew, through the 
medium of their confessors, to entertain liber- 
al views. They desired nothing more than 
the slightest indications of suth a character, 
that they might throw them into prison * 
and withoot proof incarcerate them. 
(To be eoniinued.) 








Success of Ambrican Manufactttrbs. 
— ^* Ctuite an iittereaiing scene occurred to 
day, ia the room of the Post oflice and Pout 
roads Committee of the House of Reprcsen- 
tatWes. This is the room in which Mr. 
Homer, the a^eni of the British Manufac- 
turers, has been located for nearly a month 
past, with specimens of Manchester goods, 
with prices attached, to aid in the great work 
of breaking down the American Tarifi. 
This morning, Stewart, ^f the House, with 
four gentlemen from Boston, Messrs. Pago, 
Livermore, Fa^ and Hovey, whom he aiid 
the other tarifi* members had invited to Wash- 
ington with specimens of their American 
gKwds, that the same might be compared 
with the specimens of British goods already 
exhibited here, visited the committee room 
in questioQ. 

No sooner had the party entered, than Mr. 
Homer commenced rolling up his British 
specimens, for the purpose of leaving. But 
Mr* Stewart begged him not to go. He 
said it would not be fair thus to leave, with- 
out allowing a comparison of the two kinds 
of goods to be made. Mr. Homer still per- 
sisted, and said he had rather not remain — 
the gentlemen from Boston might have the 
room. Mr. Stewart still insisted that he 
must not go, but must remain and aid in the 
investigation. Finally, Mr. Homer con- 
sented to do so. 

By comparison it appeared that prints of 
the same quality and stamp as those of 
Manchester, worth 10 cents per yard, are 
famished by the Boston and Lowell manu- 
factories at 11 cents — with this difiercnce — 
and it is a wide one in favor of the American 
side of the question— the British articles are 
'< Job Goods," and but 24 inches in width, 
while the Americans are of the first qua- 
lity, equivalent to 10 per cent, beuer than 
the «• Job GkKxls," of the same article, and 
are 27 inches in width. 

This diflference in width gives to the pur- 
chaser 108 square inches in the 7Ard, or 
24,192 square inches in a piece of twenty- 
eight yards. 

Mr. Homer could not get over this * fix- 
ed fecu' It was a stumper ! There were 
the American and the British goods, and 
there were the prices of each. Every one 
could see and judge for himself. 

The Boston gentlemen exhibited a very 
large variety of cotton, worsted and silk 
goods. It was truly astonishing to behold 
V) what perfection, competition, fostered by 
a wise and judicious American Tariff, had 
brought the manufacture of this '(description 
of goods, as well as to what low prices they 

had been brought- Some very thick, dark 
and checked cotton cloth, suitable for gen- 
tlemen's summer dresses, and so firm that 
one could not tear it with his hands in any 
way, was priced only at 10 cents a yard. A 
suit—- coat, vest and pants— costing only 60 
cents ! Some handsome durable vestings, 
finely figured, at 10 cents each, were exhi- 
bited. Coarse cotton cloths, white, and sub- 
stantial quality at 4 cents were also to be 
seen. It is a charming idea truly, that we 
must break down our TariflTin order to get 
those goods cheaper than we can now ob- 
tain them. Permanency in the Tariff sys- 
tem is what our manufacturers want, in or- 
der that they may feel secure in embarking 
in the manufacture of the finer kind of 
goods, such as those manufactured by 
France. — Bait. Patriot. 

Slaughter op Witches. — ^The Edin. 
burgh Review states that during the Seven- 
teenth century, forty thousand persons were 
put to death for witchcraft alone. In Scot- 
land the number was probably in propor- 
tion 10 the population, much greater, for it 
is certain that even in the last forty years of 
the Sixteenth Century, the executions were 
not fewer than seventeen thousand. In 
1734, the madness may be said to hay« 
reached its highest pitch: for in that year 
occurred the celebrated case of the Lanca- 
shire witches, in which eight innocent per- 
sons were deprived of their lives by the inco- 
herent falsehoods of mischievous urchina-— 
The civil war, far from suspending the per- 
secution, seems to have redoubl^ it In 
1644*45 the infamous Mathew Hopkins, was 
able to earn a livelihood by the profession 
of witch-finder, which he exercised, not in- 
deed without an occasional suspicion, but 
still with general success. And even twenty 
years later, the delusion was still sanctioned 
by the most venerable name of the English 
law! For it was in 1684, that the excel- 
lent Sir Mathew Hale, after a trial conduct- 
ed with his usual good sense, condemned 
two women to death as witches, both of 
whom were executed accordingly. 

Dead Lbttbes. — There has been a large 
increase in the number of dead letters re- 
ceived at the General Poet Office since the 
reduction of postage. The number received 
during the last quarter will not fall short of 
four hundred thousand. 

New- York.— This '. state was settled in 
1613, by Dutch ; submitted to the English 
in 1664 ; retaken by the Dutch id 1673 ; re- 
stored to the English in 1674 ; acceeded to 
the Union in July, 1788 ; capital, Albany. 





Th« motion of tlie wbtcs at the ocean is 
almoil caotinual ; and ofEeii «o great, as to 
■irikeviih astoDislimeDt, aud even with Tear, 
iDoai peraoDs who wiiness it for the Grsi 
time. Eipn if staodiiig on the shore, with 

r feet upon (hose soliU rockp, which line 

g coiiai all aloag our eaateni states, the 
riuhiog and roaring of the surges during a 
■toim produce the most deep and eolemn iin- 
pressiona of the weakness or man, and ihe 
majesty of Him who has " set a bound lo the 

« that it cannot pass," and wliu can say with 
effect to the waves : " Pfoce be siiil." 

But, when launched upon the mass of 
water, mored by every fluctuation, and ci- 
posed to be swallowed up in its fathomless 
gulfs, at the failure of a single part of the frail 
bark, which holds us, the irresisiable Turce 
. of the raging vwves appears far greater, and 
the scene oiore impressive, especially whea 
night cloiea around us, and all human help 
is far removed. 

Habit, however, and still more a practical 
acquaintance with seamanship, and the abil- 
ity of vessels to ride out the winds and 
waves m satety, familiarize us with life aii 
■ea, and render us calm and cmlent imder 
iu changes. Sooie of the greatest annoy- 
ances of a voyage arise from the motion of 
the ship. Every roll and pitch, (as the side- 
way and lengthway movements are called,) 
cbangea the position of everyihinsc around us 
from its natural relation to the earth's sur- 
face and centre. Every table, chair and 
other moveable object must be confined, or 
it will be thrown over, or fall or slide away ; 
and we must dexlerouily brace ourselves, 
now thia way and now that, to prevcot an 

overthrow. This habit is the cause of the 
awkward appearance of persons just arrived 
on shore, many of whom find the land seem- 
ingly in moiion, for days alter they have left 

Our print represents the interior of the 
cabin of a vesssi of moderate size, with 
several ot the crew aud passengers in very 
natural postures, accommodating themselves, i 
as they Eoon learn to do unconsciously, to the | 
movemeiHs caused by the waves. It is ' 
not according to ancient usage for seamen, > 
cooks, stewards or cabia-boys to be admitted ' 
into this 3p3r:mciil, which is appropriated to ' 
the upper oQicers aud the passengers: but, 
since masters of vessels have become con- 
vinced of the duly and pleasure of affording ' 
instruction, the means ol moral inipror*- i 
ment, and opportunities fur religious wor- 
ship lo those under ilieir charge, they have ' 
been mare disposed to treat them with friend- ' 
ly consideration. Hence it has sometiroea | 
happened, that when the weather ot other ' 
circumstances rendered it necessary or prcK 
per, all the crew noi required to navigate ', 
the vessel, have been invited into the cabin 
on the Sabbath. The Seamen's Friend So- 
cieties have also supplied with valuable 
libraries many vessels, large and small ; 
and uur print represents one of them opened 
by an officer, who has distributed books to 
(hoM seated at the table. One unfortunate 
passenger alone, as is not unfre<iuenlly the 
case, is deprived of the pleasure of joioiog 
the party, by (hat disheartening malady, sea- 

With such advantages as these at sea, 
how much* the condition and proepec's of 
that clasa are improved we are tmable to Mjr. 



A RettarkabU Indian Girl. 

We MTe Rlreadf gireo, in tba present 
mmber, a sketch of gome of Ihe •uperitiliont 
and habit* of pagan Indiau. We now in- 
troduce a eeene connected with moM gratify, 
iog TiewB of their cbaTacier, when under the 
mflDcDce of Chiiatianittf. 

Thia print repreaenta one of the dwek 
tinga belonging to a icaltenog Tillage, erect* 
tA a few feare ago in Upper Canada, near the 
rirer Credit, b; a band of the nation to which 
tbe Indians belong who are represented on 
our title page; the Ogibways or Chippy 
waya, under the influence of American Me- 
tkodiei niieaiciiariea. Thia particular babita- 
tkn baa been selected, because, humble and 
itDMtmcd*e as it appears, it was tbe abode 
of a dtstingniahcd woman, a daughter of a 
eelebnted warrior of another natico, and the 
birth-place of her child, a giii of nocommon 
dtancter. Foi the facta which we have to 
pnbliah lespectfog tbem, we are indebted to 
me <^ the manf excellent little hooks b the 
Sabtath'SehooI Library of the Methodist 
Bpiaeopal Society. We have long wished to 
lay before oar readers some important facts 
eoncetning the Indians, particularly such a* 
ralMe to the meaBurea uhen for tbnr benefit, 
nd the remltik Too many of our eoantry> 
iiMB beliere that there is sometbing in In- 
dana and some other raeea of men, which 
renden it difficult oi imponible to ciTilize 
ibmo. We have eridenca to prore that some 
at them hare been eirilized, with wmder- 
fid eucand in a remarkably short time. Mr. 
StkoolcnA, in hie late eenm i£ New Yoric 

Indians, has given many interesting fectt , 
throwing light on this aubjeci, and some ' 
others of importance. IT he should be em* 
ployed by the general goTemroent to lake a J 
similar census ol all the tribes in our terr 
ry, we should consider it a measure of ibe i 
highest importance both to science and to hn- 

For Lhe present we must content onrselrea i 
with a short account of an inleresling indi- 
Tidnal of the red race. Which may serve as 
an introduction to a vaiiely of matter which i 
we hope to lay before our readers in future | 
numbers of our magazine. We copy from ' 
tbe little book to which we have belbre al' 

The native village of Eliiabeth is beanti- | 
' fully situated about sixteen miles from Toron- 
to, the seal of government in Upper Canada. 
The road from thence io this peaceful Indian f 
settlement opens to the eye of the traveHer 
diversified scene of land and water, hill and | 
dale, tbe cultivated farm and the native fo< , 

On the left spread the expansive waters <A 
the lake Oniano, now bearing on i» magni- 
ficent bosom tbe stately steamboat, on which ' 
formerly the birch-bark canoe of the hardy ) 
Indian was onlf seen to glide. To the i 
rigbt interminable woods form a fine back- ' 
ghKind to a country partially cultivated and | 

From the undnlations of the road the d'» 
tanl prospect is sometimes entirely obscured, 
and Ibe tall, dark pines throw around their ' 
deep shadows, giving a sense of loneliness , 
and a tone of pensive feeling. Glimpses are ( 
canght and lost al iolervols of the beautiful \ 
lake, when suddenly it opens before you u 






obscured, as you travel along its wooded 
banks. Within the distance of a few miles 
you cross over the rivers Humber, Mimico, 
and Etobecoke, till you reach the long brids^e 
over the river Credit; then turning to ihe 
right, the lake stretching in the distance be- 
hind, you are conducted through park-like 
scenery to the peaceful spot where God has 
been pleased to plant a small Christian church, 
fathered from the wilderness, to show forth 
his praise. 

This little viljage possesses many locdl ad- 
vantages. It is situated on the hiffh and 
healthy banks of a fine river, whose oeauti- 
ful, flowing waters, well supplied with fish, 
wind their undisturbed way through SQenery 
grand and romantic, which at once elevate ihie 
mind, and ^scinates the ipnagination, of those 
who have a keen relish for natifre's beauties. 
This village consists of about forty houses ; 
some of tnese are log, others frame ; each 
surrounded bv half an acre of land, in which 
the Indians plant every year either potatoes, 
peas, or Indian com. In the centre stand on 
one side the chapel and school-house, on the 
other the mission-house; near which is re- 
served a lovely spot just on the brow of a 
sloping bank, sacred to the memory of the 
dead. In this enclosure lie slumbering, till 
the morning of the resurrection, many little 
known on earth, but whose names are doubt- 
less registered in heaven. With them is 
now numbered that of Elizabeth Jones. 

Elizabeth Jones, whose Indian name was 
Sah^ahjewaqua, which means *' the rising 
Bun,^' was born on June 29, '1830. From in- 
fancy she evinced a mild temper ; and as her 
young mind graduallv expanded, it was de- 
lightful to observe a fine generous disposition 
united to a strong affection, wiilch secured 
the confidence and love of all who knew her 
For some time after her mother's death, I 
was in the habit of seeing her every day. 
She would frequently ask when her mother 
would come home from the meeting. Being 
ignorant of what death meant, she thought, 
as this was the place she most frequented, 
that she was gone there ; and sometimes it 
was no easy task to wipe away the tear, and 
quell the sorrows of her little bosom, by tell- 
in^ her that her dear mother was gone to live 
with God in heaven. Her afTeciion for her 
only remaining parent was most ardent ; she 
clung to him, as a child always should to a 
tender father, with the most confiding love. 
I could often fancy as she sat on his knee 
that she held him light, as if afraid he would 
leave her too. Whenever he appeared dull, 
she would kiss him, and show him some of 
her playthings, thinkmg thus to dissipate the 
sorrows of his heart. Dear children, I wish 
all who read this book would try to imitate 
Elizabeth Jones, and by their affectionate at- 
tentions to their parents show how much they 
love them. 

Although from the time I first knew this 
dear child, I had seen much in her to love 
and admire, it was not till she became a 

resident in our family, in October, 1S36, that 
I discovered those peculiar traits in her cha- 
racter which made her so especially dear to 
our hearts. Never shall we forget her readi- 
ness to do any kind action. Her tender 
manner when we were not quite well was 
remarkable. She would move gently about 
the room, and perform all the little offices of. 
a nurse as far as she was capable. Often 
would she say, ** Aunt, when I am a woman, 
I will make tea for you, and help you a great 
deal." Although so young, she was very ob- 
serving, and took great pleasure in watching 
how things were done. She was a child of 
Ipreat resolution and natural courage. For 
instance, in taking medicine, it was only 
necessary to say, *' Now, dear, it is proper 
for you to take tnis ;" or, such a thing *'mu8t 
be donie ;" and there was seldom any further 

I never saw a child more devoid of selfish 
feeling. When playing with others, she was 
ever ready to ^ive them the best of every 
thing, ana alwavs seemed more happy in 
pleasing her little companions than in grati- 
fying herself. Oflen when the poor old wo- 
men came in, she would ask them if they 
were hungry ; and thep run and tell me, say- 
ing, ** Shall I give them some food ?" At 
other times she would beg for halfpence; 
aqd when asked what she wanted them for, 
would say, '* 1 want to give them to an old 
woman," mentioning her name, '* because I 
think she is poor." 

She had a ** place for every thing, and kept 
every thing in its place." By this means 
she preserved her little gifts, which were 
highly prized. Not like many children, who 
are never at rest till they have destroyed 
them, Elizabeth took great delight in keep- 
ing them neat and clean : and if children 
knew how much of their happiness and com- 
fort depended on habits of order, they would 
be more particular in cultivating these good 

When I first took the entire charge of 
Elizabeth, slie could only spell words of 
three letters ; but such was her natural quick- 
ness, and laudable ambition for improvement, 
that in a few weeks she could read several 
little stories. Having a good ear and reten- 
tive memory, she soon spelt words of three 
syllables, learned Watts*s First Catechiwn, 
and many of his beautiful hymns for children, 
with a number of others that were common- 
ly sung at the chapel. She took great de- 
light in hearing Bible stories, and often asked 
me to tell her about good children : their ex- 
ample had a most desirable influence over 

She was not able to read with the first 
class in the Sunday school, but she would 
stand up and answer questions with any 
of them. 

Another fine trait in Elizabeth's character 
was a love of truth. I could always depend 
on her word. 





Dr* Tamj^ txpeitvoA Work--^ The Flora 
of tfae State of N«w York. 

For the following mterestlDg and valuable 

article OQ this work» we are indebted to an 

obliging friend, who is well qualified for the 

task. We introduce his commonication with 

the foliowiag letter:— 

I very cheerfully complv with your reqnest, 
to give you some particulars of this import- 
ant work, the unpublished sheets of which I 
had the privilege of looking over very deli- 
berately. In doing so I address myself more 
, particmarly to the younger portion of your 
) readers, knowing that if I make myself un- 
derstood by them, the others will understand 
me of course. And it is to the younger class 
that I hope my remarks, if of any service at 
all, will be most valuable; by stimulatmg 
them to resolve one day to possess this ines- 
timable book, and by means of it to know the 
name and properties of every herb, plant and 
weed they trample under their ieet. To far* 
mei;^' boys and girls in particular this would 
be a most valuable knowledge, and to all an 
omameot belter than any of gold or pearl. 

It may be proper to add, that I am indebted 
to the author himself for some of the state- 
ments I have made, which were given with- 
out any suspicion of the use I intended mak* 
iogof them, j^ If this should meet his eye, I 
hope he will pardon what I have done, in at- 
tempting to induce your readers to take some 
measures {to secure to the schools of New 
York a text book, too useful to be locked up 
in the libraries of private individuals. 

. The writer wishes to give some idea of the 
nature et the Flora, inasmuch as the manner 
in which it is to be ; made accessible to )he 
nam of sindious youth in the State, is vet to 
be determined. Obviously it is not to oe at- 
tained by selling 3,000 copies to favorites of 
officials, and keen-sighted speculators, at two 
doUara each* A better wav could be '^sug- 
gested ; the best can not be determined with* 
out some knowledge of the nature of the work. 
The delay at the State Printers, occastoned 
by printing for the Legislature, is likely to 
nrevent the issue of the work in season for the 
Legialatore to take action upon it, with that 
knowledge of its merits which is desirable. 

Respectfully yours, 



Mt dbar totjno Feuuds — To understand 

what I am going to say, you must know that 

all plants are divided into two great divinons^ 

the JUwertng and the flawerUss, 

FLowmnto Plants include all those which 
have flowers : and amoag others, grass, grain, 
oaks and weeds, as well as those which have 
$kowy flowers. This division includes all 
plaiitt that have seeds, and among these 
many which, being cultivated by slips and 
roots* become careless, so to speak , about 

bearing seeds ; such as potatoes, sweet pota- 
toes, dahlias, tulips, &c. 

Flowerless Plants grow from spores, or 
incredibly small particles, often su light as to 
float in the air. 

When a boy, playing In my father's pas- 
tures, I used to take dry puff balls ; and by 
suddenl3r squeezing them, drive out the air 
filled with spores. It looked like smoke.— 
You can scarcely imagine how many of those 
spores 'a single plant can produce. They 
would be enough to sow all the land from the 
Artie circle to the Antarctic, as thick as the 
plants could grow! They are capable of 
floating in the air for thousands of miles, till 
the air drives tbem down, or they are wafted 
a^inst some moist surface. Wherever the 
soil and climate suit them, they grow, in Eu- 
rope, Asia, Africa and America. 

Flowering plants cannot spread so. The 
wind may carry a thistle seed a few miles, 
taking hold of the downy esret which grows 
to it. Some seeds may stick to the clothing 
of animals orgmen, and ride hundreds of 
miles; but the first dew will dampen the 
thistle's winces, and the adhesive seed, after 
a month's ride, is often rubbed ofi* within a 
mile of its birth-place. Hence most species 
of plants are confined to a comparatively nar- 
row range, many of them have been found 
in but one single patch in all the earth. 

All the animals which are found in a par- 
ticular region, are called the Fauna of that 
reffion. All the plants which grow without 
cultivation in any region, are called the Flo- 
BA of that region. The floras of places quvie 
near each other differ very^ much. Of the 
4,500 flowering plants supposed to be in^tbe 
flora of the United Stages, only about 1)450 
have been found in New York. 

When a book is entitled ** A Flora," it is 
understood to be a Dbscriptiom op Plants.— 
Thus Darlington published a flora of Chester 
Co., Pa., Bigelow a flora of the vicinity of 
Boston, Elliot a flora of the Carolines, 
Beck a flora of the northern and middle States, 
and Eaton a flora of the United States. Torrev 
and Gray have commoiced a flora of North 
America, exclusive of Mexico, on a grand 
scale ; and the successive numbers are ear- 
nestly lookedj for by botanists on both sides 
the Atlantic 

A Danish flora was commenced about the 
time of our Revolutionary war, under the pa- 
tronage of the government, and is still in 
progress^ so anxious are thev for a work wor- 
thy of royal munificence ! A French botanist, 
neglecting, I fear, some more important du- 
ties, once published a flora of the Place Yen- 
dome, a small square in Paris, mostly paved, 
and occupied by a coach stand, and almost as 
destitute.of flowers as Broadway. 

Dr. Torrev commenced 'studying the Flora 
of New VorK in early youth. Part of the re- 
sults of his studies were communicated to en; 
rich the works of Eaton and of Beck. Others 


» — 






were given to the public in a Flora of the 
Northern and Middle States, which he be* 
gan 24 ye-^^rs ago : but left unBnished, in cun- 
sequence of the sudden improvements in Bo« 
tany during its progress. Others were pub- 
lished in the Annals of the Lyceum of Natu- 
ral History. The remainder tie kept accumu- 
lating for the great work, the Flora of North 
America, commenced eight years since by 
him and Dr. Gray, now Professor of Botany at 
Cambridge. When appointed by the authori- 
ties of the State of New York, about 10 years 
ago, to prepare the work which is now on t.he 
eve of publication, he converted to the use of 
the State all the results of his previous stu- 
dies, and from that time to the present, has 
prosecuted the book by himself, and by the 
assistants he has employed, and by the kind 
aid of numerous botanical friends, till the pre- 
sent time, with as much expedition as was 
consistent with the accuracy of the work — 
with what success more competent judges 
than myself are soon to pronounce. 

Flowerless plants are divided into ten or« 
ders, or families. The five most familiar of 
them are Ferns or Brakes, (not including 
'* Sweet Fern," which is not a fern,) Mosses, 
Lichens, (which grow on rocks, fences, the 
bark of trees, &c) Mushrooms and Sea weeds. 
Flowering Plants are divided into about 260 
orders, so as to diminish the labor of becom- 
ing acquainted with them inconceivably. 

The Flora of the State of New York is oc- 
cupied with flowering plants, and the highest 
order of flowerless plants — the Ferns, of 
which, however, but about 60 or 70 species . 
are found in the State. Of all these 14 or 15 
thousand species, the descriptions are /W/; 
and they are the first full descriptions ofthem 
ever published. Indeed, with the exception 
of the Flora of Chester County, they are the 
first full descriptions ever published in this 
country ; all the others, even in the Flora of 
North America, being abbreviated. To the 
munificence of the State, then, will the youth 
of New York be indebted for the privilege of 
taking up an imknown plant, with the cer- 
tainty that they have before them a full des- 
cription of it ; and to every botanist in the 
Northern part of our Union, the first question 
that will occur on examining a new plant will 
be, " Is it a NEW YORK PLANT ?" If so, 
he has a full description of it ; if not, he must 
content himself with an abbreviated descrip- 
tion. Our neighbor States will rejoice in 
their proximity to New York> as thereby more 
of their plants are to be found in our Flora. 

A treatise on the plants of Orange County, 
New York, was published in S widen, 107 
years aga From that time, collections of 
American plants have been accumulating in 
every part of Europe ; and better collections 
of them are to be found there than here. To 
many of the proprietors our Flora will be an 
indispensable book, and to some of them it 
will Jirove an additional inducement to learn 
tht English language. 

The author regards the work as far from 

perfect. This must be the case, necessarily 
and Inevitably, with the first edition of a 
work like this. A hundred plants perhaps, 
are now lying in the collections of botaoisis, 
who will not be aware that Dr. Torrey has 
not seen specimens of them from his native 
State, till tney find them omitted in the Flora. 
A list of some such plants is given at the 
close of the work, to quicken the search of 
local explorers. 

In the descriptions of those published m 
the Flora, many improvements and correc- 
tions will, doubtless be suggested very prompt- 
ly, by a multitude of observers, who have 
watched individual species in their natural 
soil, ill all stages of their growth. These ad- 
ditions and corrections are to be expected 
from £urope and from other States, as well as 
from the numerous and able corps of New 
York Botanists. 

I am anxious t6 know whether it was 
through foresis^hT, or a want of foresight, that 
the State has had a limited number of copies 
struck off, instead of stereotyping the first 
edition of the work. In either case, they have 
done so far the very wisest thing. If now 
they will direct the author to send 500 copies 
to botanists whose co-operation would best se- 
cure the accuracy of the work, during the 
next winter he will be able to prepare an edi- 
tion for stereotypii&g, which will be far more 
accurate than the efforts of any roan living 
could have made the first edition by ten years* 

But if only a few copies are to be struck off, 
to be possessed only bv the favored or fortu- 
nate, the fi^reatest gooa that could be secured 
from so liberal an outlay of public funds will 
be wantonly thrown away. The work » 
wanted as a school book. For 28 years the 
youth of New York have been using imper- 
fect and expensive Floras ; — expensive, be- 
cause of limited sale ; and of limited sale, 
because expensive. If, now, the state will 
cause stereotype plates to be furnished, free 
of cost, to that publisher who will contract to 
furnish the work to all purchasers at the low- 
est fixed price, it can be afforded in one com- 
pact quarto, at a less price than Eaton's octa- 
vo costs ; and there is not an Academy in the 
State, and scarcely one in the adjacent States, 
in which it will not at ooce become a text* 

The increase of cost, necessary to give eM* 
ciency to the money already expended, will be 
comparatively trioing, only about eight per 
cent, as will be seen by the following roogh 

' Total cost of present edition, 36,000 
Deduct results of the sale, 6,000 

Neitcoit, - • 90,000 

Editing stereotype edition, 1,000 

Stereotyping 936 quarto pages, 1,400 
Additional cost, ^^ ' - 3,400 

Total cost, - • 32,400 

I have included in my estimates an item 
for editing, as a matter of sheer justice, thosigh 
there is a doubt that the author, who luis 







been impelled by a lore of tbe work and a re* 
ffard for hit own reputation, to persevere in 
Eis labors at the microscope for 3 years since 
the expiration of bis salary, would gladly 
arail bimself of an opportunity to embody in 
a work, which has cost hiiu nine years labor, 
tht corrections which would arise from the 
actual use of the book this season. 

A Tery popular French treatise on botany 
is made up simply of the study of 50 common 

eats in all their details. It is one of the 
t introductions to the science ever written. 
What an impulse then will the science re- 
ceive by placing within the reach of moder- 
ate means a full description of the 1*400 plants, 
eommon and rare, of the Empire State. 

But more than one tax payer, who is saz- 
ing in sorrow after his Jear departed dolfiirs, 
is readv to ask me what good it will do to 
know about so many thousand plants ? I have 
no patience to stop and answer his question 
but by asking him in turn what good it did 
to make so many thousand plants? It 
is true I might say something about domestic 
medicines to be found in every forest and 
swamp, whose virtues are mentioned in the 
Flora, and of inefiicaciotis plants that have ac- 
quired a reputation they do not deserve. I 
might speak in comparison of the weeds that 
the soil bears spontaneously and the crops 
diat it can best nourbh under cultivation. 
Perhaps I might even make a convert of the 
querist by convincing Cim that Botany will 
enable a man to make money^ but I should do 
violence to my own feelings and degrade the 

The man who can see no excellency in 
koowledge--no good but in making money- 
no taperiority of man over swine except that 
b« can eat better food, sleep in a warmer bed, 
and longer keep at bay the butcher Death — 
must seek some 6iher guide to happiness. 



Whatever may be the impression of a 
stimoffer in Mexico as to the gaiety of the 
city ouriiig the week days— though t^ompari- 
•on in this particular may be much in favor of 
many cities in Europe of equal size— yet no 
one can doubt, that in extent and variety, and 
diversions and dissipations, Mexico, on a' Sun- 
day, can more than compete with the most 
festive of them. 

As soon as you awake, you^are saluted with 
the souods of military music, in which the 
Mexicans profess a decided excellence. Re- 
giments or soldiers, assembled m the Plaza 
liayor, are reviewed, and on this day thev 
exhibit a neat and cleanly appearance, which 
is more than can be affirmed on any other. — 
On this day tl\e Cathedral is crowded with 
the fashionable and wealthy of the city. By 
&r the greater proportion of the visitors are 
the fkir sex ; and there is here presented a 
£aplay of beauty and elegance which cannot 
fail to impress the most insensible. 

The service over, you pass into the street, 
where ever and anon a religious procession 

crosses your path, accompanied with all the 
parade that rich dresses, gilded images, and 

fold and silver church furniture can afford. — 
'he houses, too, are (lecorated, the inhabiiauis 
exhibiting from the balconies their most cost- 
ly ornaments and dresses. All is bustle and 
animation. At a corner of tbe great square 
are suspended huge placards, on which the 
nature of the day's amusements is depicted 
in every variety of color. Here is a pictorial 
illustration of the m(?st prominent attraction 
at the great theatre, which, in common with 
all the rest, is open twice on this day. A 
little further on, is a full length figure of Fi- 
garo, which draws your attention to the fas- 
cinating allurements of the opera. The bull- 
fights next solicit your notice, announcing the 
most terrific particulars. 

Nor are the minor theatres behind-hand in 
presenting thiM'r attractions. Endless varie« 
ties of other exhibitions put forth their claims. 
A balloon ascension is advertised for the af> 
ternoon. One would suppose, too, that the 
Roman gladiatorial shows were revived, for 
at one spectacle is a contest between a man 
and a bear. Cock-fights, dog-fights, and fan- 
daogos are announced in every quarter of the 
city. Horse-racinff, the circus, jugglers, pos- 
ture-masters, tumblers, fire-eaters, concerts, 
cafig-gardens, fencing-matches, pigeon-shoot- 
ing* gymnastic exercises, country excursions, 
balls graduated to every pocket, form but a* 
fraction of the entertainments to which this 
day is devoted. In the afternoon, the public 
promenades are thronged, and the long array 
of equipages, with the rich and gay dresses 
of the senoras, is calculated to convey an im- 

firession of the wealth and Inxury of the city, 
n the evening, the theatre presents a specta* 
cle, which probably few theatres in the world 
can parallel. The beauty, elegance, wealth 
and luxury of Mexico, seem, concentrated into 
one brilliant focus. 

The finale of the day is generally wound 
up by a splendid display of fireworks ; and 
thus concludes a Mexican Sunday — and in no 
other part of the world probably is a Sunday 
so spent— not even in Italy. — New Orleans 

_ ■ 

Spring — Work in the Garden. 

Vegetable Garden, — Before you meddle 
with the garden, do two things: first, inspect 
your seeds, assort them, rejecting the shrunk, 
the mildewed, the sprouted, and, generally, 
the discolored. Buy early such as you need 
to purchase. Do not wait till the minute of 
planting before you get your seeds. Second, 
make up your mind beforehand just what you 
mean to do in your garden for the season. — 
West, Farmer. 

To Wash Calicos. — Infuse three gills of 
salt ra one p^llon of boiling water, and put 
the calico m, while hot, and leave it till 
cold, and in this way colore are rendered per- 
manent, and will not fade by subsequent 





(CoMTINUf D FROM Voij, IL, PAGB 158.) 

Julius III. fulminaled anathemas against 
tlie Lutheraas. persecuted them to death, and 
elevated to the cardiiialaie a young boy. 

Paul IV. excited the fury of the king of 
France against the Protestants, formed a 
league for their destruction, and ravaged all 
Europe. At his death, the people of Kome, 
freed from his frightful yoke, forced the doors 
of the inquisition, Kred the prisons, overset 
the statue of the pope, and breaking its head 
and right hand, dragged it about the streets 
of Rome for three days, and then threw it 

into the Tiber. .. ^ „, j 

Pius IV. closed the Council of Trent; and 
roused asrain the fanaticism of Charles IX. 
and Philip of Spam, and brought those 
princes to a meeting at Bayonnc, to con- 
sult on the means of exterminating the Cal- 


The early part of the pontificate of Gre- 
gory XIII. was signalized by the massacre 
of St. Bartholomew— a plot consummated by 
the counsels of Spain and the suggestions of 
Pius IV. Persecutions, butcheries and wars 
had prodigiously increased the number of 
Calvinisls ; and Catherine de Medici, being 
unable to exterminate them by force, had re- 
course to perfidy. Charles IX. adopted the 
cruel designs cf his mother, and the order for 
a general massacre of the Protestants was 
irrevocably seakd. 

At midnight, on St. Bartholomew's Eve, 
the bell of the palace gave the signal. The 
tocsin was lieard at St. Germain TAuxerrois ; 
and, at its mournful sound, the soldiers as- 
saulted the houses of the Protestants, cutting 
the throats even of the old men and children 
in their beds. They seized women and chil- 
dren, took their hearts, and lore them with 
their teeth and devoured them. Charles IX. 
armed with an arquebus, fired from the Lou- 
vre upon those who attempted to save them- 
selves by swimming. That window remains 
a witness of the barbarity of kincs. 

Gregory XIII, addressed his felicitations to 
Charles, on the miraculous success of that 


On the death of the pope, Cardinal Mon- 
talio entered the conclave, old, leaning on a 
suff, and apparently broken down with ex- 
treme infirmity. The cardinals, to avoid a 
conflict, united' their suffrages on the old man, 
who appeared to be so near his grave ; but, 
soon after thev bad begun to count the votes, 
and when half of them were scarcely known, 
without wailing iur the conclusion, Montalto 
threw bis baton into the middle of the hall, 
raised himself to his accustomed height, and 
sang 1> Deum so loud that the root rang. — 
He became Pope under the name of Sixtus 
V. He made a secret treaty with Queen 
Elizabeth, and launched anathemas against 
her kingdom. He afterwards excommuni- 
cated the King of Navarre and the Prince of 
Cond^, to rekindle in France the madness of 


Clement VII. uod in the footsteps of his 
haughty predecessors. He attempted to com- 
pel Henry IV., King of France, to come bare* 
iooted 10 do penance, and to acknowledge that 
he held his crown by grant from the Pope.— ■ 
But ambassadors were received in his stead 
by his Holiness. The ceremony took place 
in the Church of St. Peter in Rome. 

Gregory XV. excited Louis XIII. against 
ihe Protestants ; he pursued the war against 
Bohemia, and, not being able to convert the 
inhabitants of Geneva, he ordered the Duke 
of Savoy to exterminate them. 

Under Urban VIII., the celiebrated old man 
Gallileo, who had spent seventy years in 
studying the secrets of nature, was dragged 
before the Inquisition, condemned, thrown 
into a dungeon, and compelled to retract his 
great truth : — " The earth revolves round the 

Clement IX., with a strong mind and exten- 
aive knowledge, encouraged the arts, reward- 
ed men of learning, and surrounded the pon- 
tifical throne with the lights of his time. He 
bad reduced the taxes, and employed his 
treasures in aiding the Veniiians and the 
Island of Candia against the Infidels; sup- 
pressed the religious orders, who, under the 
the veil ol piety, abandoned themselves to 
idleness and debauchery, and weighed heavi- 
ly on the people. By his eloquence and mo- 
deration he appeased the endless quarrels 
between the Jansenisu and Molinista, and 
succeeded in arresting the wild ambition of / 
Louis XIV., who laid Europe waste by dis- I 
astrous wars. '- 

The intrigues of the Jesuits betrayed 
Gandia to the Turks : and the pope, strvck 
to the heart by the treachery of those un- 
worthy priests, launched an anatheoia 
against them, and died after a three yean' 

The Papal See was never occupied by a 
more virtuous man than Clement IX. 

The reign of Clement XI. was disturbed 
bv religious disputes: the' Jesuits were 
cnarged with having paid the same worship 
to Confucius in China, as to Jesus Christ — 
The pope sent Cardinal Toumon to Pekin 
with a command to reform that idolatry ; but 
he died amid the persecutions raised against 
him by the Jesuits, f 

That terrible society, being propagated by 
the pope, extended us odious power over 
kingdoms, and inspired all nations with ter- 

Clement published the famous Bull Uni- 
genitus, which excited general indignation, 
and continued the religious quarrels until his 

Benedict X2II. wished to renew the scan- 
dals of that Bull ol disorders; but know- 
ledge had begun to increase ; and his pre- 
tensions, which might previously have 
caused torrents of blood, excited only con- 

To be continued. 







Btoipniphical SRelclies off Con- 
Mecticat Men. 

Written Jor the American Petmy Magasiiu. 

John Ledtabd. 

The celebrated trayeller, John Ledyard, 
was a native of Groton, CoDneciicut. He 
was educated chiefly at the HopkiDS Gram- 
mar School, in Hartford, being unable, through 
poverty, to complete his studies at Dartmouth 
College. When he bad spent his little stock 
of money there, he made a canoe 60 feet long, 
and went down Connecticut river in it alone, 
(140 miles,) lo his friends at Hartford. 

In 1771 he sailed from New York as a 
commoa seaman ; and on landing in London, 
hearing of the expedition on which Captain 
Cooke was about to proceed, enlisted as a 
corporal of marines. He accompanied that 
navigator in his voyages, and witnessed his 
tragical death. In 1782 he planned an over- 
land expedition from the Atlantic to the North- 
west coast of America : hut, failing in obtain- 
ing the necessary means, proceeded on foot 
from Ostend across the north of Europe and 
Asia, and was waiting for warm weather to 
visit Eamschatka, when he was seized by 
the Russians and prevented from proceed- 
ing. He died at Cairo, in Egypt, in 1789, in 
the service of the Royal Society, as an ex. 
plorer in Africa. 

Travellers visiting Hartford may be grati- 
ged to learn, that a fine elm tree, planted by 
his own hand, just before bis departure for 
Europe, stands on the northern bank of the 
Little River, below the end of Prospect street, 
in firoot of the house of the late Henry Hud- 
son, Eaq 

PfiEsmENT Edwards. 
Jonathan Edwards was born at East W ind- 
sor, Connecticut, in 1701, and died in 1758. 
He was successively pastor of the church of 
Northampton, Missionary to the Siockbndge 
Indians and President of the College of Nas- 
sau Hall, at Princeton, New Jersey. He was 
distingm'shed as a theological writer. Dr. 
Dwight says of him: 

"The late President Edwards has more 
enlarged the science of theology than any 
man of whom Scotland or England can boast. 
His subjects are the most important in the 
universe ; and his discussions are the clearest, 
the ablest and the most decisive elucidations 
of them which the world has ever seen. He 

has elicited from the Scriptures truths which 
have escaped other men; has illustrated 
thena by arguments which were never before 
discovered ; and has shown their dependence, 
connexion and importance wiih a comprehen- 
siveness of view which elsewhere will be 
sought for in vam." 

Cataipa Seed. — The seeds of this tree may 
be known by being lodged each in the centre 
of a thin, paper-like wing, like the ailanthus, 
but longer, and pointed at the ends. (Jolike 
the latter chey are enclosed in pods, many of 
which remain closed until Spring, those of- 
one species on the tree. Of course now is a 
good season to plant it. The tree is a native 
of our coimtry, but far less cultivated than it 
deserves. The leaves are broad and beauti- 
ful, and it bears large cones of flowers, some- 
what resembling the horse-chestnut. It is 
one of the Bignooiacece, forms a fine and 
clean shade, and is free from insects. 

Jumperus Virginiana. (By some called 
Red Cedar.) — The seeds are contained in 
small berries, which adhere to the tree even 
at this season. They have the fine aromatic 
smell of the leaves. They make a thick 
mass of evergreen foliage, well adapted to 
screen a stable, a road or other unsightly or 
obtrusive object, from a door, window, pri- 
vate walk or garden. Like all the ever- 
greens, they add a pleasing variety to the 
shrubbery of a yard. 

In some places this plant is so abundant, 
that it will be superfluous to send its seeds 
for planting ; and yet they may be worth at- 
tention to those who have never examined 

There are no tree seeds now for sale in the 
city of New York ! We are therefore tinable 
at present to supply all those who have ap- 
plied Sox certain kinds, as the dematfd for 
some has been greater than we expected. — 
We hope, however, in the end, to satisfy 
all. Please to plant every seed we send. 

A sailor lately joined the Sons of Tempe- 
rance in Philadelphia, after running a course 5 
of dissipation, by which his means were 
pretty well exhausted. At the time of sign- 
ing the pled^^e he owed the rum-seller one 
shilling. A few days ago he went to pay : 
but being determined not to enter the house 
in which he had been robbed, he got a long 
pole, attached the money to ihe end of 1^, and 
standing at the outside of the door, reached 
it to the astonished publican, and walked ofif. 








'* We know not a milltoneih part of the 
wonders of this beautiful world." — Leigh 

Tbere^s a living atom th the sea. 

That weaves a flinty shell, 
For ilseir a lasting shroud to be, 

And a home in which to dwell. 
In the briny wastes of the ocean waves 

It builds IIS coral home. 
And mucks at the beating burge that laves 

Its dreary abode with loam. 

There, in the deep cerulean gloom, 
* Unnumbered myriad swarms 
Are forming a coral home and tomb, 

A shield to their insect forms. 
And the rocky sepulchres made fiist. 

The leagues thus covered o'er 
They rear a mausoleum vast. 

On the ocean's sandy floor. 

*Neaih the shallow waves of an inland sea. 

Where gentle waters flow — 
As bright flowers on the upland sea. 

The branches of corbl grow ; 
And dredged from their watery element. 

And wrought with skillul care. 
To beauty's bower their lines are sent, 

To deck the forms of the fair. 

Tut coral rocks of the tropic clime, 

fiuilt up, mid the ociMin wave. 
And formed of the ocean's brimy slime, 

For the coraPs home and ffrave ; 
How mean, would the grandest works 

That pride of man can form, 
With the might v power in progress there. 

The skill of the insect worm ! 

'Tis a wond'rous work to mortal eyes. 

And ocean's waves can tell 
Of spreading climes that yet will rise 

From the coral's rocky shell ; 
On the shores the winds and waves will 

The wealth of other lands, 
And in time to come, their harvesting 

Will be rea|>t'd hy mortal hands.-- 

Country Paper. 


I am composed of 12 letters. 

My 1, 2, 7, 4, 2 is an island in the Mediter- 
ranean ; 

My 2, 3, 2, 7 is an inland sea ; 

My 3, 10, 5, 6, II is a large river in Eu- 

My 4, 8, 3, 5, 6 is a city in Italy ; 

My 5, 4, 8, 12, 11, 2 was a province of 
Syria ; 

My 6, 5, 7, 11 is one of the largest rivers 
in the worid ; 

My 7, 8, 4, 11 is a mu.«ical instrument ; 

My 8, 12, 2, 7 is a river which runs into 
the Caspian Sea ; 

My 9, 5, G is a metal ; 

My 10,-2, 12, 11 is a small timid animal ; 

My 1 1, 9, 6, 2 >8 a volcanic mountain ; 

My l'i> 8r 4, 10 is the name of a book of 
the Old Testament ; 

My whole is a name which is inseparably 
connected with ** one of the greatest revolu- 
tions ever effected in huiuan affairs." 

II. C. B. 

Whife Teeth, — The famous Saunderson, 
although completely blind, and who occupied 
the chair of mathematics in the University 
of Cambridge, being one day in a large 
company, remarked of a lady, that she had 
very white teeth. The company were 
anxious to learn how he discovered this, for 
it happened to be true. Said the professor, 
** I can think of no other motive for her 
laughing incessantly, as she did for a whole 
hour together." 

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icmn BT Thiodobi Dwisbt, Js., ) 
Exprta Offia, IIS Broadwaf. \ 

KswYoRit, SixraniY. April 35, 1846. 


oB * 

S la's 


? I III 

! S Ifl 







resist the attacks of time and Tiolenoe. 
The crescent on the top, with surrounding 
Mahomedan buildings, plainly indicate the 
gloomy power which now occupies that 
site of one of the primitive churches. 

The situation of Thessaionica, on a fine 
eminence on the Thermaic Gulf, with a 
slope which exposes it advantageously to 
the view of one approaching it by water, 
renders it conspicuous and attractive from 
a distance ; but as it lies out of the prin- 
cipal routes of travellers in our day, it is 
still but seldom visited. The date of this 
ancient tower, we believe, has never been 
determined, but is allowed to be very early. 
The name of the city was Therme, in the 
time of Herodotus and some subsequent 
writers, having probably been derived, as 
well as that of the bay which it overlooks, 
from warm springs : to which the cele- 
brated pass of Thermopylae also owes its 
appellation. It is^ also said to have been 
once called Halia. The name of Thes- 
saionica was given it by Cassander, in 
honor of the daughter of Philip, whom he 
had married. j^ 

Under the Romans this city became an 
important port, for the commerce of Asia 
Minor and the Hellespont, and soon in- 
creased to a large city, exceeding all others 
in Macedonia, and enjoying peculiar privi- 
leges. In the first century of the Christian 
Era, it was a considerable place, though 
probably inferior to Philippi. The account 
of Paul's first visit to it, in the 17lh chap- 
ter of Acts, though brief, is interesting, and 
shows the spirit with which he was received 
by many of the inhabitants ; while the 
Epistles << to the Church of the Thessal- 
onians," prove that some of them had been 
so improved through his instructions, as to 
draw many warm expressions of love and 
approbation from his eloquent pen, and those 
animating invitations to exalted lives which 
are there so much admired : calling them 
ensamples to all that believe in Macedonia 
and Achaia, and saying: ''wo ourselves 
glory in you in all the churches of QodJ* 

Trie ancient tower above depicted has 
been the witness of great revolutions in 
modern as well as in early ages. Thes- 
saionica, after passing into the hands of 
difibrent masters in successive ages, yield- 
ed, with all Qreece, to the miserable and 
degrading rule of the Turks. Among the 
Greek population who were found there in 
late years, were several families warmly 
devoted to national freedom, and possessing 
a spirit which engaged them in the earliest 
plans for the liberation of their country- 

men. The neighborhood of the mountains, 
and their almost inaccessible nature, ofier- 
od great facilities to such as were inclined 
to the wild and independent life of the 
Klefies; and among those patriotic men 
were found some of the best of the Tbes- 

The modern name of the city is Salon- 
ica, a very natural abbreviation from the 
ancient ; and, the accent being laid on the 
letter t, and that being pronounced e, the 
American reader may easily determine honr 
the name of the city was probably spoken 
in former times. 

The Greeks of Salonica, like their na- 
tion generally, retained at least sufficient 
knowledge of their ancestors, to understand 
that they were the authors of the venerable 
specimens of architecture around them .* 
and this old Tower, standing beside one of 
the streets, served to keep them daily in 
mind of their fathers, and of the inju^ice 
of their Mahomedan masters. We recol- 
lect a young Greek of Salonica. who de. 
dared, that ahhouffh but ill educated in his 
childhood, the sight of this ancient struc- 
ture awakened a love of country in his 
soul, which prepared him for the Revolu- 
tion before he knew that it was projected. 

Thessaionica is one of the many names 
rendered familiar to our ears by sacred, as 
well as by profane history, and brou^t 
near to our hearts by its associations with 
good men of old. It stands at the northern 
extremity of the gulph which penetrates 
into Thessaly, called by the Romans Sinus 
Thermaicus, which appears to have de- 
rived its name from the original one of this 
city. Under that name it is mentioned by 
Herodotus, Thusydides and others. The 
Athenians held possession of it for a time 
previous to the Poloponnesian war, but it was 
given up to Perdiccas soon after its closa 
Strabo informs us that Cassander, (as we 
remarked above,) conferred its present 
name upon the place in honor of his wife, 
who was daughter of Philip, and greatly 
increased its population and importance as 
a seaport, by collecting into it the inhabi- 
tants of several other towns. Another ac- 
count, however, (by Stephanos of Byzan- 
tium,) says that Thessaionica was origin- 
ally called Halia. 

This city was surrendered to the Ro- 





oMiis alier the battle (tf Pydna, and by them 
was made the capital of the second region 
of Biaoedonia. Under its new masters it 
sustained the rank of a great city, having 
not only the advantage of a fine maiitime 
position, on an excellent harbor near the 
Hellespont, but standing on the Egnatian 
Way. It was 227 miles from Dyrrachium. 
The appearance of the city, even at the 
present day, is imposing, in consequence of 
the bold outline of the hills, which rise 
with a fine swell from the shore, and the 
abundanoe of foliage displayed by the 

The Apostle Paul was received in a very 
unfriendly spirit on his visit to Thessalonica : 
but, although driven from the city by the 
enmity of the Jews, and welcomed in the 
neighboring town of Berea, it appears from 
hit epistles, subsequently addressed to the 
church he had founded here, that his labors 
and self-denial, and probably the persecu- 
tion he endured, ])roduced a great effect. He 
himself intimates very clearly, that he and 
his fellow-laborers first made their appear- 
ance among the Thessalonians under pe- 
culiar circumstances, and presented the 
Gospel to them in aspects particularly 
fitted to make iavomble and lasting impres- 

^ Even after that we had suffered beibre," 
he save (1 Thess. 2, 2,) " and were shame- 
fully treated, as ye know, at Philippi, we 
were bold in our Qod, to speak unto you 
the G >8pel of God with much contention. 
Neither at any time used we flattering words, 
as ye know, nor a cloak of covetousness ; 
Qod is witness, nor o** men sought we glo- 
ry. But we were gentle among you, 
even as a nurje cherisheth her children ; 
laboring night and day, because we would 
Dot be chargeable to any of you.'' 

One of the most natural reflections sug- 
gested by the perusal of the epistles of the 
New Testament is, that we are fiir behind 
many of the christians of those days, in oha- 
xacter and life. How painful is the convic- 
tkn which is forced upon us by what we 
readf that persons educated in heathenism, 

and but recently made acquainted with the 
doctrines of the Gospel, or even with the 
character of Gh>d, displayed a devotion of 
heart in his service, and a maturity of 
christian character, even in the face of per- 
secution, and amidst the dangers and teo^p- 
tations surroimding them, which are but 
seldom exhibited by our oldest churches, or 
by individuals most favored by education 
and the highest privil^es of American so- 
ciety ! 

The Jews of Thessalonica were not una- 
nimous in the opposition made to Paul and 
Silas. We are told, (Acts 17, 5,) that those 
<<who believed not," ''set the city in an 
uproar, and assaulted the house of Jason :" 
but we are also informed, in the verse pre- 
ceding, that some of them ^ believed, and 
consorted" with them ; and afterwards, in 
the 10th verse, that '*the brethren im« 
mediately sent away Paul and Silas by 
night, unto Berea." We would request oar 
readers, at their leisure, to direct some at- 
tention, in the course of their Bible-readmg, 
to the history and condition of the church 
of Thessalonica, going to the epistles after 
reading over the brief but interesting ac- 
count of its commencement, given in the 
17th chapter of the Acts. 

As for the state of the Greek Christians 
at the present day, all readers of missionary 
reports, (among whom, we hope, are in- 
cluded all our readers,) are too well in- 
formed to need any remarks from ua Our 
devoted and learned countryman. Dr. Jonas 
King, on last New- Year's day, was* as- 
saulted in Athens by a man,.anAed with a 
club, who sought to kill him, because the 
Patriarch of Constantinople had excom- 
municated him for alledged disrespect to the 
Virgin Mary. At the same time the Pa- 
triarch denominated him a ^ holy apostle." 
What changes since the time of Paul ! 

With regard to the Jews of Thessalonica 
at the present day, we find a few interesting 
facts relating to them, in the <« Narrative 
of a Mission of Inquiry to the Jews from 
the Church of Scotland, in 1881," Chap. 6. 
They amount to 50,000, and are wealthji 
intelligent and influential. 






The Slate of Texas is now divided inio 
ibirly-five couQties, vi^:— GTalreslon, Harris, 
Brazoria, Matagorda, Victoria, Gourale^, San 
Patrucia, Refugio, Goliad, Jackson, Bexar, 
Bastrop, Travis, Fayette, Colorado, Austin, 
Fori Bend, \Va8hin§:too, Liberty, Jefferson, 
Jasper, Houston, Sabine, Nacogdoches, Rush, 
San Augustin, Shelby, (more familiarly 
known as state of Tamaha,) Harrison, Bowie, 
Red River, Fanning, Montgomery and La- 

Of these Montgomery is the most populous 
of the interior counties, and Galveston the 
most populous of those situated on the coast. 
Galveston is the largest city of Texas, though 
Houston contains about the same number ot 
inhabitants. The next city o( importance is 
San Augusiin, in which are Washington Col- 
lege, with about one hundred and forty stu- 
dents, and a seminary with sixty or seventy- 
five. It has a population of about fifteen 

Austin, the seat of Government, in Travis 



of the most picturesque and romantic portions 
of Texas, ft has a population of twelve or 
fifteen hundred, and is rapidly increasing.— 
The new constitution provides that the seat 
of Government shall continue at Austin until 
1850, when, s hould the state be divided in 
the mean time, the probability is that it will 
be removed farther east. 

San Antonio de Bexar, near the western 
frontier of Texas, on the San Antonio river, is 
the oldest and the best built town in Texas. 
It was settled about two hiindred years ago, 
under the auspices of an association of Span- 
ish monks, and at one time contained about 
fifteen thousand inhabitants. But it has been 
several times nearly depopulated within the 
last century by the Camanche Indians, it 
never having been adequately defended by its 
inhabitants, or the Spanish and Mexican Go- 
vernments: nor until its partial occupation by 
Texan and American citizens. The town is 
built entirely of stone, and it now contains a 
population of about fifteen hundred. 

The Alamo, a dismantled fortress, the me- 
morable scene of the lamented fate of Travis, 
Bowie and Crockett, is situated on the East 
Bank of the San Antonio river, opposite the 
town, and contains within its walls a church 
in a partial state of preservation. There is 
also in the city a large Catholic Cathedral, 
used by the Mexicans as a place of worship. 
This, like all the churches in the vicinity, 
of which there are five, is built in ancient 
style of architecture, and this gives to the 
stranger the impression that he is wander- 
ing amid the ancient Casiilian edifices of old 

There are two large public squares in the 
city of San Antonio, one called the military 
square, intended for military occupation, 
and the other the civil square, containing 

the public buildings of the mimicipal authori- 

About five miles above the city are the 
sources of the San Antonio river. These con- 
sist of *'four fountains," or springs, the larg- ] 
est covering nearly an acre, and the others ol < 
smaller size. The water of these fountains \ 
is^so transparent that a ten cent piece may be i 
seen at the depth of forty feet. The outlets 
to these fountains unite a short distance below, 
and at a point about three miles above the 
city, a dam of solid masonry is thrown across 
the stream, and aqueducts are from thence 
constructed, on either side ot'the river, to 
convey the water from the main reservoir to 
the houses and gardens of the city and the 
plantations below. The aqueducts were con- 
structed perhaps a century and a half ago, by 
the Catholic establishment ; and under the 
regulations then established, the proprietor of 
each hacienda was, as is said, permitted 
to use the water for irri^ting his whole 
plantation as often as required, aad in qaan- 
tities in proportion to the extent of his pos- 

There are three old Catholic establishraents 
in the vicinity of San Antonio, situate on the 
river below the city at intervala of a few 
miles. These — Conception, San Jose, and 
San Juan, are each a church, surrounded by 
a wall, intended for purposes of defence.— 
Within these walls are also erected numerous 
small buildings for the shelter and protec- 
tion of the neighboring farmers and their 
families, during the pr^atory excursions of 
the Indians. 

It is a curious fa^t, that a city like San 
Antonio, with the improvements described, 
its antique churches and other public edifices, 
should nave existed for centuries, compara- 
tively unknown, near the extreme western 
frontier of this now infant republic of the 

The other principal towns of Texas are, 
Matagorda, at the mouth of the Colorado, on 
Matagorda btfv ; Washington, on the Brazos; 
Corpus Christi Just sprung into existence, and 
numbering about two thousand people, be- 
sides the United States army, seven thousand ; 
Nacogdoches ; Brazoria, on the Brazos river, 
and Montgomery, the capital of the county 
of the same name. 

Cotton is principally raised, and to the best 
advaniari^e, on the Brazos, Trinity, and Red 
rivers ; but is also profitably cultivated in 
other sections. The sugar region is near the 
coast, and lying south oflatitude 30. Wheat, 
and the fine grains are raised to most advan- 
tage in the mountainous and hilly regions of 
the Upper Colorado, Brazos and Trinity rivers. 
Of the wilderness region above this point, 
towards Santa Fe, but little comparatively is 

The principal streams are, the Red river, 
navigable within Texas five hundred miles; 
the Sabine, navigable four months in the 
year four htmdred miles : the Nueces, for the 
same period, one hundred and fiAy miles; 


^ the Trinity for seren months, about six hun- 
; dred ; the Buffalo Bafou^ navigated by steam* 
] boats every day in the year, from Houston to 
; Galveston, about one hundred miles, and the 
/ ma teat thoroughfare of the country ; the 
Biasoa, fonr months in the yiear, one hundred 
and iifty miles, and may be easily rendered 
navigable three hundred miles ; the Colorado, 
which, by removing the raft at its mouth, 
which will be navigable at least four hun- 
dred miles ; the Guadaloupe, navigable about 
Smiles; the Nueces, about a hundred 
» ; and the Rio Bravo del Norte, about 
six hundred miles. {Selected.) 





On the third mominp^ after leavmg Charles* 
Iilands, while in sight of Albermarle, the 
look'OQt on the fore-top-gallant yard sung out, 
<* There he blows! there again!" and at regu- 
lar intervals, ««th€re be blows, again!'* — 
" Where away 1" " About four points on the 
lie bow, sir;" " put the helm up. "Ay, ay, 
sir," responded the helmsman. ** Steady :" 
*' steady it is sir." We got the telescopes at 
work, (and first rate ones they are always in 
whalesnips.) AAer a steady look, our well- 
experienced skipper pronounced it to be a 
Urn sperm whale. '* Boats' crews of the 
larboard side, stand by to lower three boats." 
•*Ay, ay, sir," rang fore and aft the ship; 
wfaen« abdut a mile from the whale, the helm 
waa pot down, lee main braces let go, and 
the ship became stationary, with the main 
yards aback. « Ready there 1" " All ready, 
"» " •* Lower away." 

The boat-tackle falls rattled through the 
block, and the boats were in the water. No 
huntsman ever followed a pack of hounds 
with greater fflee than the boats' crews of 
those ships pan after their game. We now 
filled away on the ship to have full command 
orer her, and to keep to windward of the 
boats. They pulled silently and steadily on. 
The whale was going along easily. By-and- 
bj, the chief omcer's boat got close up ; and 
oae iron darted into the body of the fish, 
then another, and the boat was fast. 

They were by this time so close to the 
ship, yoa coold hear him sing out, '* Stem all 
now V* and the boat was pulled quickly as- 
tern ; the whale rented itself half out of the 
aea, then hurled its head in it, raised his 
cnormoos flukes, gave a blow on the surface 
of the water, the sonnd of which you could 
hear fkr off; then he went down, or, as they 
call it, sounded; the boat was drawn right 
down over him, and the line whirring through 
the chalks as he descended. When the se- 
cond tub was all but oat, it stopped ; then 
thejjr commenced hauling in the line, and 
eoiung it looaelv in the stem sheets as fast as 
they coold. This hauling-in of the line is 
always accompanied by the cheermg, *' Hur- 
ra, harra, harra !" kc 

They got in the line very fast ; and when 
the whale came up to blow, the boat was not 

more than foar hundred yards off*, the oars all 
peaked, and out of the water ; he then started 
to windward towing the boat after him at 
about fifteen miles an hour, the water boilinff 
and foaming high up on either side of it AU 
hands in the boat now laid hold of the line, 
and kept haulin|^ upon him; and as they 
passed not far from the stem of the ship, 
crot along side of him by bowing the line. — 
The officer lanced ; and after each dart of the 
lance into the fish, the shank of it had to be 
straightened, which is easily managed fn the 
bow of the boat. After running about two 
miles to windward of the ship, the fish blew 
np blood out of his spout-hole. This is at 
once the indication of the death-blow .ffiven. 
He stopped suddenly; the boats slaclened 
the line, and pulled astern out of the way, as 
he was going into his death-flurry. They 
had scarcely got clear of him when he rolled 
heavily, reared bis great head up, beat the 
water with his fins and flukes, in great fury, 
made one tremendous plunge, and was no 

This whale was, on the whole, easily 
taken ; but the case and results are often very 
difi'erent, even with much smaller ones. ^ The 
sperm whale is a very active fish, and it fre- 
quently tests its powers by destroying boats 
and their crews with both jaws and flukes ; 
often I have seen our boats stove in pieces by 
the whale. As soon as the crew see the dan- 
ger coming, they jump overboard, and after- 
wards get up on the wreck, or take an oar 
tuder their arms until the other boats come 
and pick them up. — Dr» Coulter^s Advenr 

California, — ^There are at present three 
new expeditions about to start for Califor- 
nia ; one from Fort Smith on the Arkan- 
sas, of about 1000 souls, under the charge 
of Mr. Leavitt ; and another under the 
command of Major Russell, of Missouri, 
embracing many emigrants from Ken- 
tucky ; and another under the gtiidance of 
Mr. Grayson, who leaves Independent Mis- 
souri, on the 15th April, for the valley of 
Sacramento, in North California. 

Arucdote. — An Irish servant, seeing his 
master about to throw a letter out of the 
window, said to him. 

<' O, please your honor, do not throw tl»- 
letter away, but give it to me, if you please. 
I will send it to my father, I promised, sure 
and fast, would send him one as soon as I 
came here." 

Accideni, — Mr. Abraham Hodgson of 
Jamaica Plains was killed by jumping de- 
liberately from the Providence cars directly 
on the track where his body was run-over 
and shockingly mangled. — N. Y, Sun, 






Inquiry. — ^What is the domestic condition 
aidd organization of the Indian family ? Is 
the tie of consanguinity strong, and what 
characteristic facts can be stated of it? 
How are the domestic duties arranged? 
What are the rights of each of the lodge ? 
How is order maintained in so confined a 
^;>aee, and the general relations of the fam- 
ily preserved? Are the relative duties 
and labors of the ntmter and his wife* equal- 
ly or unequally divided ? Who builds the 
lodge, and how is it constructed ? } 

There is a very striking agreement, m the 
condition, relative duties and obligations, of 
the .Indian family, among all the tribes of 
whom I have any personal knowledge, in 
North America* Climate and position, the 
abundance or want of the means ot subsist- 
ence and other accidental causes, have created 
gradations of condition in the various tribes, 
some of whom excel others in ezpertness, in 
hunting and war, and other arts but these 
circumstances have done little to alter the 
general characteristics, or to abridge or enlarge 
tne original rights and claims of each inmate 
of the lodge. The tribes who cultivated 
maize in the rich sub«vallies and plains of 
the Ohio and Mississippi, had fuller means 
of both physical and mental development, 
than those who were, and still are, obliged to 
pick a scanty subsistence, among the frigid, 
and half marine regions in the latitudes north 
of the great lakes. There are some peculiar 
traits ojf manners, in the prairie* tribes, west 
of the Mississippi, who pursue the bison on 
horseback, and rely for their subsistence great* 
ly, on its flesh, and the sale of its skin. The 
well fed Muscogee, Cherokee and Choctaw, 
who lived in the suony vallies of upper 
Gkorgia, Alabama, and Tennessee, the robust 
Osage, revelling in the abundance of com and 
wild meat, south of the Missouri, and the 
lean and rigid Montaignes, Muskeego, and 
Kenisteno, who push their canoes through 
waters choked with aquatic weeds, and wild 
rice, present very different pictures of home 
and comfort, within their lodge doors: but 
they really present the same idea, the same 
sentiments, and the same round of duties and 
obligations, of father and mother, sister and 
brother, wife and husband. The original 
type of the human family among them, is 
well preserved, better, indeed, than was to 
have been expected in a state of barbarism, 
and among branches of the race who have 
been so long separated, and subjected to such 
severe vicissitudes. It would be useless, in 
this view, to draw a parallel between the re- 

lative condition of the members of a hmiXy, 
within, and without the pale of civilisation. 
Nothing of the kind could be done, without 
showinjif pictures of want in the hunter* 
life which are wholly unknown in the agricul- 
tural state. It cannot perhaps, in fair justice, 
be said that the tie of consanguinitv, in the 
man of the woods, is stronger than in civi- 
lized life. But it is in accordance with all 
observation to say, that it is very strong, that 
its impulses beat with marked force, and are 
more free from the intertwined ligaments of 
interest, which often weaken the tie of re- 
lationship in more refined and affluent soci^ 

The true idea of matrimony, in Indian life, 
is also well set forth and acknowledged, 
although it has come down through agea of 

Slunder and wandeiing, degraded m its gcb- 
itioD, shorn of its just ceremonies and weak- 
ened in its sacred character. I have observed 
that polygamy, among the northern tribes, ie 
chieflv to be found, among bands who are fis- 
vorably located, and. have the best means of 
subsistence. But even here it is not repvtSH^ 
ble ; it may often increase a man's influence 
in the tribe or nation, but there are always 
persons in the wildest forests, who do not 
think the practice right or reputable. In the 
worst ^tate of Indian society, there are al- 
ways some glimmerings of truth. If the 
conscience of the Red man may be compared 
to a lamp, it may be said to have rather sunk 
low into Its socket, than actually to have ex- 
pired. The relation between huslMuid aod 
wife, in the forest,' are formed under circum- 
stanees, which are generally uniform. Va- 
rious incidents, or motives determine a union. 
Sometimes it is brought about by the inter- 
vention of friends ; sometimes from a sudden 
impulse of admiration; sometimes with, and 
sometimes against the wishes of the graver 
and more prudent relatives of the parties. — 
Where the husband is acceptable, and has 
not^ before been married, which covers the 
niajority of cases, he comes to live for a 
while after marriage, in the lodge of his 
mother-in-law; and this relation generally 
lasts until the increase of children, or other 
circumstances determine his settmg up a 
lodge for himselL Presents are still a ready 
way for a young hunter to render himself ac- 
ceptable in a lod^e. There are some instan- 
ces, where considerable ceremony, and the 
invitation of friends, have attended the first 
reception of the bridegroom at the lodge ; but 
these are, in roost cases, what we should de- 
nominate matches of state, or expediency, in 
which the bravery, or other public serviees 
of a chief or leader, have indmed bis village 
to think, that his merits deserve the reward 
of a wife. Generally, the acceptance of the 
visitor by the party most mterested, and their 
expressed .or tacit consent, is the only pre- 
liminarv, and this is done in a private way. 
The only ceremonial observance, of which I 
have ever heard, is the assigning of what is 
called an abbinoa, or permanent lodge tear. 






to the bridegroom. When this has been 
done, by the mother or mistress of the lodge, 
who gorems these things, he is received, and 
henceforth installed as a constituent member 
of the lodge and family. The simple rule is, 
that he who has a right to sit by the bride, is 
her husband. 

The lodf e itself, with all its arrangements, 
IB the precinct of the rule and soremment of 
the wife. She assigns to eacB member, bis 
or her ordinary place to sleep and put their 
efiects. These places are permanent, and 
only ehanffed at her will, as when there is a 
guest by day or night. In a space so small 
as a lodige this system presenres order, and 
being at all times under her own eye, is en- 
forced by personal supervision. The husband 
has DO voice in this matter, and I have 
never heard of an instance in which he 
would so far deviate from his position, as to 
interfere in these minor particulars. The 
lodffe is her precinct, the forest his. 

There is no law, nor force, to prevent an 
Indian from decreeing his own divorce, that 
is to say leaving one wife and taking another 
whenever he sees cause. Yet it often oc- 
curs that there is some plausible pretext for 
taking such a step, such as if true, would 
(brm some justification of the measure. The 
bcsc protection to married females arises from 
the ties of children, which, by bringing into 
play the strong natural affections of the heart, 
appeals at once to that principle in man's 
original organization, which is the strongest. 
The arerage number of children which reach 
the adolt period is small, and will scarcely 
exceed two. On the pay rolls it did not ex* 
eeed this. Much of this extraordinary result 
is owing to their erratic mode of life, and 
their cramped means of subsist ence. Another 
cause is to be found in the accidents and ex* 
potore to which younff children are liable, 
but still more to their shocking isnorance of 
medicine. I once knew a child at three 
years of age to be killed by an attempt to re- 
store a deranged state of the bowels, by a 
strong overdose of an astringent tincture of 
hemlock bark administered by her father. — 
This man, who was called Atiuck, had 
suoog natoral affections, but he was very ig« 
aoraniy even in the eyes of the Indian race, 
beiiig one of that people living N. £. of lake 
fkiperi<»r, who are called variously, Gens de 
TerreSy MounUiineers and Muskeegoes. 

The duties and labors of Indian life, are 
believed to be equally, and not, as has been 

Senerally thought, unequally divided between 
be maie and female. This division is also 
the most natural possible, and such as must 
ever result from the condition of man as a 
mere hunter. It is the duty of the male to 
wroride food, and of the female to prepare it. 
This arrangement carries with it to the share 
of the male, all that relates to external con- 
cerns, and all that peruins to the internal to 
the care of the female, as completely as is 
done in civilised life. To the man belong 
not only the l^iness of hunting, for this is 


an employment and not a pastimef but the 
care of the territory, and keeping off iotruders 
and enemies, and the preparation of canoes 
for travel, and of arms and implements of 
war. The duties of cooking and dressing 
meats and fowl, and whatever else the chase 
affords, carries, on the other hand, to the 
share of the hunter's wife, the entire care 
and control of the lodge, with its structure 
and removal, and the keeping it in order, 
with all its utensils and apparatus. Affood 
and frugal hunter's wife, makes all this a 
point of ambitious interest, and takes a pride 
in keeping it neai and proper for the recep- 
tion of her husband's guests. She sweeps the 
earth clean around the fire, with a broom of 
branches of the cedar constructed for this 
purpose. This lodge, it is to be remembered, 
IS made not of beams and posts, and heavy 
carpentry, but out of thin poles, such as a 
child can lift, set in the ground in a circle, 
bent over and tied at the top. and sheathed 
with lonj^ sheets of the white birch bark.— 
A rim of^cedar wood at the bottom, assimi- 
lates these birch bark sheets to the roller of 
a map, to which in stormy weather, a stone 
IS attached to hold it firm. This stick has 
also the precise use of a map-roller, for when 
the lodge is to be removed, the bark is rolled 
on it, and in this shape carried to the canoe, 
to be set up elsewhere. The circle of sticks 
or frame is always left standing, as it would 
be useless to encumber the canoe with what 
can easily be had at any position ia a forest 

Such at least is the hunting lodge, and in- 
deed, the lodge generally us^ by the tribes 
north of latitude 42^. It is, in its figure, a 
half globe, and by its lightness and wicker- 
like structure, may be said to resemble an 
inverted bird's nest. The whole amount of 
the ^ transportable materials of it, is often 
comprehended in some half a dozen good 
rolls of bark, and as many of rush mats 
which the merest girl can easily lift The 
mats, which are the substitute for floor cloths 
and also the under stratum of the sleepiujg; 
couch, are made out of the common lacustris 
or bullrush, or the flag, cut at the proper sea- 
son, and woven in a warp of fine hemp net 
thread, such as is furnished by traders in the 
present state of the Indian trade. A portion 
of this soft vegetable woof, is dyed and 
woven in various colors. Lodges thus con- 
structed are still to be abundantly seen, bv 
the summer visitor, in the upper lakes, at all 
the principal points, to which the Indians re- 
sort, during the height of summer. Such are 
the posts of Michiiimackinac, Sault Ste. Ma- 
rie and Green Bay. At Michiiimackinac, 
where it is now difficult to get fresh lodge 
poles, without going some distance, or tres- 
passing on private rights, the natives who 
resort thither of late years, have adopted an 
ingenious change, by which the labor of the 
females in getting new poles is dispensed 

To be continued^ 



It aw; ba a diflicult thing lo prove, in par- 
tknl&r giren cabw, that > person haa wor- 
shipped an imaife, a picture, or aay other 
idol, with the full, clear and settled inieniioo 
of patting it in the place ol God. Thia ia 
trnqaeatioDBblf done, by muliitndea of in- 
diriduala, in mullitudea of limea, in the 
coune of their lit ea. At any rate, it is verjr 
eaar to perceive, with doe reflection, that, in 
way ioatance, enough is done lo vi(dato the 
second c6mmand of the Decalogoe, and lo 
prodflce ihe dreadful efTecl upon the mind 
and ike heart, and of course upon t'he char- 
acter and Ihe life, which ihai ulema law 
waa designed to prevent. 

The aervice of fdoln acts in a compound 
war. I' ''■B several disiioei operaiions: it 
I exerts snre and dreadful influeacea upon the 
undemanding and the feelings, in all it* 
' forms, and in all its degrees, which seem the 
re lamentable and extensive, the better 
I we become qualified to judge of their nature 
I and relations. All of us majr not have con* 
I aidered the various lendencies of idolatr;. 
I They are no nowhere so justly and strongly 

• set forth or apprehended, as in ilie Scrip, 
ea. On the several religions praciised in 

I China, ihe Chinese Bepository gives soroe in- 

• snuelive remarks, from which we extract the 
I following. 

The state worship is divided into three 
[ classes: — first, the Ta-iie, or great aacri- 
) Sees ; secondly, the Choong-aze, or medium 
I BacriGcea ; and lasilv, the Staovszt. or lesser 
! sacrifices. Under tne first head are worsliip- 
I ped ihe heaven and the earth. In this man- 
r they would seem to adore Ihe material 
1 visible heaven, as contrasted with the 
I earth; but lihe^ at the same time, appear to 

consider that there exists an ammaiing tnt^' 
Ugenee which presides over the world, re- 
warding virtue and punishing vice. Tien 
and S}wng-ly, " the supreme ruler," apiiear 
always to be synonymous in the Shoo-kiog. 
Equal with the above, and lilte them restrict- 
ed to the worship of the emperor and his 
court, is the great temple of imperial an- 

The objects of worship entilled to the 
" Hedlnm of SBcrifiees" are (among others) 
the gods of the lend and grain. The ionner 
are generally repreaenied by a rode stone, 

E laced on an aliar wiiti matches of mcmse 
aming before it, which is commonly seen in 
every street and comer. The sun and mo(S), 
otherwise called the "Great light" and the 
"Evening tight," come under thia head. 
The rest are varioua gods, genii, sages, and 
othera, the iuventora of ac^ricuUnre, raanufac- 
lures, and useful arts. The god of letters 
stands principal amouR thece. The " Lesser 
sacriQces" include a still larger class, among 
which ia the ancient patron of the healing 
art, together with innumersble spirits of de- 
ceased statesmen, eminent scholars, martyrs 
to virtue, &c The principal phenomena of 
nature are likewise worshipped, as the clouds, 
the rain, wind, and thunder, each of which 
has its presiding god. The fivt moynUint, 
Ihe four teas, are rather figurative than ex- 
act cipressions for the land and the ocean in 
general. Like the Romans, they won hip 
their military flags and banners : and JTiun-fy, 
a deified warnot of aneieoi times, much ho- 
nored by the military, is especially adored by 
the present dynasty for his supposed aasia- 
tance. Their right being that of oooqueat 
they properly worship the god of war. 
LaoHg-wmg, the dragon king, who lepre- 
sent rivers and ihe watery eiement, receives 
much sacrifice from those who have charge 
ot the Vellow river and grand caoat, both of 
which so Ireqnently bunt their banks; and 
his temples were constantly recurring during 
the progress of the embasaiea through the 




Tli« Bon ol a Scotch sbepheTd, wbo was 
1mi amidit tfce wild and rocky region i 
kis MtivB house, wu long sooght in vain, bj 
ihe diitiened faiher and a pan; of his wann- 
betrted neighbor*. Many of onr readers, no 
doabi, ire familiar wiih ihe atory, and many 
pntiaps have recognizeJ the actM at the 6 
aght oT our aigTa*mg. The Faithful dog, 
vboie tagad'y led him first to the spot 
vbere the little waoderei wae lying, at 
bottoD) of a deep and dangerous glen, partook 
in ihe Joy of ihe parents and ftiraidi on 
itcorery of the child. We need not repeat 
the'itory here i bat we will gire anoiher, of 
1 Da less toaching character, and of mnch 
more recent occtirrenee, in onr own country, 
Tbieh is nnrrvted id a style that does mnch 
justice to the snbjecL 


We copy the following remarkable and ai- ■ 
fating narratire from the Southern Christian 
idrocate, to which journal it was eommnni- ■ 
«ted by the father of the child, the Rev. 
Ssmnel Leard, pastor ot the Cumbettaod 
(Methodist Episcopal) Church in Charleston, 
8. C. On Thursday. 12th of February, my 
utile daughter, Susan M. M. Leard, aged 
uiree years, was playing iu the yard, near the 
soose of her grandfather, and as it was no 
noDsaal tbiDg for her to play about the pre- 
m»es in open weather, her temporary absence 
iRMu within thaenclosure occasioned no alarm, 
wiihin twenty rainutes-of Jie time when last 
seen bf one of her aunts, she was called by 
•ome member of the family, and to their 
great dismay was not to be found. Imme- 

diate search was made around the yard aad J 

lol, but all to no purpose. A colored giil, of < 

nearly the same age with herself, was also < 

missing, and wss seen in company with liiile ' 

Susan, about thirty yards from the fence, < 
when they were last obserted by the family. 
Whether the children wandered off Tolan- 

larily, or were taken away by some malicioos J 

person, js shrouded in the most profound mys- ( 

ing woods for some hours, bat wi[hout i 
cess. Evening was now approaching, ai 
the family, aj^onized at the prospect of il 
children ccHiliouing in the woods through the t 

darkness and inclemency of the night, i 

moned the neighbors (o their assistance, 
country was scoured for some distance arouDd ( 
fires lighted up in different directions, and j 
erery possible effort made to attract the chil- 
dren's attention— but they were neither heard < 
nor Been. The night rolled heavily onward, '. 
and the morning light only brought the sad i 
'" "" - ■ " ' ' rokeu eraad-pareaiB, J 
}t fotmd. 

It will be remembered that the night of the 
iSth iusiant, was among the most inclement 
of the aeastm; the rain poured down in tor- 
rents and the wind wss blowing almost a 
gale. Where the poor little creainres found 
shelter, what shrubberr protected, « what 
stone pillowed their little heads, or how they 
were sustained under the merciless peltings 
of the ruthless storm, God, their HesTenly 
Father, only knows. We may be allowed to 
believe that "The angel of the Lord," which 
"encampeth round about them that fear him," 
delivered them'. How much they suffered in 
their exposed situa[ ion, must be lef^ for the 
day of eternity to reveal. During the follow 
ing day, (Saturday) unceasing sMrch was 
made, and about dark, the body of the little 



neffro wm found, lifeless but not stiff. She 
had apparently just died. 

This quickened the eneraies of the friends 
and neighbors; and a dUigent search was 
made during that night in the neighborhood 
of the little negro : bat though erery bay was 
penetrated, and almost every log turned'oTer, 
still they discovered no signs of little Susan. 
Sabbath morning now dawned, but not wkh 
its wonted peace and tranquility; all was 
gloom and melancholy. Between the hours 
of ten and eleven in the morning, as a young 
man, William /fobias, was searching near a 
bay, around which the undergrowth had 
formed an almost impenetrable thicket, he 
observed something more near the water's 
edge, and going closer to examine, he heard a 
little voice addressing thus, *' Please take me 
out of the water. I want to go to grandpa's. 
I want some tea." It was the form and 
voice of my dear little Susan which he saw 
and heard. 

She was Iving prostrate on the leaves and 
moss, one foot m the water; her bonnet 
thrown back, and her clothing completely 
drenched with the rain. The young man 
thinks it probable, that had she not spoken 
to him, he would have passed without dis* 
covering her, so thick and matted was the 
shrubbery around her. The news that she 
was found was quickly communicated to the 
company, and they bore her off in triumph to 
the afflicted family. The scene that followed, 
after an absence of Mttenty-lwo hours^ with* 
out food and shelter, and rhe endurance of 
three days of anxious suspense and solici* 
tode on their part, we will leave to the read* 
er's heart to describe. The distance to 
which she had wandered from home was 
about two n^iies. 



We have never yet observed among the 
very numerous modem associations, for all 
manner of purposes, any of a character so ad* 
mirably suited to practical good purposes, as 
the now famous system of Farmers' Clubs. 
This is a new creation of modem times, 
growing out oi the republican tendencies of 
the world, to congregate farmers, the men of 
the earth, and have them compare all their 
experience— consult the theorists, and inter- 
change their thoughts and facts, to he applied 
to the more perfect culture of the earth. — 
These clubs will ere long get into their hands 
such an exchange, not only of knowledge, but 
of seeds and planls, as will constitute a na« 
tional currency of all the precious products of 
agriculture and horticulture. 

And in prosecution of this noble plan of 
exchange, the Farmers' Club of the American 
Institute in New York, has resolved to collect 
from all reliable quarters, the grafts from the 
choicest fruit trees of all our farmers and gar- 
deners, to send them to all farmers' clubs, to 
ask an exchange from other clubs, and in this 
exchange, to be exact in the names and des- 
criptions of the fruit trees of which grafts are 

distributed : so that no man who takes the 
trouble to insert the grafts in his stoclcs, shall 
have the unpleasant mortification of finding 
af^er all his care, and three years lost time, 
that he had not received the very fruit which 
he supposed he had. 

By establishing such an honest exchange, it 
is a matter of certainty, that in a verjr few 
few years our coimtry can be covered with the 
foiest fruits. The wretched apples, pears, 
plums, cherries, &c, will soon disappear, 
and (heir places be occupied with fruit, every 
basket of which will be the occasion of smiles 
of pleasure in those who receive it. Ah ! 
what beautiful, delicious applesi — what a pear, 
it melts in his mouth! what magniocent 
plums — what noble cherries — what Malaca- 
toon peaches ! how fine these grapes are ! — 
where did they come from 1 The answer will 
be, from our Farmers^ Cluh ! Millions of 
baskets of such really choice fraits can as ^- 
sily be had as the insipid, frothy, wormy, sour, 
hard, bitter, astringent, half*made fruit, with 
which negligence curses a country. We know 
that proper eare will not only give to our mil* 
lions of people delicious fraits, tut that the 
trees that bear them maj be made to last and 
bear their tribute for twice the length of time. 
Instead of hollow apple trees, yon can have 
them solid timber to the core, at their oldest 
period ; and thousands ot those wno choose 
It, can find the means of sending fine surplus 
fruit to Europe. Steam will before long carry 
baskets of peaches, pears, and apples to coun- 
tries which cannot raise them. 

Our apples have already fotmd in the mar- 
ket of London a sale at six and even nine 
dollars a barrel. One or two members of the 
American Institute, whom we could name, 
have tried it; and what those intelligent gen- 
tlemen have already accomplished, to the 
amoimt of a few thousand barrels of apples, 
can be done to as many millions. Fruit ol 
fine sorts, in perfect order, is always a preci- 
ous object. Not only pleasure, but health, 
are the direct results of the use of perfect 
fraits. On this point, there is no difference 
among that celebrated class of men, the doc- 
tors, who, notwithstanding their well-known 
(doctors will differ) difficulty in keeping the 
diet of their patients in proper order, never 
have been known to object to the use of per- 
fectly ripe fruit. When the poor exhausted 
patient cannot taste beef, turkey, chicken, 
bread, pie or pudding, give her a roasted 
apple ! 

Pomological societies already exist ; there 
is one in New Haven which we fed a strong 
interest in. Governor Edwards takes an ac- 
tive part in it, and as an affiliated member of 
farmers' clubs, it demands all our respect and 

We have said. thus much, hoping to pro- 
voke from all the clubs other men to speak 
and act on this delightful fruit question.— 
Every member should bring to bis club all 
his biest graAs, and see that exchanges are 
everywhere made. — Selected, 






PredeeeiNn of Pope Gregory XVI. 

(CoMTniuiD FEOK Vol. IL» pagx 156.) 

Tbe moderatioQ of B€Bediet XIV. correct- 
ed sonie of the evils orodaced br bis prede- 
ceMoca ; he put an end to the reiigiona wars, 
eipeiled tlks Jeaoita, moderated che Ball Uni* 
ffeaitna, and terminated the tofferinp of 
France. He reformed the immoralities of 
the clergy, and soppressed the orders of monks, 
oitioQs to all nations. 

Clement XIII. openly protected the Jesuits, 
launched his anathemas* and, bv his audacity, 
prepared the ruin of the Holy See. The 
excesses of the Jesuits had worn out the 
people; and their crimes and ambition had 
terrified the kings. The universal hatred of 
them caused an ezplomon, and the Jesuits 
were driren out of France. In Europe, Asia 
and America they were banished from the 
territories of the King of Spam. They were 
expelled also from the two Sicilies, Par- 
ma and Malta ; and, with the execrations of 
mankind, the^ were exterminated ^in almost 
all the countries which had been the theatres 
of their power: the Philippines, Peru, Mexi- 
co, Parag^y and Brazil. 

France deprived the pope of Avignon and 
the countrjr of Venaissin, as belonging to the 
crown. The king of Naples seized the cities 
of Beneventum and Ponte Corva The Bull 
In Cmna Domini was everywhere proscribed, 
that monument of madness and pride, annual- 
Iv fulminated by the popes at Rome, since the 
nys of Paul III. Pontifical darkness be- 
gan to diverse ; and princes and people no 
loBger prostrated themselves at the feet of the 
servant of the servants of God. Clement 
XIIL saw the old Colossus of Rome falling 
in ruins, and died of grief because he could 
not stay its destruction. 

Clement XIV. brought philosophy to the 
chair of the popes. Portugal had broken 
from the Holy See, and chose to appoint her 
own patriarch ; the courts of France, Spain 
and staples were i^ignant at the ridiculons 
exeommimication pronounced by Clement 
XIIL against the Duke of Parma ; Venice 
had undertaken to reform the monasteries, 
without the popeS consent : and Poland de- 
sired to dimimsh the authority of the Holy 
See ; while Rome herself expressed her in- 
dignatiou, and seemed to remember that she 
had been mistress of the world. 

Clement, by a skilful policy, stopped these 
movements; but the priesti, those enemies 
of * toleration, could not pardon the pontifi*; 
and he died of poison. 

Liberty, the brightest torch of reason, had 
already poured her light into every mind , 
snd men began to cast off the chains of super- 

Pius VI. desired to seize upon the redoubt- 
able power of the Roman pontiffs, and adopt- 
ed the execrable policy of his predecessors. — 
Joseph IL £mperor of Austna, put a stop 
to tne increase of covents, which threaten- 
ed to overwhelm his kingdom ; suppressed 

bishopricks, closed seminaries, and protected 
his states from the control of the Holy See. — 
The Grand Duke of Tuscany prepared to in- 
troduce the same reforms, dissolved the bro- 
therhoods, abolished the authority of nuncios, 
and forbade an appeal to Rome in the trial of 
priests. In Naples a sagacious minister de- 
prived the pope of the benefit of indulgences, 
the conferring of benefices, and the nomina- 
ting to vacant curacies. 

The French Revolution was preparing. — 
The States-General, assembled at Vermilles, 
ordered reforms among the clergy« abolished 
monastic vows and proclaimed liberty of con- 
science. Ital) was conquered by the Freach 
armies ; and Pius VI. false and hvpocritical, 
formed an alliance with the republic The 
assassination of General Duplot demanded 
ptmishment ; and the pontiff was taken 
to the fortress of Valence, where he ended 
his base life by cowardice and perfidy. 

The conclave assembled at Venice; and, 
after one hundred and four days of intrigues 
and corruptions, the Benedictine Chiarmonti 
was chosen pope, under the name of Pius VII. 

The pontiff formed an alliance with the 
republic, and signed the famous concordat. — 
Napoleon mounted the throne of France. The 
pope was compelled to go to Pans, to crown the 
Emperor, and to increase the magnificence of 
the occasion. 

Napoleon, indignant at the secret machina- 
tions aginst his power, hy the counsellors of 
the pope, published a decree, ordering the 
union of the States of the Church with the 
Empire, andfthe sovereign pontiff was stripped 
of temporal authority. 

The bull of excommunication was posted 
up at niffht in the streets of Rome, inviting 
the people to revolt, exciting to carnage, and 
pointing out the French to public vengeance ; 
but the standard of St. Peter was torn down, 
and all the monuments of Rome bore' the 
colors of France. 

Wars succeeded in Europe, kitf|^oms were 
conquered, old governments sank, and France 
was in all her glory. But Napoleon erected 
new thrones, and fell imder the blow« of the 
kings he himself had crowned. 

This catastrophe changed the destinies of 
nations, and restored to the pope the inheri- 
tance of Rome. 

Pius VII. made his triumphal entry into the 
city; the churches were opened, public 
thanks were ffiven for the subjugation of the 
people, and the holy father died, surrounded 
by his cardinals, in the pomp and magnifi- 
cence of power. 

After twenty-six davs of intrigues, disputes 
and briberies, Cardinal Annibal Delia Genga 
was proclaimed pq)e under the name of Leo 
Xn. He was only sixty-three years old, but 
was in bad health in consequence of his ex- 
cesses in eveij kind of debauchery. 

He had usea all his inttuence with Pius VII. 
to procure the restoration of the rack, and 
other iNirbaroos practices of the dark ages. 

( To he continued.) 







Daring the year 1835, one of great com- 
mercial prosperity, theralueof all the British 
and Irish Produce Bnd Manufactares exported 
from the United Kingdom, was 1^208,437,980. 
The appropriations for the payment ot the in- 
terest then made of the Briiish war debt 
and for the support of the Army, Navy and 
Ordnance, during the current year, amount to 
8225,403,640 ! The war expenses, in time of 
peace, exceeding by nearly 820,000,000, all 
that the human and iron machinery of that 
great kingdom can produce beyond its own 

But let us begin at home. Let us assume 
the average price of cotton, at all places of 
its exportation in the Union, to be 7 1-2 cents 
per pound. The crop for 1845 is estimated at 
872,000,000 pounds ; worth, at the above 
rate, 865,000,000. In 1834, the capital ia- 
vested in the production of cotton, was 8800,- 
000,000, and the value of the whole crop, 
876.000,000, at sixteen cents per pound. It 
may then be lair to suppose that 8liQOO,000,- 
000 have been thus invested in 1845. The in- 
terest ol this sum, at six per cent., amounts to 
860,000,000 ; which beinj^ deducted from the 
home value of the entire crop, leaves but 
85.400,000, clear profit of the business itself. 
Now the appropriation to the U. S. Navy, for 
the current year, is 86»350,789 ! Let cotton 
growers ponder on this fact, and on another 
of vital interest to themselves. A war, to pre- 
pare for which we are absorbing three-fourths 
of the revenue of the nation, would annihi- 
late at least half of their capital now invested 
iu the production of cotton ; for ihey wonid 
find that 8500,000,000 of their money would 
not bring one cent on the dollar, in time of 
war. ** In case of a war with England,*' the 
function of our glorious little navy and of the 
fi^lorious great navy of Great Britain, would 
be a mutuai^eflbrt to destroy the commerce 
of both nations, an interest which they own 
in partnership, amouiiting to 8100,000,000, 
per annum, of which raw cotton makes an 
Item of 850,000,000. So all that our navy 
would do for the cotton growers in such a war, 
would be to desuoy a market for 850,^^)0,000 
worth of cotton a year. 



'* Life bears us on like the stream of a 
mighty river. Our boat, at first, elides swiftly 
down the narrow channel through the playful 
murmurings of the little brook, and winding 
along its grassy borders. The trees shed 
their blossoms over our young heads, and the 
flowers on the brink seem to offer themselves, 
to our younff hands : we are in hope, and we 

Sasp eagenv at the beauties around us; but 
e stream hurries on, and still our hands 
are empty. 

Our course in youth and manhood it a long, 
a wider and a deeper flood, and amid objects 
more striking and magnificent. We are ani- 
mated by the moving picture of enjoyment 
and industry before us, we are excited by 
short-lived success, or depressed and rendered 
miserable by short-lived disappointment. But 
our energy and our dependence are both in 
vain. The stream bears us on, and our jovs 
and griefs are left behind us ; we may ne 
shipwrecked, but we cannot anchor ; our voy. 
age may be hastened, but we cannot be de- 
layed — whether rough or smooth, the river 
hastens towards its home — the roaring of the 
waves is beneath our keel, and the land les- 
sens from our eyes, the floods are lifted up 
around us, and we take our last leave of earth 
and its inhabitants, and of our further royase 
there is no witness but the Infiofite and the 


It has come to our knowledge within a 
day or two that a company of gentlemen in 
this city have been recently engaged in ex- 
ploring lands on the Alleghany range, in 
Pennsylvania, and have discovered very va- 
luable deposits of Copper. They have se- 
cured ail the lands upon which aoy indica- 
tions of copper are perceptible in that quar- 
ter, and are now mining and preparing to 
enter into smelting operations. 

The geological formation of the country 
in which these deposits have been found, we 
are told, closely resembles the famous lands 
of Lake Superior, (late Royal ajid Eagle 
river,^ where the richest mineral deposits 
have oeen developed. 

We learn from the Reports of the expe- 
rienced Geologist and Mineralogist who has 
been engaged by these gentlemen in mak- 
ing their locations, that among the moun- 
tams, especially on the western aide, where 
these mines are situated, appear thick but 
regular strata of quartz rock, which are 
mixed and covered with strata of cry^taline 
limestone. Among these mountains are ex- 
tensive plateaus surrounded by steep hills of 
limited height, that are composed of strata 
of diflerent formations, viz.: — hombleod 
slate, magnesia slate, and quartz slate, all 
mixed with small veins of subordinate strata 
of serpentine, asbustus and quartz. 

These strata are irregular ; thrown from 
their original position by the upheaving of 
the green stone, and so bent and broken ib 
many directions as to be difficult to trace 
for any great distance. 

The green stone which has raised the 
sn|)erincuml>ent strata bears the strongest si- 
milarity to that of the Isle Royal, and in- 





dudes the richest deposits of copper in 
Teins» as in the mineral regions of Lake Su- 
perior ; except that here tie vein stone con- 
tains quaxtz mixed with other minerals and 
serpentine. ' 

Here too a variation of green.stone, called 
Amygdaloidai Trap, includes the veins of 

The Lake Superior country has high 
blofis and deep ravines, and a thin stratum 
of soil ; whereas, the regions in which these 
mines are found, present no such bluffs and 
ravines, and are covered with a thick coat- 
ing of soil and clay. In other respects, the 
geological formations entirely resemble the 
Lake Superior copper regions. The Pre- 
sident of this Company attended to the loca^ 
tion of these lands a few dajrs ago with the 
competent Mineralogist above referred to, 
and has returned with a large quantity of 
specimens taken from a shaft sunk by him 
on one of their tracts. 

i This is likely to be, from all we can leanif 
one of the most valuable discoveries of the 
present day* being so near the Atlantic and 
our own markets. — Pittsburgk Gaz, 


Continued from Vol, /7., page 166. 

In that fatal year, 1826, all suspected pa- 
triots were tried by a tribunal of three priests, 
who condemned to death, proceeding on pre- 
judices and assumptions, and yet allowed no 
appeal. The pretended trials were a mere 
mockery, and thousands were sentenced to 
die, or to imprisonment for ten or twenty 
years, and sent to the most horrible dungeons 
of San Leo and Civita Casteiiana. In those 
dreadful prisons, such were the plan of the 
building and the treatment of prisoners, that 
five or six years were sufficiait to wear out 
the constitutions of the most athletic, and to 
make them like men broken down by old 
age. And all this was for the crime of 
thinking freely ! In order the more effectual- 
ly to destroy their moral character, they were 
thrown into the common rooms with robbers 
and assassins. And this was done, by whom ? 
By him who arrogates the title of the Vicar 
of Christ ! 

Tassinari was the secret agent employed 
to discover and betray the friends of liberty 
in his diocese. A few months after he had 
been installed as bishop, he one day sent a 
message to Mario, ordering him to appear be- 
fore him. The vounfl^ man found him in a 
furious rage, and half intoxicated. Now, 
however little it may be felt or imagined in 
other countries, in the admirable system 
of Roman legislation, the Bishops have lull 
and exclusive jurisdiction and power in all 
civil and criminal cases. They arrest, judge, 
condemn and execute as they please: the 

Holy Rota, or supreme court, giving them full 
authority to do what they like. 

** Miserable young man/' began the bishop, 
addressing Mario without ceremony, ** and 
worse still, you are Carbonaro ! Tremble in- 
considerate youth ; I was going to send yon 
to spend all your life at the bottom of a dark 
dungeon — and you would never have come 
out again : but out of regard to your good 

Earents, if you will only confess whether you 
ave not been seduced, and by whom, per- 
haps I may pardon you, and obtain protec- 
tion for you from the Holy and Apostolical 

Such was the language of that pretended 
modem apostle ! He offered to Mario either 
treachery or imprisonment and torture. The 
young man gave a sad smile, and replied : — 
'* Monsignore, (My Lord,) I am entireljr ig- 
norant of the cause of your furious invectives, 
and I know not what meaning you may at- 
tach to the name of Carbonari. Whether 
they be men or priests is of no consequence 
to me; and, as for your threats, I care not for 
them, and am not afraid of you. I demand 
what right have you to interrogate me ? Per* 
haps the man who wishes to renounce ab- 
surdities and fanatical superstitions, he who 
desires to live free, and to break the chains 
of oppression, you may regard as worthy of 

*' In your eyes the innocent man may be a 
criminal, because he will not consent to de- 
ceive the blindness of the people, and to op- 
dress the defenceless. That is what you do, 
and the pope's government also. Ah! yon 
are not inspired by God. To him alone be- 
longs the right to judge and to punish 
thoughts. It is God who gives the faculty 
of thmking, and you would destroy intellect 
in the man who exercises it aright, and who 
is the friend of his fellow creatures. Yes, 
liberty, holy liberty is written upon my heart, 
in indelible characters — God impresses it 
upon just men ; and you, priests, the pretend- 
ed followers of Chriut, sees to extinguish that 
sublime and glowing flame— that sacred fire 
which Christ has enkindled. With the pre- 
tence of having an apostolical mission in 
this world, do you desire, Monsignor, to de- 
stroy this only and true consolation of the 
wretched and unfortunate — this only joy that 
remains to the unhappy ? You have not re- 
flected, tlrat there is no lord over the human 
species but Christ. He has said it. For us 
he bore the heavy bnrthen of the cross : for 
oui liberty and regeneration. Po you think i( 
it was merely to make you bishops, cardinals 
or popes ? Christ never gave tales to men. 
He was without ambition, and never labored 
to elevate miscreants — never preached to bis 
apostles that they might make themselves 
popes, or that popes should become the op- 
pressors of Christ's own followers. 

*< Christ said : *Love one another '—all of 
you— like brethren ; and with vou shall ever 
dwell gentleness, hope and charity. From 
his divine lips proceeded only consolation, for 




hit life and the next If you believe, Mon* 
•ignor, ihat, because I feel thus, I am a Car- 
booaro^ then yoa mast think that Jesus Christ 
was one himself." 

The bishop looked pale ; and foam appear- 
ed at his mouth, from mere rage He seemed 
like a wild bull, and could not contain him- 
self At length, overflowing with passion, he 
burst lide a bomb-shell, ezclaimmg with a 
smile of afiecied pity — <* Miserable, audacious 
and atrocious young man ! How dare you 
declare yourself an enemy of our religion 1 
The Devil has put these wicked maxims into 
your head." Having so said, he cried out, as 
if to some one waiting without, *' Holloa ! 
Holloa there ! Come in !" 

«< Don't call for help," exclaimed Mario, "it 
will be at the risk of your life ;" and he drew a 
pistol and presented it at' the furious bishop, 
adding — ** My Lord, if you call your servants 
to send me to prison, I will kill you on the 
spot!" And, so saying, he presented the 
muzzle to his breast, when Tassmari instantly 
was silent, and stood still and quiet. Mario 
proceeded : — 

'* Why are yon going to imprison me ? Be* 
cause vou have foroid me — ^you unworthv, fa- 
natical, cruel, barbarous man — to obey Christ, 
who is not pleased with tortures and ton- 
sures such as you practice. Do you imagine, 
unworthy priest, that, while endeavoring to 
convince the people by physical tortures, 
a youth of seventeen years must be, of course, 
too ignorant to understand the wrongs you 
perpetrate? Don't dare to lay your hands 
upon me ; or I will give yon back to Satan, 
who sent you into the world !" And Mario 
once more presented the pistol. 

** It is of little importance to me whether I 
live or die,*' he continued, '* but if ^ou kill 
me, you shall die first. And now sit down 
immediately and write what I shall dictate to 
you, for my own securiy and that of my 
orothers ; or I will write it, and you must 
sign it. 

** Having known the opinions and good 
morals of Mario D , and that Don Pao- 
lo Piani was the betrayer of Mario, because, 
being the keeper of the property of the mother 
of Mario, he sought to conceal him in the dun- 
geon of a fort, from which he could n^ver 
come out to demand the money of his mother. 
We, fiishop G. M. Tassinari, having seen, 
with our own eyes, and examined the appro- 
priate documents, condemn the said Don Pao- 
lo to render immediatelv an account to Signor 
Morforio, the lawer of Mario, that it may be 
carefully exammed, ^., &c. 

(Signed.) TAasmiRi, Bishop." 

Trembling, and full of fear, remembering 
that he was near the churches and numerous 

Eriestf , Mario wrote the above, (these particu- 
irs are strictly true,) and required the 
Bishop to put bis seal to it. The youth then 
addressed nim in these words : 

<* Monsignor, I take a solemn oath before 
him in whom I believe and whom I worship. 

that, if you ever have me arrested* I will 
kill yon, though thou be m vhe presanee of 
twenty of your servants ; and now open the 
door, and let me pass oat into the street; 
and I tell you again, at the feet of the divine 
Redeemer, that, if you betray me, yoa shall 
die. Adieu !" 

To be continued. 



Dr. WUson, an eminent London practition- 
er, in a recent treatise on this subject, repob* 
lished in New York, makes the folbwing 
suggestions : 

*' NccBssmr op Wubhiho.— If the pores be 
obstructed and the transpiration checked, the 
constituents of the transpired fluids will ne- 
cessarily be thrown upon the system, and as 
they are injurious, even poisonous if retained, 
they must be removed by other organs than 
the skin. These organs are the lungs, the 
kidn€^s, the liver and the bowels. But it 
will be apparent to every one that if those 
organs, equally, or one more than the other, 
which is generally the case, be called upon 
to perform their own office pltu that of 
another, the equillibrium of health moat be 
disturbed, the oppressed oigan must suffer 
from exhaustion and fatigue, and must be- 
come the prey of disease. Thus obviously 
and plainly, habits of uncleanlbess become 
the cause of consumption and oth^ serious 
diseases of the vital organs. 

" As regards the frequency of ablutioo, the 
face and neck, from their necessary exposure 
to the atmosphere and the impurities which 
the latter contains, canndt escape with less 
than two saponaceous ablutions in the twenty- 
four hours ; the feet from the confined nature 
of the coverings which are worn over them, 
require at least one : the armpits, from their 
peculiar formation in reference to the deten- 
tion of secretions, and also from the occuliar 
proportions of the latter, at least one ; and 
the hands and arms so manv as nicety and a 
refined taste may dictate No harm can arise 
from too frequent ablutions ; much evil may 
result from their neglect." 

Thb Lonobst Bridob in tub World. 
— China boasts the largest bridge in the 
world, and this, according to travellers, ii 
the bridge of Lavang, over an arm of the 
sea in China. It is built, says that instruc- 
tive periodical* <' The Builder," in a simi- 
lar way as the bridges of Babylon, but en- 
tirely of stone. Its length is said to extend 
to 26,800 Paris feet, and comprises 300 
arches, or rather openings of pillars. These 
are not overspread by arches, but there are 
placed above them large slabs of stone, 
which form the roadway, 70 feet broad. 
The distance of the pillars is nearly 75 feet, 
the latter being 70 iugh» and 15 feet broad, 






tad strengthened with strong facings, of the 
form of triaagular prisms, which extend 
oter the whole height of the pillars up to 
the transversal slahs. The latter (of course 
more than 70 feet long) extend in breadth to 
fifteen feet, and have 9 feet in thickness. 
Other reports, however, assign no more than 
43 feet, old Paris measure, to the distance 
of the pillars, and only 4 1-2 feet to the 
breadth and thickness of the transversal 
slabs — ^by which, of course, the length of 
the bridge is reduced one-halC Even so, it 
would be an astonishing structure, being six 
times the length of the longest bridge in Eu- 
rope, viz. : the Pont de St Esprit, of Lyons. 
The parapet is, according to some reports, a 
railing, according to others, a ballustrade, 
and every pillar supports a pedestal on 
which a lion, 21 feet long, and made of one 
block of mari)ie, is placed . — Selected. 




fTtr tk§ Atmtnctm Prnimif Magasinsi 


vote « Li- 

80H. Father, are you ffoiag to 
cense " or ** No License 1" 

Falh^. '* License,*' to be sure ! 

Sen. Do you think the majority of the vo- 
ten in this town will vote '* License?" 

Father. Yes, I da I was talking to the 
Rer, Mr. , our neighbor, to-day, about 

the matter, and he says all this noise about 
** No License " is a humbug ; and, although 
he said he should not vote, yet, I doubt not, 
he has influence, and his talking this way 
will probablv secure thirty votes to our party, 
whicn is all we want to equal any in the 

So*. I know the Rev. Mr. ■ is in fa* 

Tor of Ram-selling; and so I think Kummust 
be very good to drink, I am glad the tempe- 
lance men are to be put down. I was in at 
the tavern last evenmg, and I heard many 
speak of the temperance-men as hypocritical, 
ntnatical and selnsh, and wishing to deny the 
liberty of the people : but thev all spoke well 
of the Rev. Mr. ■ ! Indeed, tne tavern 

keeper proposed his health ; and each man and 
boy filled his glass, and drank the health of 
the clergyman who was in favor of universal 
Hberty. The tavera keeper gave me also a 
glass, and I drank his health too. 

Father. You at the tavera ! You drinking 
Rom! What business had you at the u- 

Sofu Why, father, we boys all go there 
every night, for a short time, to hear what is 
going on, and occasionally to take a glass, if 
offered to us ; and about these times Mr.-—*, 
the tavern keeper, treats us very often. 

Father. My son ! you must give up, entire- 
]T» ?eing to the tavern and drinking. 

-Son, Why. father ? 

Father. Why, my son ! because you may 
meet bad company there. Drinking is dan* 
g^rous— often ruinous. 

Son. But, father, you are in favor of Rum- 
selling — ^you intend to vote for '* License !" 

Father. Hem — Oh — yes. No — not entirely. 

Son. But you do not intend to vote against 
«* License !" 

Father. My dear son, I have altered my 
mind— I shall vote ** No License.'* 1 dare 
not do otherwise. Should I vote for the sale 
of Rum, I may lose my dear boy by Rum ; 
and your sister Jane may marry a Kum-drink- 
er. This I could not endure. 

Son. Then, father I will never more go to 
the tavern, or drink Rum or any thing else, 
if you vote against it. I had begun to like 
drink almost ; and then we boys had such fun 
there, and were always sure to meet Samuel, 
the Rev. Mr. * s son, there ; and such a 

merry fellow as he is. when we have all been 
drinking. I don't believe his father knows 
that he drinks : but then he is in favor of 
** License !" 

Father. Mv son, I thank Gk)d for this con- 
versation, before it was too late. I myself 
will see and talk with the Rev. Mr. , 

about his son, and try to induce him to 
change his mind, and not use his influence to 
perpetuate Rum*8elling, and thereby ruin his 
boy, whom he tenderly loves. He is a good 
man and has not thought of it in this light ; 
or, like myself, has been under the influence 
of a strange delusion. Should I convince him 
of the truth of the case, he will, I doubt not, 
with myself, vote for <' No License." 


iNTBBEsmro Newspapers. — We have a 
number now before us, received from friends, 
and from different parts of the world. We 
do not mean, however, what some persons do 
by the word ** interesting.^* They contain 
nothing extravagant, low or false. The de- 
tails of slTocking crimes, the sentiments of 
immoral men, the attempts at wit which 
mark the degraded mind, form no part of 
that which gives a paper real interest. Good 
sense, sound principles, a simple, pure, unaf- 
fected style, with a high estimate of the du- 
ties of a patriot and Christian : these are quali- 
ties, and indispensable qualities in a public 
writer. It is gratifying to receive, as we oc- 
casionally do, papers bearing evidence of 
more or less of these traits from distant regions 
of the earth, as well as from our own country. 
We have now lying before us ** Africans Lomi- 
nary," from Monrovia, the Cherokee Messen- 
ger, two or three French illustrated maga- 
zhies, one in the Greek language, published at 
Smyrna, and one in German, from Dresden. 






Of all the words in language there's no other 

Equal in gentle influence to Mother! 

It is the hrst name that we learn to love — 

It is the first star shining from abore ; 

It is a light that has a softer ray 

Than aught we find in erening, night or dav ! 

Mother!— It back to childhood brings the 
And forth to womanhood it leads the maiden. 

Mother !— ' Tis with the name all things 
That are with love and sympathy full laden 

O ! ' tis the fairest thing in nature's plan, 
That all life's cares may not affection smother. 
While lives within the yearning heart of man, 
Melting remembrance of a gentle ra thcr 

We Mi4B tliee« Mother. 

We miss thee, mother, 

We miss (bee, 
When at day's sweet prime, 

We gather there, 
Where the lone heart breathes 

The orphan's prayer, 

We miss ihee then. 

We miss thee, mother, 

We miss ihee. 
Through the live-long hours 

That lightly flew, 
When they brought their gills 

To bless thee, too — 

We miss thee, then. 

We miss thee, mother, 

We miss thee, 
At the cheerful board. 

At the gladsome hearth, 
When a smile from thee 

Gave joy its birth — 

We miss thee, there. 

We miss thee» mother, 

We miss thee, » 

When at deepening twilight. 

The eye grows dim, 
As we murmur low 

The evening hymn — 

We miss thee, then. 

We meet thee, raoihtr. 

We meet ihee, 
When the wenry spirit 

Her wing may fold 
In that land of rest. 

As thou hast told — 

Sweet mother, 
We roeei thee, then. 

Solution of Enigma No. 3. in our last num- 
ber. — Martin Luther, the leader of the great 
Reformation. Malta, Aral, Rhine, Turin, 
Iturea, Nile, Lute, Ural, Tin, Hare, Euia^ 


A Riddie, by Shakspeare. 

** You are two bookmen ! can you tell by your 

What was a month old at Cain's birth, 
That's not five weeks old yet ?" 

ENIGMA No. 4. 

I am composed of 17 letters. 

My 16, 4 is a domestic animal ; 

My 12, 13, 2, 15, 16, 6 is the most illastnout 
of the English poets ; 

My 7, 16, 17 is a large river in Russia ; 

My 12, 8, 7, 13, 17, 11 is a city of Arabia ; 

My 5, 37, 15 is a small, industrious insect ; 

My 6, 16, I, 10 is the name of a remarka- 
ble man mentioned in the Bible ; 

My 10, 16, 12, 3, 9 is a celebrated poet of 
ancient limes ; 

My 14, 11, 15, 13, 12, 3, 9 was a Christian 
martyr, of Engfand ; 

My whole is the name of one of the most 
eminent of American statesmen. — H. C. B. 

A man who loves his family will take a 
newspaper, and a man who respects his 
family, will pay lor it. 

A magnificent Roman Catholic Church 
is to be built ai Washington, something like 
the great cathedrals in Europe, at a cost of 
$75,000. . 

Some of our subscribers have given us no 
hoiice of therr wish to receive the second vo- 
lume, or to stop their subscriptions, so that we 
are in doubt. Not wishing to burthen any with 
our magazme or the postage. We shall cease 
sending it to some of those whose terms ex- 
pired with the first volume, but shall be hap* 
py to commence again if it be their wish.— 
We can always supply back numbers, as the 
work is stereotyped. 



With numerous Engravings. 
JBdlted by Theedore Dwight, Jr« 

Is ptiUlished Weekly, at the o/Boe of tb(f New Yorit 
Exprefis, No. 112 Broadway, at 3 cents a number, (19 
pages large octnvo,) or, to subsoriben receiving it bjr 
mail, and paying in advance, ^1 a year. 

6 vets for S5. 

Back uniubers can be supplied. 

Poatmastora aro authorized to remit money. 

Enclose a One Dollar Bill, without payment oT por 
tage, and the work will be sent for the year. 

** The information contained in this work is worth 
more than silver."— iV. Y. Ob$ervtr. 

** It ahonld he in every fhmfly in tho cooitiy."^ 
N. y. Baptist Recorder. 

The New York Methodiat Advocate speaks of it in 
similar terms. Also many other papers. 

Editors ot newspapers publishing this ad- 
vertisement foi 3 months, will be furnished 
with the work for one year. 




BD>miTTBBODOKlDwiaHT,jB.,' ) 

1 Pkioi 3 

I SI a r«r, 

Mtrn, SiNai.1, o> 

Vou U. 

New Yoi 

R, Saidrdat. 

May 2. 1846. 

No. 13. 


8 "5 

S ''■^•- 

>< g « § 

» s P 

s ill 
§ 111 

3 :;i.! 

2 "2 J"* 

2 e^ 




The natives sit on mats upon the floor, 
which is made of hard cement and rises 
gradually toward the front door, so as to 
bring all the audience in plain view of the 
preacher. In the little tower at the cast 
end is hung a small bell. 

The front of the dwelling-house, which 
is about forty-five feet in length, is on a line 
with that of the church ; a verandah how- 
ever, projects ten feet forward. The floor 
of the house is made of cement, like that 
of the church ; and there is no ceiling be- 
tween it and the roof, which is tiled. There 
are no chimneys, and no glass windows. 

Mr. Whittelsey is now stationed at 
Oodooville, having succeeded Mr. Spauld- 
ing when the latter came to this country. 
At this place the female boarding school 
was commenced in 1823, with twenty-nine 
pupils; the present number is about one 
hundred. Tnis institution has been re- 
markably successful. It has enjoyed re- 
peated revivals of religion, and a large pro- 
portion of the scholars have given gratify- 
mg evidence of piety. Many, as Christian 
.wives and mothers, are now shedding 
around them a wide and hallowed influ- 

A great change has taken place in the 
policy of the Ceylon government, within 
the memory of the oldest, missionaries. 
An ordinance has recently been passed, by 
which provision is made for giving assis- 
tance, in the erection of churches and for 
the support of ministers, to all Christian 
sects. Another ordinance enacts that 
within certain distances of the chief towns 
in the Island the public pursuit of business, 
in sight or hearing of places of Christian 
worship, shall be punished as an oflbnce. 
Anyone disturbing public worship, is de- 
clared guilty of an oflence. The beating of 
tom-toms, the discharge of fire-arms, or 
fire* works, dDC.> except by license, are also 
forbidden. All these provisions bear di- 
rectly against the performance of heathen 
ceremonies, and anord protection to Chris- 

Our devoted missionaries have explored 
mtoky distant countries, accommodated them- 
selves to many states of society, and en- 
countered the dangers of various climates. 
Even delicate women, brought up amidst 
the refinements and luxuries of North 
American civilization, have bravely ven- 
tured amidst nations of every condition and 
color, and have proved able, not only to en- 
dure a share of the labors and dangers, but 


have often sustamed the courage of their 
husbands, and sometimes have stood alone 
at the post, which man himself might have 
been excused from defending. 

We have seen our modest but resolute 
countrywoman, riding over the waves of the 
ocean, though for the first time, unterrified 
by their rage, impressing the distant hea- 
then shore with her light footsteps, which 
before had marked only our native soil, to 
present to her depressed, unhappy and 
hopeless sisters, not merely a description of 
something they knew not, not merely a 
promise of blessmgs which they might 
hope for, but a living example of what the 
female is capable of becoming : the model 
of one of their own sex, trained under the 
influence of the religion which she would 
recommend to their minds and their hearts. 
Whoever will deliberately consider this sub- 
ject in its proper light, must be led to spme 
most gratifying reflections. 

If we could fully understand, and ade- 
quately describe, the impressions made by 
the presence of our countrymen, and still 
more of our countrywomen, upon some of 
the objects of our beneficence, we should 
find room for the highest gratification. — 
We should feel that many of the nations 
who have long cherished traditions of stran- 
gers from whom they have received valua* 
ble gifts and instructions, have less reasons 
for gratitude. The great English poet, 
Dryden, had a far inferior subject for his 
admired ^^Ode on St. Cecilia's Day," 
although he sang a strain in some respects 
so fine. 

The introduction of music into any land, 
even if made by a being like one of the 
fabled saints of modem Rome, is a trifle, 
compared with even the faintest gleam of 
the light of the Gospel — that day-break of 
Heaven ] and there is no poetry in human 
language equal to the few words, whicb^ 
however rude the tongue, first announce to 
the humblest family of man : 

** Unto you is bom a Savior," 

And so, with a ravishing charm, above 
all earthly music, bursts, even upon the 








dullesA ear, the song of the heavenly 
choir: • 

^* On earth peace, and good will to meTi." 
To us, who have been familiar with the 
sound from our childhood, it fills the heart 
with unutterable emotions, when first the 
full import strikes the mind : but perhaps 
we cannot adequately depict, or even con- 
ceive, the feelings of a soul, suddenly pas- 
8iog from the gloom of heathenism into the 
light of Christianity. The familiarity 
which our missionaries have given us with 
subjects of this nature, has in some degree 
qaalified us to sympathize with our unhappy 
brethren of the human race ; and we begin 
to feel something of what we ought, espe- 
cially at our monthly concerts of prayer: 
but when shall we arrive at that degree of 
intelligence and extended philanthropy, to 
which our professed Christianity binds us ? 

The following extracts from some of the 
late numbers of the Missionary Herald, 
contain some facts of Importance relating to 

In accordance with the plan proposed to 
the difierent missions, our brethren at Cey- 
Joo held a meeting at Batticotta, September 
1 1, which was the third day of the last roi- 
nual meeting of the Board at Brooklyn. — 
The assembly xvns composed of the mission 
families and the native church. Mr. Meigs 
presided at the solemn convocation, and 
gmve, as introductory to the services of ihe 
day, a brief outline of the history and ope- 
ratioDS of the institution which established 
the mission* Other addresses wore deliver- 
ed. After the morning services were closed 
a large number of persons partook of a 
dinner prepared for the occasion. In the 
afternoon the whole church united m com- 
memorating the sufferings and death of 
oar \jyr*\ and Savior Jesus Christ, Messi^. 
Poor, Hoisington and Whittelsey taking 
jMrt in the services. 

The following statement was made by 
Mr. Mefgs : 

The- second mission, established by the 
American Board, was that to Jaffna, which 
was commenced in 1816. Very few of 
those present remember the time when the 
missionaries first came to this place. Mr. 
Poor and myself are all that remain. — 
Messrs. Richards and Warren lived but a 
few years afler reaching the island. Next 

came Messrs. Winslow, Spaulding, Scudder 
and Woodward, in 1820. They have all 
left the province ; but are still alive and in 
health, and actively engaged in their mas- 
ter's service, except Mr. Woodward, who 
died in 1834. 

The four last named missionaries reached 
Colombo just before the departure of Sir 
Robert Brownrigg, who had always been 
the friend of missionaries; and they were 
by him permitted to join their brethren in 
Jaffna. Sir Edward Barnes used all his 
influence to have them sent away from the 
island. A f(/w months aHer, when Mr. 
Garret, our printer, arrived in Jaffna, he 
was orderad by Sir Edward Barnes imme* 
diately to leave the island ; and in the midst 
of the rainy season, when the navigation is 
dangerous, a request for a few week's delay 
was absolutely denied. Sir Edward de- 
clared that no more American missionaries 
would ever be permitted to join the mission, 
and that it was only out of respect to his 
predecessor that he permitted any of us to 
remain on the island. It was said that we 
should all soon be dead, and then there 
would be an end of the American mission 
in Jafiha. 

Sir Edward Barnes is dead. Mr. Lu- 
signan and Mr. Granville, his Secretaries, 
are dead. Sir Harding GifiTord, the Chief 
Justice, is dead : and many others who op- 
posed us. 

The following address was delivered by 
W. Volk, teacher of geography and histo- 
ry in the seminary at Batticotta : 

You will probably say, preaching the 
Gospel, pecuniary contributions and educa- 
tion of the heathen are necessary to be done. 
I do not object to this. But our good ex- 
ample is especially necessary. The purity 
of our lives among the heathen will do 
more to effect their conversioQ to the true 
religion, than any thing else. For our Sa- 
vior declaired that his followers were like 
a city set on a hill that could not be hid. 

The next address was made by Nathaniel 
Niles, a native preacher : 

It is my wish to tell you, my friends, 
the advantages and troubles which a mis- 
sionary has, who goes to preach the gospel 
in a heathen land. 

A missionary who intends to go and 
preach the gospel in a heathen land, resigns 
every pi-ospect of worldly honor and advan- 
tage. I'he missionary forsakes all his dear 
friends, his flourishing country, dear parents, 
beloved brethren and sisters, his own home, 
and every thing he enjoyed from his child- 
hood — perhaps forever. 

. N/-V^N.' 





Predeceason of Popo Gregory XVI. 


When Cardinal Anaibal Delia Genga be- 
came pope, he endeavored to crush every 
sense ot liberty, and to counteract civiliza- 

He addressed letters to nbe cowardly and 
perjured Ferdinand VIL, King of Spain, to 
congratulate him on his restoration to the 
throne. He reinstated the universal jubilee, 
to recommence the trade in licenses and in- 
dulfi^ences. He afterwards published an en- 
cyclical letter, in which he condemned every 
kind of literary, philosophical and biblical 
assosiations. In regard to the latter, he 
gays : — *' There is an association, vulgarly 
called Bible Society, who boldly send their 
agents over all the world ; and in spite of 
the tradition from the Holy Fathers, and the 
decree of the Council of Trent, which for- 
bids the translaUon of the Holy Bible, they 
publish and spread it in all languages of the 
earth. Many of our predecessors have made 
laws against such a scourge ; and we think 
it to be our apostolical duty to urse and order 
our pastors to keep their flocks from reading 
that book. May God suppress, confound and 
annihilate this unbridled freedom of speak- 
luff, writing and publishing !" 

lie restored the Jesuits — granted them ho- 
nors and riches, and invested them with the 
exclusive privilege of teaching and regulating 
education m the Pontifical States. 

He reinstated the Inquisiiioo, and gratified 
the fanaticism of Ferdinand VII. by calling 
on him to order an auto de fe ; and on that 
occasion, Leo XII. granted full indulgence to 
all those who cooperated or assisted at the 
barbarous spectacle. He excited the intes- 
tine war which desolated Spain for so many 
years, and died on the lOih of February, 1829. 
AAer an interregnum of forty-nine days, 
and as many spent in bargaining and cor- 
ruption, the conclave elected Francis Xaver 
Castiglione pope, who took the name of 
Pius VIII. 
When he was named pontiff, he made it a 

goint of honor to follow m the footsteps of 
is predecessors, and continued the same 
policy a^inst the progress of civilization and 
the melioration of the people. 

Pius VIII., charmed at the absolute ten- 
dency of Miguel, hastened to acknowledge 
him sove eign of Portugal. 

The proceedings of the court of Spain 
afforded ^reat pleasure to his Holiness. 
The ferocious Ferdinand VIL, maddened by 
the most fanatic bigotry, restored the most 
absurd and cruel laws, gave to the clergy 
greater power than they had before, re-es- 
tablishea the ordinance against blasphemy 
and sacrilege, and the prisons of the Inquisi- 
tion Were filled with persons whose only 
crime was to be suspected of tolerance. 
In France, his Holiness prepared the great 
; coup tTetaif which caused to Charles X. the 
' loss of his thronei and the revolution of Joly, 
• 183a 

He die dafter a pontificate of about eighteen 
months, on the 30th of November, on the same 

The task which we have undertaken, of 
exposing the crimes and the turpitudes of the 
Roman Pontiffs, from their beginning to our 
own times, is now accomplished. We leave 
it to other historians to relate the elevation 
of Cardinal Capellari to the throne of the 
church, and the intrigues, bargains, and 
briberies, which took place at his election, 
and prolonged for sixty-four days the vacancy 
of the Holy See. We will merely give a 
glance at the court of Gregory XVI.* 

Alas ! at the present day, a?) well as in past 
centuries, Home remains the sink of all vices, 
and the centre of all corruption : the Quir- 
inal palace, the modern habitation of the 
popes, has nothing to envy in the Vatican 
of the Borgias. The tiara is still the emblem 
of pride, luxury and avarice ; the princes of 
the Romish church are always the most in- 
famous of men ; the priests are ever ani- 
mated by those fanatical passions which, du- 
ring nearly two thousand years, have render- 
ed them the scourge of mankind ; the Jesu- 
its are, as formerlv, the most ainbitious, the 
most corrupting, tne most insatiable and> ob- 
stinate enemies of all kinds of freedom, and 
form the most immoral, dangerous and ex- 
ecrable body of men upon earth. 

Gregory XVI., the worthy protector and 
chief of this holy militia, declared himself 
the champion of^ despotism, and became the 
servant of kings and priests. The Romish 
church has betrayed the people, and con- 
firmed unjust privileges and cruel oppression, 
instead of preaching that doctrine of love, 
brotherhoCilEl and charity, which Christ taught 
to men, sanctified the monstrous principle of 
passive obedience to sovereigns — she has 
placed among the articles of her faith, the 
sacrilegious dogma, which condemns for ever 
the poor to fertilize the soil with the sweat 
of their brows, and to endure the hardest 
labors, in order to enrich some crowned Sar. 
danapalusand hisstatelliies. — Hist, des Papes* 

Another Dos* — " One of the light fingered 
gentry succeeded in abstracting a valuable 
gold watch from a gentleman who was the 
owner of a most sagacious dog. The animal 
having observed the theft, at-ence renotmced 
his only master, whose companion he had 
been for years, and, in spite of all coaxing 
and entreaties, followed the pickpocket. 
His new master was highly delighted, and 
on retiring fof the night, took puppy to his 
sleeping room. The rogue, having put aside 
his dress, placed the watch snugly jo his 
pantaloons pocket, and rolled himself iu the 
blankets. But no sooner was he in bed, than 
the dog, who had watched all the operations 
with a great deal of anxiety, seized the 
pants, and with one spring jumped through 
the window and made for his old home, leav- 
ing the thief minus both watch and pants !" — 
Boston Paper. 










(^Continued from page 183.) 

It is known, that ihe bark canoe, being it- 
self bat an eniarged species of wicker work, 
has not sufficient strength to be freighted, with- 
out pre?iously having a number of poles laid 
longttadinalljr, in the bottom, as a kind of 
vertebral support. These poles, on landing 
upon the gravelly shores of that island, are 
set up, or stacked, to use a military phrase, 
that is tying the tops together and then draw* 
ing out the other ends so as to describe a cir- 
cle, and thus making a perfect cone. The 
bark tapestry is bung around these poles, very 
much as it would be around the globular close 
lodges; and by this arrnogement, an Indian 
lodge is raised, and ready for occupation, in 
as many minutes after landing, as the most 
expert soldiers could pitch a tent in. 

Before we can affirm that the labor of pre- 
paring these barks and mats and setiing up, 
and taking down, the lodge, is disproportion- 
ately great, or heavy on the females, it will 
be necessary to inquire into other particulars, 
both on the side of the male and female. 
Much of the time of an Indian female, is 
passed in idleness. This is true not only of a 
part of every day, but is emphatically so, of 
certain seasons of the year. She has not, like 
the farmer's wife, her cows to milk, her but- 
ter and cheese to make, and her flax to spin. 
She has not to wash and comb and prepare 
her children every morning, to so to school. 
She has no extensive or fine wardrobe to take 
care of. She has no books to read. She sets 
little value on time, which is characteristic 
of all the race. What she does, Is either 
very plain sewing, or some very pains- taking 
orDamental thing. When the sheathing and 
flooring of the lodges are once made, they 
are permanent pieces of property, and do not 
require frequent renewal. When a skin has 
been dressed, and a garment made of it, it is 
worn, till it is worn out. Frequent ablution 
and change of dress, are emtnenilv the traits 
of high civilization, and not of the hunter's 
lodge. The articles which enter into the 
mysteries of the laundr)', add but little to the 
cares of a forest housekeeper. With every 
industrial effort, and such is sometimes the 
case, there is much unoccupied time, while 
her hnsband is compelled by their necessities, 
to traverse large tracts, and endure great fa- 
tigues, fn all weathers, in quest of food. He 
mtist defend his hunting grounds, in peace 
and war, and has his life daily in his hands. 
Long absences are often necessary, on these 
accotmts. It is at such times, during the 
open season, that the Indian female exerts 
her industry. In the fall season, she takes 
her children in a canoe, or if she have none, 
invites a female companion to eo with her, 
along the streams, to cut the rush, to be man- 
ufactured into mats, at her leisiire, in the 

It is also a part of her duty, at all seasons. 


to provide fuel for the lodge fire, which she is 
careful to do, that she may suitably receive 
her husband, on his return from the chase, 
and have the means of drying his wet mocca- 
sins, and a cheerful spot, where he may light 
his pipe, and regain his mental equiliorium, 
while she prepares his meals. The very idea 
of a female chopping wood, is to some norri- 
fie. But is it quite true, that the Indian fe- 
male does chop wood, or at least, exert an 
undue labor, in procuring this necessary arti- 
cle of the household ? In speaking of the 
female, we, at once, rush to the poetic idea 
of the refinement of lady-like gentleness, and 
delicacv. Not only does the nature of savafe 
life and the hardiness of muscle created by 
centaries of forest vicissitude, give the himt« 
er*8 wife but a slender claim on this particu- 
lar aJiade of character, but the kind of labor 
implied, is very different from the notion civ- 
ilized men have of ** wood chopping." The 
emigrant swings a heavy axe df six pounds' 
weiofht incesf^antly, day in and day out, 
agamst immense trees in the heaviest forest, 
until he has opened the land to the rays of 
the sun, and prepared an amount of cyclq)san 
labors for the power of fire and the ox. The 
hunter clears no forests, the limits of which, 
on the contrar}, he carefully cherishes for his 
deer to range in. He seats himself down 
with his lodge in the borders of natural glades 
or meadows, to plant his few hills of maize. 
He had no metallic axe capable of cutting 
down a tree, before 1492, and he has never / 
learned to wield a heavy axe up to 1814. ? 
His wife always made her lodge fires by ^ 
gathering sticks, and she^does so still. She 
ukes a hatchet of one or two pounds' weight, 
and after collecting dry limbsin the forest, 
she breaks them into lengths of about eigh- 
teen inches, and ties them in bundles or fag- 
gots, and carries them, at her leisure, to her 
lodge. Small as these sticks are in their 
lenirth and diameter, but few are required to 
boil her pot. The lodge being of small cir- 
cumference, but little heat is required to 
warm the air; and by suspendinff the pot by 
a string from above, over a small blaze, the 
object is attained without that extraordinary 
expenditure of wood, which» to the perfect 
amazement of the Indian, characterizes the 
emigrant's roaring fire of logs. 

The few fields which the Indians have 
cleared and prepared for corn fields, in north- 
ern latitudes, are generally to be traced to 
some adventitious opening, and have been 
enlarged very slowly. Hence I have ob- 
served, that when they have come to be ap- 
praised, to fix their value as improvements 
upon the land, under treaty provisions, that 
the amount thereof may be paid the owner, 
they have uniformly set a hiffd estimate upon 
these ancient clearings, and sometimes re- 
^rded their value, one would think, in the 
inverse proportion of their limits. As if, in- 
deed, there were some merit in having but 
half an acre of cleared ground, where, it 
might be supposed, the owner would have 




cultivated ten acres. And this half acre, is 
to be regarded as ihe industrial sum of the 
agriculmral labours of all ages and sexes, 
during, perhaps, ten general ions. Could the 
whole of this physical effort, therefore, be 
traced to female hands, which is doubtful, 
for the old men and boys will ofien do some- 
thing, it would not be a very severe imposi- 
tion. There is at least, a good deal, it is be- 
lieved, in this view oi the domestic condition 
of the women to mitigate the severity of 
judgment* with which (he proud and labor- 
hatmg hunter has sometimes been visited. 
He has, in our view, the most important part 
of the relative duties of Indian life to sustain. 
In the lodge he is a mild, considerate man, of 
the non-interfering and non-scolding species. 
He may, indeed, be looked upon rather as 
the guest of his wife, than what he is often 
represented to be, her tyrant ; and 4ie is often 
only known as the lord of the lodge, by the 
attention and respect which she shows to 
him. He is a nian of few words. If her 
temper is ruffled, he smiles. If he is dis- 
pleased, he walks away. It is a province in 
which his actions acknowledge her right to 
rule; and it is one in which his pride and 
manliness-have exalted him above the folly 
of altercation. 


Continued Jrom VoL ILy page 1C6. 

Mario was now in possession of the pre- 
cious document, and at liberty. 

A few days after these events, he was in- 
formed that Piani had gone out secretly one 
flight, and entered an obscure house in a par- 
ticular street. He therefore gave directions 
to some of the brothers of his society, to place 
themselves on the watch to discover his ob- 
ject This might never have been Icnown, if 
our Mario had not been interested in keep- 
mga dose eye upon all the priest's move- 
ments, lest he should be defeated in his at- 
tempt to recover the property of which his 
family had been robbed. It was important to 
his designs, that he should have a friend in 
that house ; and he soon made acquaintance 
with a young girl named Peppetta, who 
lived there, as he ascertained, with a friend ; 
and she readily answered all his questions 
about Piani. 

On subjects not called for by the lesdin^: 
ends of this narrative, we must draw the veil 
of silence. The criminality and shameful 
conduct of this priest making it impossible to 
go into particulars, without committing an 
unpardonable offence against decency, and in- 
juring the cause of morality. This is one of 
the cases rendered so freauent by the wicked 
lives of the Roman priesthood. 

It happened, soon after the period just al- 
luded to, that ten of our friends were arrest- 
ed for patriotic opinions, one of whom was 
the father of four children. His wife, in a 
state of extreme distress and surrounded by 
base, profligate and' hard-hearted men, par- 

ticularly Tassinari and Piani, was driven 
to desperation. If she had been willing to 
degrade herself, she understood that her hus- 
band would be set at libeTty : but, being a 
respectable, high-spirited nd virtuous woman, 
she spurned her infamous persecutors. . 

Mario, indignant at such treatment of. the 
wife of a friend, h»d recourse to Peppetta for 
assistance. " You can to-morrow do a great 
favor," said he, ** to a poor family, and two 
other friends of mine." lie then proposed a 
plan by which tiie prisoners might be released : 
but Peppetta, though willing to do all in her 
power in so good a cause, expressed her fears 
of suffering terrible consequences from the 
vengeance of the priest. '* Piani will certain- 
ly kill me I" said she. 

♦* Fear nothinsr," answered Mario, " two 
of my friends will take you off immediately, 
and in a secret manner, to Florence ; and 
there you shall live unknown, in comfort and 

*' Well, what shall I do to-morrow ?" asked 
she. ' 

«« When the priest comes give him plenty 
of wine, and let him get asleep if possible, 
but do not open this great wardrobe." 

To all this she agreed : for she had long 
held the priest in the utmost abhorrence, but 
knew not how to avoid him, or to prevent him 
from coming to the house as her confessor. — 
Being poor and almost friendless, and too ig- 
norant lo know how or whither to escape, she 
was rejoiced to find any assistance, and to 
hear of a safe retreat and provision for her 
future subsistence. 

The evening came, and Piani made his ap- 
pearance. Peppetta set wine before him, and 
he was at length overheard, by more than 
one listening ear, to talk indistinctly, and fi- 
nally to breathe long and heavy as if in a 
deep slumber. The door of the wardrobe 
moved, and slowly opened. Several meft 
cautiously made their appearance, and gently 
removed some of the priest's garments, and 
laid them aside. One of them hurried the 
poor girl out of the room, in company with 
one of the others, saying, •• lose no time— 
a horse and guide are waiting fbr you in the 
street — make I he best of your way to Flo- 

As soon as Peppetta had disappeared, at 
the call of Mario another man promptly ap- 
peared on the spot, called •* II Perugiano," 
(the Perugian,) and, on his presenting him- 
self, he first addressed him and the other: 
" Friends, behold this fellow, * sleeping the 
sleep of the good.* This is the man who has 
ruined my family, and has lately arrested our 
brethren. Finally, he is the man who, in 
union with the infernal Tassinari, wishes to 
desirov our society.* You are present to wit- 
ness the vengeance I am going to lake on 

So saying, he took a little table, placed 
5ome paper upon it, with an inkstand, a pair 
of pistols, and two. swords. He then made 
his two companions take their seau, one oo 




each side of him, in the order of a tribunal of 
investigaiion. *• Now," said he, *• one of you 
mav louch Priest Piani widi the point of one 
of the swords. The sleeper began to awake ; 
but scarcely had he begun to open his eyes, 
when he looked as if he supposed himself in 
a dream, and was about to lie down and close 
them again, when two arms seized him, and 
the sound of a human voice aroused him, and 
dispelled his doubts : 

'* Paolo Piani ! usurper of the estate of my 
family, treacherous priest, and infamous be- 
trayer of the confessional, stand and make 
answer to your judges !" 

" What's all ihisV* exclaimed he : " Where 
is Peppetia ? — What ! Mario ^—Judges ! I 
am ruined !** 

" You are not ruined, miserable wretch !" 
replied Mario ; *• but you have ruined your 
victim. But it is true, that you are talking to 
the oqihan Mario; and it is' true, that you are 
now before your judges ; answer. First. 
Where is that paper in which you have writ- 
ten down an inventory of the property of my 
mother, which you intend to ?et into your 
possession ? Produce it. Second, You must 
release our brethren froifi prison in a few 
hours. Third, You must settle two thou- 
sand dollars on Peppetta. Fourth. You must 
paj back the usufruct of which you have de- 
prived me. Fifth. If you do not perform all 
these first demands, all your garments shall 
be burnt — you will be made the laughing- 
Mock of the whole city ; and, as a Jesuit, you 
will inevitably be dishonored, even by the 
whole Society of Loyola. And it is useless 
to say that you did all this because you were 
ordered. Write a letter to the governor now, 
that he mu8^<release all the prisoners ; that 
you, Don Piani, have ascertained their accu- 
sations to be false ; make me the due restitu- 
tion, and you shall have your old clothes 
again, and be set free. 

It is hardly necessary to say that the terri- 
fied priest did all that was required. He 
wrote letters to the governor, requesting bin) 
to set the prisoners free, as he, Don Piani, 
had ascertained the falsehood of the chnrges 
a^inst them ; made the retribution to Mario 
which justice demanded ; despatched one of 
the number to his steward, to have him send 
one thousand two hundred dollars, as he 
represented himself as unable to go for 
them, &c. &c. 

When all these conditions had been com- 
plied with, they be^n to restore to him his 
clumsy shoes, and then the other sordid arti- 
cles of clothing of the base, black-frocked, 
and black-hearted priest ; and, when he had 
dressed himself, he set off with downcast 
eyes and a pitiful look, so mean and dastardly 
that it was miserable to look at him. So he 
went out, followed bv his unrelenting judges, 
with shouts of laughter, long ill-suppressed, 
and with jests and raillery, in which they 
were joined by persons they met in the streets, 
who shared in their mirth, and attended him 
all the way to the Jesuit Seminary. 


^Stammering, — If any one addicted to stam- 
mering will inhale the air copiously, or draw 
In his breath strongly, he will find no diffi- 
culty in speaking easily and without stam* 
mering. Worie cannot come from the mouth 
without the lungs have their power, and that 
they cannot have without a sufficiency of air. 

<< 'Tis a little thing 
To give a cup of water ; yet its draught 
01 cool refreshment, drained by fever^ lips, 
May give a shock of pleasure to the frame 
More exquisite than when nectarean juice 
Renews the \\h of joy in happiest hours. 
It is a little thing to speak a phrase 
Of common comfort, which by dailr use 
Has almost lost its sense ; yet on the ear 
Of him who thought to die unmoumed, 'twill 

Like choicest music ; fill the glazing eye 
With gentle tears ; relax the knotted hand 
To know the bonds of fellowship again. 
And shed on the departing soul a sense. 
More precious than the benison of friends 
About the honored death-bed of the rich, 
To him who else were lonely, that another 
Of the great family is near and feels."*— [lON.J 


Forget not — regret not : 

The joys that have fled. 
Though sweeter and fleeter 

Than fresh odors shed 
From the jesssaminecup, 

Or the bright chalice, hid 
From the gaze of the sun 

Neath the violet's lid. 

Forget not — regret not : 

Hope ever should bum 
The license of love 

In her fraternal urn ; 
Shedding glory and light 

0*er the gems of the past 
By time on the altar 

Of memory cast. 

Forget not, regret not. 

Why should we re^gret. 
While one star remains. 

That another has setl 
And I ho* all may have faded 

Others brighter far. 
Through the gloom may arise 

Than one once worshipped star. 

Forget not — regret not : 

Life's lesson should be 
Like the stars that are hung 

O'er the limitless sea, 
A guide to our path, 

Bright links of the chain. 
To lead us and bind us 

To virtue again.— Carrof Watchman, 


Alabama was settled in 1773, by French ; 
admitted into the Union in 1820 ; ^capital, 


One of the most Birecimg us »e>i m m- 
ilructive of [be episoaes, whieli rurni so large 
a pan of ihe biogratihy of llie Propliei Elislia, 
; iiwcll rcpresenied in our print. The mogni- 
^ ficenl prince has oi length yielJed n reluctant 
, compliance with the simple direciiona uf tlie 
, pn^het, and con desr ended lo show what he 
I thought an unnecessary honor to a foreign 
/ riTCT, He stands in the Jordan ; and the ari- 
^ in hi* not forgotten the little "Hebrew mnid," 
J a captive taken from her parents, and to our 
J eye* ihe most interesting personnge of the 
, train. She is watching from a diaiaace, anjc- 
; ioui for Ihe cure of her master, still more for 
, the honor of her God. Some of our readers 
I will hardly need to be invited to turn to the 
> S Kings, ch. 5, or lo read it to their children. 
I with inquiries about the personages depicted, 
a reqaett thai the interesting story be 
oitted lo memory. 
This i* one of the scenes described in the 
, Scriplares, which, but lor a certain defect, 
— ould be ranked among the most iziteresiing 
_jd admirable productions of literary skill.— 
; What defect is that ? Where does ii lie ?— 
I Ii it in the character of tlie personage*, the 
. deaign of the narrator, or his want of ability ? 
' Is the language in which it was written pe- 
j culiarlr feeble or barbarous, or ihe style of 
I composition aniBcial, ill-adapted or bombas- 
; ticl Or is the iiory fictitious, or its amhen. 
; licity doubted? Some of these qutliiiei 
I would hardly be a sufficient objection to many 


Bathing in Jordan. 

readers : particularly the last, in this day of 
fiction-reading. Alas, the truth, we fear, is 
one of the most powerful objections. 

The story is not only true, but it possesses 
& recommendation in every other 
particular above alluded to. 

Scripture narratives make deep impressions 
upon us in chilithood : why do many of us 
read them with so little interest in later life 1 
We should like to put this question bindir, 
hut directly and pointedly, to every person of 
reading and literary taste. Some there have 
been, men most eminent judges, who have 
pronounced the highest eulogiuma on ib« 
literary excellencies ul the Hebrew Scriptures, 
and whose habits of readlns and studying 
them through life teniified their sincerity. — 
Why have you so little acquaintance with the 
hisiori;, geogiiijihy, manners and customs of 
Palestine and its peoplel Your teachers, 
your course of education, especially if you 
have been in a college, taught you too eiclo- 
sively of other things. They occupied your 
lime, and filled your niitid too much with the 
history and literature olGreeks and Romans; 
and (he charge mav now be put, with solemn 
force to many of us, that we are half heathen- 
izeil in our views and opinions, by an educa- 
tion which can hnrdly he called half-Clirisiian. 
Bitter e J perience has led to this declaration ; 
and, among iiie warmest wishes of our heart 
IS this, thai our youth, in future, may be 
taught the principles of true religion, as sj'i- 
tematicallyand perseveringly as they have here 
tofore been instructed in Ihosc of heathenism. 
If room were allowed us, we should be 
happy 10 odd to ihesc remarks extracts from 
President Dwi-hfs Oration on "The Poetry 
of the Scriptures." and Wm. C. Woodbridee'a 
fepori on "The Bible as a ten-book "ler 
schools and colleges. 



> This is ooe of ihe oldett and moat eoa- 
) apicuous church-buildinga in the city of 

New-York, and one of the beet models of 
( pliin Grecian style. It stands on the west 
I side of Broadway, between Fullon and 
J ?e»ey-si reels, on a large, open space, de- 
j Toted to the cemetery, which occupies the 
I vbole square, back to Church street. Td- 
) wards (he north,' it is almost overshadowed 
I by the immense granite piles of the Astor 
i Hoose ; the American Maseum stands op- 
I posite, and between them opens the view 
j apon the Park, with its shady walks re- 
( liesbed by a fine fountain, and backed by 
\ dw City Hall. (See the frontispiece of 
f namber 12, Vol. I.) Next after Trinity 
) Cbarch and St. George's Chapel, this was 
} tbe third episcopal church in the city. It 
j ii built of dark bluish gneiss rock, and is 
S 151 (eet in length, including the portico on 
! Broadway and the tower on ihe front, 
( which, contrary to common practice, is the 
\ cud of the building farthest from the street. 
I Tbe breadth is 73 feet, the tower and 

Beeple, (the laUer of wood,) 203 feet. To- 
) wirds Broadway is a large pediment, 18 
I leet deep, with four Ionic columns, and a 
) lUtue of tbe Apostle Paul, leaning on a 
1 iword: for some features of European 
I tssie in the decoiulion of church buildings 
j Kill prevail, to a degree, on this side of 
} ibe Atlantic. To those who disapprove of 
J ibe Qolhic taste displayed in some later 

> btuldiogs, it is a matter of congratulation 

that some permanent edifices were con- 
strucled in a more simple and manly style. 
This building, however, contains what very 
few others have yet received in this conn, 
try : at statue. It is a marble efligy of the 
lale Bishop Hobart 

In the eastern wall, in full view from the 
(street, is a marble slab, bearing an epitaph 
of General Montgomery, who felt in the 
attack on Quebec in 1775, and whose re. 
mains were disinterred in 1616, and de- 
posited here. In the yard are numerous 
iDonumenIs, bearing Ihe names of persona 
of diflerent generations : but no interments 
have been made there for some years, as 
they are no longer allowed in tbe lower 
parts of the city. 

This building was erected ;n 1766, 
where (he spot was surrounded by open 
fields, and regarded as qnite beyond the 
limits of the city. Indeed, for some time 
after the Revolutionary war, the way to it 
was still spoken of as a walk out of 

Lake Superior. — The Lake Superior 
country begins to present an active business 
appearance. — Men are flocking thirherward, 
attracted by the rich minerals which abound 
in that region and ihe opening, to general 
operations to which it will lead. Messrs. L. 
W. Tinker & Co. have established at 
Sault Ste. Marie an extensive warehouse, 
for the purpose of engaging in the forward- 
ing and commission business, and have 
made such arrangements as will enable 
them to facilitate tbe transmission of goods 
either way, — Bufalo Pilot. 







A writer who has recently visited Nauvoo, 
gives the following particulars, relative to 
these deluded fanatics, in the Illinois Slate 
Register, of the 13lh insu 

•The whole number of Mormons who had 
left amounted to 4500, on the third of March. 
Several have gone east to ship, viz.: New 
York to California. Many have dispersed to 
parts unknown, and quite a number have left 
for Wisconsin. Most of the latter are Strange* 
ites, and will form a community at Voree. 
The number in camp and on their way west* 
ward, falls but little short of two thousand, 
and was daily augmenting by the addition 
of stragglers, pushing forward to join the 
main body, which, like all large bodies, will 
move slow. This body is led by the Twelve, 
and nothing^ but the necessary means has 
prevented the Mormons from accompanying 
their leaders en masse. The universal desire 
seems to be to get away to a land of peace ; 
but Some are too poor to procure an ouiHt and 
others are unable, aa yet, to sell th^ir proper- 
ty, at any price. Another company will 
leave in May, to be followed by another in 
June, by which time the Temple will be well 
nii?h finished. The completion of this edifice 
is considered a religious duty, and the Mor- 
mons will die in their tracks, sooner than re- 
linquish it. before. 

The idea of the * Great Wall ' is abandoned, 
and a picket fence will be substituted. Stran- 
gers have free access to every part of the. 
Temple, which contains nothing but lumber. 
tools and old furniture. When in jt near a 
week ago, I noticed some twenty or thirty 
men engaged in the manufacture of wagons, 
and about one hundred at work on the build- 
ing itself. Several stores had been opened 
recently by new comers, and a majority of 
the merchants in Nauvoo at this time are 
other than Mormons. A social circle com- 
posed of this class had been formed, and in a 
few months Nauvoo will contain a mixed su- 

will resemble other 
Mansion House is 

ciety, and in this respect 
large river towns. The 


still kept by Mrs. Smith, but she leaves it in a 
few weeks, to give place to a landlord from 
St. Louis. The Great Nauvoo House is to 
be completed and sold to the highest bidder. 
The .Masonic Hall and various other public 
buildings are for sale dog-cheap. The Tem- 
ple will be left in the hands of agents, who 
will rent out the different halls for public 
meeting and places of worship for any other 
denominations. The trustees of the Mormon 
property offer to furnish any religious sect 
with buildings in which to worship, free of 
charge, and the Catholic and Methodist are 
about to organizing congregations. 

I visited the Mormons' camp last within 
eight miles west of Montrose ; and were ii 
not for the suffering of women and cbi'''ren 
the sight would have been an exhilirating 
one. They number about four hundred wag* 

ms, with a train of five pieces of artillery, a 
printing press, band of music and the siar- 
spangled banner, which tney intend planting 
in California. They have with them most 
of the munitions of war that were stored in 
Nauvoo, together with a kind of pontoon 
train, and will open the way for those who 
are to come after them. 

They will stop this side of the Rocky 
Mountains and put in a crop, wait to harvest 
part of it, and then move to their ultimate 
destination before winter sets in. It is ex- 
pected they will number some thirty or forty 
thousand strong in two or three years on the 
plains of California, and save Uncle Sam the 
trouble of negotiating for the province. Great 
numbers are preparing to leave England and 
the Eastern States for the bay of St Fran- 
cisco. Those who have left Hancock countv 
are as true hearted and patriotic a band or 
Americans as I ever met, and they scorn the 
idea of carrying anv other flag than the •* stars 
and stripes.*^* •* They may expel us from the 
land,' cried one of the rank and file, '* bat 
they cannot drive from our hearts the love of 


This flower is peculiar to America, but 
ipore particularly to the forests of the 
southern continent ; where Nuttall sajrs of 
this irenus of scandent or climbing plants, . 
that their immensely long and often woody { 
branches attain the summits of the lofliest \ 
trees, or trail upon the ground, adorned with 
perennially green or falling leaves, some- 
times palmate, or lobed like fingers ; in $ 
others, entire, and like those of Laurel. < 
Thqy sustain themselves by means of undi- 
vided tendrils; and send out a long succes- 
sion of the most curious and splendid flow- 
ers, of which no other part of the world of- 
fers any counterpart. Some of the flowers 
are exceedingly fragrant, and succeeded by 
pleasant-tasted, acidulous fruits, resembling 
berries or small cucumbers. Three species 
are indigenous in the United States, usually 
growing in light and dry soils, from the 
lower part of the Stales of Delaware and 
Maryland, to the south and west indefinitely. 

The arrangement of the stamens in the 
form of a cross, and the trinle crown occa- 
sioned the name given it by the Catholics, 
who first discovered it, as they at once con- 
sidered it emblematic of the passion or suf- 
fering of the Savior. It belongs to the 
class Gynandria (union of husband and 
wife) and order Pen land ria (five husbands.) 
The generic character is — a five^arted co- 
lored calyx ; five petals inserted upon the 
calyx ; the nectary or lepantheum (petal- 
like), a triple crown of filaments ; the fruit 
a pedicellated pepo, or berry. The useful 

-WV^/>./~ -^ ■N'^.' 




species are, Ist, the P. Laurifolia, the 
bay-leaved Passioii Flower, a native of Sa- 
rtnam. The fruit grows to the size of a 
small lemon. It has a delicious smell and 
flavor, and is excellent for quenching thirst, 
abating heat of the stomach, increasing the 
appetite, recruiting the spirits, and allaying 
the heat in fevers. 

2d. The Passiflora Maliformis. The 
apple-shaped Granadilla. It is the Sweet 
Calabash of the West Indies. The flowers 
are large, and colors red, white and blue, in 
ringSy as is usual in this genus. The fruit 
is of the size of a large apple, yellow when 
ripe, with a rind enclosing a sweet pulp, 
with many seeds of a brownish color. It 
is served up at the table in desserts, where 
it is considered a great delicacy. — Selected, 

Our Claims. — To^ make sure of it our 
iTOopa in Texas have been ordered to ad- 
vance to the Rio Grande, and plant them- 
selves opposite Matamoras, in a country 
which never belonged to the old province of 
Texas, but which is a part of tne Depart- 
ment of Tamaulipas : a country which the 
Texans have even invaded but once, when 
tbey sent an expedition to Mier, a little dis- 
tance above Matamoras, on the Rio Grande. 
The expedition was a total failure and de- 
feat One other expedition the Texans un- 
dertook to Santa Fe, far up the same river. 
Every man of the expedition was captured 
and sent to the Mexican mines : yet it is 
by virtue o^ these two defeats that the Tex- 
ans have coolly transferred to us parts of 
Tamaulipas, Coahuila and New Mexico, 
and our army is now there, maintaining this 
beautiiul title by force of arms, while we 
profess to be at peace with Mexico. — Bos- 
ton, Whig. 

Auotber New Comet* 

Mr. Brorson of Kiel, on the 15th of 
fidarch, detected another telescopic comet in 
the immediate neighborhood of iota L ^poris. 
He then saw a nebulous light, which he did 
not remember to have noticed. On the 20th 
he saw if advanced to 86 deg. of right as- 
cension, and 14 deg. south declination. 

From this information Mr. Rumker ob- 
served it at the observatory of Hamburgh 
on the 21st, at 8 hours 59 min. 29 sec. and 
6.10tb, (meantime at Hamburgh,) in right 
ascension 88 deg. 4 min. and 16 sec. and 
2-lOths; and south declination 14 deg. 8 
min, 34 sec. and 6-lOths. 

The mean of the first 4 compared with 
the mean of the last 4 observations, seems 
to indicate a slight motion to the north. 


« He was then in his ihirly-fifih year ; his 
&ce was crushed between his forehead and 
his chin as though two hands had tried 
forcibly to unite them over the nose. The 
skin was of a papery paleness, dead, and 
as if plastered, moreover deeply indented 
with the hail of the small pox. Neither 
blood nor bile circulated. His little eyes, 
dull and heavy, never looked one in the 
face, and a perpetual winking lessened them 
yet more, whenever they chanced not ta be 
hidden by his green spectacles. His pinch- 
ed and wrinkled mouth wa^ convumvely 
contracted by a sort of laughing grimace, 
when Mirabeau likened him to a cat that had 
just drank vinegar. His air was spruce, 
pompous and full of pretensions. His fin- 
gers, shoulders and neck were incessantly 
twitched, twisted and shaken, by little 
spasms of nervous irritation. He was 
dressed from early morning, and never did 
I catch him in dishabille." — De Vigny, 

SSSDS Iir IlililNOIS. 

(Extract from a Letter to the Editor.) 
It may be amusing to you, and of some ad- 
vantage to the readers of your magazine, to 
be informed of an experiment made by a lady 
in Illinois, with some of the Ailanthus peed 
of which there is much said of late. The 
seed you direct to be planted or sown in Au' 
tumn, if convenient. Such was the anxiety 
of this lady to know whether the seed would 
grow well in the Spring, that she placed in a 
broken tumbler two inches of *' Prairie tnudf*^ 
with five seeds, watering well about once a 
day, keeping them day and night under and 
near a good warm cooking stove. After eight 
or ten days, such was the anxiety for the life 
of the little thmgs, that the adhesive maA 
was often rolled over and over, but nothing 
found, till at the expiration of six long days 
more, one and another, up to four, made evi- 
dent signs of life, by bursting the enclosure. 
Three days more illustrated the well known 
iiict, that ** plants seek light," each stem 
stretching upward, and expanding its yet sin- 
gle pair of yellow leaflets. Up to this day, 
although in March an unusual 

" Hoary frost and fleecy snow descended ano 
clothed the ground." 
Life — this precious vegetable, life — is pro- 
longed to cheer, to surengthen even the faith 
which trusts that **seed time and harvest 
shall not fail," and that, too, •' man shall not 
live by bread alone." 


Tollers were always heaviesi acron ilie 
noriliern eoirance lo ihe aoehoragp, where 
[he wsier was shallow. — Many vessels, which 
ancliored too far to the noriliward and wiihk 
iheir inlluence, were seriously daainged, and 
one, llic Guenisev Lily, iinroriunately driven 
on shore, when loadi'd abd ready for sea. 
During the rime the rollers were in there 
was no charge pprce[iiible in the barometer. 

heavy, thick, and t 
generally hanging o 
Guano Trade. 


BkT, a 
I Iiaze 


Specific eharacltr. Shell oval, obtuse, 
nearly dosed at the anterior end, thin, fra- 
gile, almosi trantnarent, striated transversely, 
and crossed by the strie in a rudiaied furm 
from the umbones, a lew of the radii at the 
larger end set with short spines; hinge 
smooth and reHected, teeth slender and 
curved ; one vaWe has a curved lamina ahuve 
Ihe toolh ; there is a ainffie accessory valve ; 
the color is yellowish white ; ii is about three 
quarters of aD inch long, and three inches 

These Pholadcs inhabit murine rocks ; they 
are lound in great numbers on the Devon- 
shire coast ; the stone iu which ihey are im- 
bedded is a cementation of the tinest sand 
and liiueslotiP ; it is verv svofl when hrsi taken 
from the bed, and so absorbent as to afford 
sufficieut moisture for the purpuscs of life, 
and for the peculiar aclioD of Ihe inollusca. 
The animal secretes a mild phosphorescent 
solution, which would be of sufficient power 
to decompose the rock by the slow contact of 
. lis gradually iacreasing bulk. 

Rollen at Ichabo. <}-s— The rollers, so 
ufien described by parties viniiing St. Helena 
and Ascension, were also met with here. 
No satisfactory reason has yei been adduced 
for their production. They often came in al 
Ichabo rn a calm. One fine afternoon, when 
the water was quite smooth, and the boats 
bnsily loading at the stages, a heavy sea 
came rolling in, in a few minutes awnmping 
sis boats, and very much bruising and injur- 
ing seveial of their crews. They were gene- 
rally fell at full or change of ihe moon, and 
formed an awliilly granif spectacle, one huge 
mouniaia of water rolling in after another, 
the lop broken into a while boiling mass of 
water, (the height it is supposed, from the 
top 10 the bottom, from twenty lo thirty feet,} 
streeping everyihinK before it until it mei ihe 
beach, when it expended its lury with a noise 
like thunder, rollmg over many a faihoro of 
sand or rock not al other times covered. The 

RiseaTchet in Egypt. — On the application 

of an English iraveller, Mr. Uyard. who has 
been occupied in mRking arcusological re- 
searches in the neighbourhood of Moussul, 
Ihe Turkish Government have decided that 
no farther researches will be permitted In 
thai letriiory. The Pacha has resolved to 
give orders on his own account, and create a 
Museum of Anliiiuiiies. This delerminalion 
will meet with the approbation of all thoie 
R'ho are inietested \\\ theprecious remains of 
antiquity, and it is to be dtsired that it may 
he fully carried out. This measure, which 
will be so necessary in Egypt, has yet been 
only begun al Esnech, where the Pacha has 
Paused the temples lo be cleared out. The 
Nile in clianging i(s bed, and all ibe conqner- 
ere since Oumbypes have made dreadful rav- 
ages in ibai country. — Several nionumenls 
have been destroyed under Ihe present ad- 
ministration, either to Ibrm the maiertal for 
' uacrui buildings, or to burn Into lime. They 
work ihe temples as if ihey were quarries— 
and after all come the learned hieroglyphiala, 
who, after having copied, procei^ to cui and 
break, partly to take swav the relics and 
partly to destroy the ladder behind them. A 
German scholar has been recently commit- 
ting most savnge mutilations in the tombs of 
Bibao and Molesk. near Home. Whales have been 
seen near the Island several times lately, and 
on Monday morning nearly a dozen of ihem 
were plainly in sight, frolicking and spouting 
to the Westward of Tuckernuck. Prepara- 
tioDS were immediately commenced for an 
expediiion in pursuit ol ihem, but in conse- 
quence of various delays the vessel selected 
did not gel under way until late in the after- 
■ noon. Yesterday the wind was so high that 
nothing probably was done in the way of 
harpooning, when our paper went to press, 
there had been uo inlelllgence from the seat 
of war. Thos? seen off Tuchemuck were 
not hump-backs, but regular right whales.— 
Nantnckel Inquirer. 

Louisiana — This Stale wassellled in 1699, 
by emigrants from France; purchased of 
France in 1803 ; admitted into the Uoton 






At the close of the year 1844, there were 
ooe huadred and sixty-eight pupils actually 
under instruction, besides seventeen former 
pupils employed in various situations in the 
family. Of the former, thirty-four have since 
lefu During the year just closed, sixty new 
pupils have been received, and six former pu- 
pils re-admitted. The present number of pu- 
pils is two hundred, being, with the single 
exception of the Institution of London, a 
much larger number of deaf mutes than has 
ever been collected together in one school. 
Of these there are supported by the State of 
New- York, one hundred and sixty ; by the 
State of New Jersey, three; by the Corpora- 
tion of New. York, thirteen ; by their friends, 
fourteen ; and by the Institution, ten. 

This large increase is mainly owing to the 
act of the Legislature, making provision for 
four additional State pupils from each Senate 
District ; thus increasing the number of State 
beneficiaries from one hundred and twenty - 
eight to ooe hundred and sixty. 

The volume of " Elementary Lessons for 
the Deaf and Dumb," prepared by the Princi- 
pal of the Institution, has already been adopt* 
ed as a text book for the elementary classes, 
in eight of the ten American Institutions for 
the Deaf and Dumb, and in some in the Brit* 
ish Isles. It has even found its way to China, 
where it is used in the missionary schools, 
for teaching the vocabulary and structure of 
oQf language to the youth of the celestial em- 
pire. The Board have the satisfaction to an- 
nounce the publication of a Second Part of 
this important work. A Third Part and a 
volume of Scripture Lessons may be expected 
in the coarse of this, or the next year, which, 
it is supposed, will complete the course, by 
briDging the pupil to that point at which he 
can pr^tably use works prepared for those 
who hear. The Board regard the publication 
of this Course of Instruction as a new era in 
the history of the Institution, giving the pro- 
mise of ^eater uniformity, certainty and so- 
liditv in its future results. 

Tne Board have for some years had it in 
contemplation to form a class, for instruction 
in articulation of a few pupils. The able and 
Taluable Report of the Rev. George E. Day, 
OQ ihe schools for the deaf and dumb in cen- 
tral and Weatem Europe,* bears testimony to 
the satisfactorv results often attained by 
teaching articulation to two classes there men- 

The collection of books on the instruction 
of the deaf and dnmb, in the Library of the 
Institution, has been much enlarged. 

The moral and religious instruction imparted 
in the institution, has been crowned in many 
eases with evident proofs of the divine bless* 

* See Am. Pen. Mag., Vol. L, page 111. 

iog. Avoiding strictly sectarian topics, ou^ 
aim has been to give clear views of the 
great doctrines of the Gospel, to illustrate the 
providence of God by the narratives of Sa- 
cred History, and to interest the feelings in 
the life and sufferings of Jesus. A religious 
lesson is explained every Saturday in each 
class, to be committed to memory on the 
Sabbath. In the younger classes these les- 
sons are prepared expressly for the deaf and 
dumb ; for those more advanced, they consist 
of select portions of Scripture. 

It is very important that deaf-mute chil- 
dren should receive, in the tender years of in- 
fancy and childhood, a share of that family 
instruction from which they are now to a 
melancholy extent excluded. 

Parents eagerly embrace every hope held 
out to them of restoring their children to 
hearing, fallacious as such hopes almost in- 
variably prove : for there are few heavier 
afflictions to a family, than a child growing 
up incapable of intellectual enjoyment, insen- 
sible to reproof, unconscious even of moral 
right and wrong. 

There are three or four hundred families in 
the State, containing deaf-mute cDildren im- 
der the age of twelve, and the same calamity 
is probably destined to cast a gloom over 
many families now free from it. 

With those children who are either bom 
deaf, or lost their hearing before learning to 
speak intelligibly, the instrument in thii« work 
must, of course be the natural language of 
gestures. Apply any signs, no matter what, 
so the parties can easily make and remember 
them, to the persons and objects arotmd him. 
Contrive hourljr little errands which he can 
execute, beginning with the simple bringing 
of objects, or calling of persons in the room, 
and thence extending them into other rooms, 
to the barn, garden or orchard, where he may 
be sent, to call his father to dinner, to feed 
chichens, gather fruit, or drive animals from 
mischief. As the skill of each party in sign- 
making improves, be can be employed to 
convey messages to a third person, and if he 
be occasionally sent to jsome of the neic^hbors 
little skilled in signs, he will have profitable 
opportunities to exercise his ingenuity in 
making his business known. The child will 
testify, perhaps, even more than other chil- 
dren, willingness to be employed, and pride 
in his ability to discharge such commissions. 

As soon as the deaf child meets encourage- 
ment, aid and success in bis instinctive efforts 
to make his wants known, and to communi- 
cate his thoughts and little discoveries, he 
will devote all his faculties to the improve- 
incnt and extension of his vocabulary of 
signs. He will designate his acquaintance 
by a scar on the face, a peculiaaity of dresa, 
or some characteristic action. Tools he will 
figure by the action of using them, and the 
same signs with the addition, perhaps, of a 
sign for man or woman, will denote the 
workmen who may use those tools. 

To be continued* 




'■\y ,y\^ 






By a Convict in the Charleston State Prison* 

Together through the flowery fields. 

One pleasant summer^s day> 
With cautious steps, two children trod 

The smooth, yet tiresome way. 

The elder was a lovely boy, 

Of meek and heavenly mind. 
The liille girl was lovely too, 

But she, alas ! was blind. 

He'd tell her how the sun by day, 

And liule stars by night, 
Peeped thro' soft clouds, to gild the earth 

With beams of brilliant light. 

And then he'd cull wild flowers, and weave 

A chaplet for her hair, 
^nd strive to make her understand 

How beautiful they were. 

Soon as her feeble limbs were tired. 

He led her from the glade, — 
And strewed with moss, an easy seat 

Beneath the green tree's shade. 

Then side by side they sat them down. 

And happy seemed to be ; 
/ nd listened to the song-bird's strain 

Of joyous melody. 

Tell me, dear brother ! tell me if 

Von happy bird that sings. 
Is beautilul ; — say, is he plumed 

With gold or azure wings? 

Yes, dearest, he seems beautiful. 
And plumed with hues most rare; 

And, proudly perch'd upon yon bough, 
He*s swinging in the air. 

But as he spake, her bosom heav'd ; 

He mark'd the deep drawn sigh — 
And saw the tear drop on her cheek, 

Fall from her sighiless ey^. 

The truth with all its gathering force, 
Had crossed her troubled mind, 

And words came trembling from her lips, 
'* Shall I be always blind ? 

** I know that I can feel and hear. 

As you and mother say. 
And many things enjoy ,~but shall 

I ne'er behold the day ? 

<' Vou tell me of the little birds. 
And green leaves on the tree. 

And skies serene and beautiful, 
But, shall I never see ?" 

She clasped her arms around his neck, 

And kiss'd him o*er and o'er, 
And said could I but se« thy face 

I would not sorrow more. 

He tried to soothe with loving words. 

And hade her never mind ; 
That he and mother loved as well, 

As if she were not blind. 

He told her of a brighter world. 

Up in the soft blue air ; 
And mother said if they were good. 

They'd see each other there.— ^ 

Soon after this, the little girl 
Grew sick, and pale, and weak ; 

Her brother still kept by her side. 
Still kissed her tender cheek. 

He'd kneel beside her little bed. 

And earnest pray to heaven. 
That if so pure a soul had sins. 

That they might be forgiven. 

She whisper'd these last loving words, 

" Oh, do not weep for me : 
I'm going to tnat briffhter world 

I soon, I soon shall see." 

C. M. 

Antiquities.— The Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania has commeDced the publi- 
cation of scarce works relative to America ; 
and several quaintly written and very va- 
luable histories of particular events, have 
been bronght to light and placed within 
the reach of all. The first number brought 
to us a curious narrative of the early his- 
tory of New York ; and the fifth number, 
now before us contains the ** Journal of 
Isaac Senter, Physician and Surgeoa to 
the troops detached trom the Americaa Ar- 
my encamped at Cambridge, (Mass.,) on a 
secret expedition against (Suebiec, under the 
command of Col. Benedict Arnold, in Sep- 
tember, 1775." ) 

This has been printed from a manuscript 
in the possession of a gentleman of this 
city, and the Society has made a very valu- 
able addition to its Library, by including it 
in its Journal. We understand that among 
the forthcoming works, will be a history 
of the Battle of B randy wine.— l/l S. Ga- 

Expensive Medicine, — One of the new pro- 
ducts of chemical operations, called Anco- 
nittnef made from the Aconitum Napelius, or 
wolfsbane, far exceeds in value any other 
artificial substance ever made. ^Twelve 
grains of the article have lately been re- 
ceived as a large importation, by Mr. Fatter- 
son, apothecary in this place, for which he 
paid fifteen dollars in New York. At that 
rate, an ounce would cost six hundred dol- 
lars; a pound nine thousand six hundred 
dollars ; and a ton would be worth no less a 
sum than twenty-one millions five hundred 
and four thousand dollars.— Wm^ Union. 








The TariflT is suspended in mid air. 

The measure still lingers in the House of 

The American provision trade has );)artaken 
of the facilities which the Treasury order af- 

Discussions continue as to how the Tariff 
will fare in the Lords. The opinions of some 
300 members of that House are ascertained, 
it is said, and they are nearly balanced ; but 
the views of some 50 more arc oscillating. 
Upon these the fate of the measure and of 
the Government depends. 

In various pans of the country large num- 
bers of operatives have struck for an advance 
of waiges. 

The Polish insurrection is entirely crushed. 
The leaders had been imprisoned in all 
quarters. Potocki, one of the leaders of the 
late revolt, has been condemned to death, and 
executed at Siedlce. 

In Persia the cholera is raging with devas- 
tating effect. 




An Italian Weekly Newspaper is to be pub 
iished in Paris, to advocate the unity of Italy, 
her rights, especialy liberi) of conscience. — 
We have the prospectus, which is admirably 

We shall be happy to receive names of 
subscribers. The price is $3 a year. Sub- 
scriptions received for shorter periods. 

MuM3iT Wheat. — We learn from a friend 
on the North River, that the kernels of mum- 
my wheat, which he received from us, are 
already out of the ground and very promising. 
It is probable that it will prove to be winter 
wheat, that is a biennial plant, dying down to 
the ground in the Autumn, and bearing seed 
the next year. If so, our friends who have 
planted it will know how to treat it 

.If ew IiiveiiUoDS in France* 
A great number of models were exhibited 
in Paris, at a meeting of the Institute, 'he 
following brief notices of which we have 
made out from a long letter in the New York 
Coorrler des Etats Unis. 

A balloon lo be steered by the recoil of a 
eannoQ fired from it ; a telegraph for use on 
railroads ; long tubes for the conveyance of 
letters, instead of mail coaches, &c. ; Rail- 
cars moved by water power; M. Melaurier's 
new moving power ; M. Gautier's dilated air 
engina ; Daguerreotype applied to geological 
science ; M. Radiguel's apparatus for the dry 

navigation of ships across isthmusses, &c. ; 
Results of M. Faraday's researches into the 
analogy between light, electricity and mag- 
uetism ; The Siderial Light of M. Gaudin, a 
substitute for the Drummond light, made by 
subsisting the vapor of ether or alcohol for 

This last invention promises much. The 
Minister of Marine has sent M. G. to Toulon, 
to try it in steam-ships. A reservoir of oxy- 
gen is prepared, from which a small stream 
is supplied, (by the pressure of mercury,) 
through a tube, to the centre of a flame of 
ether or alcohol, upon a globule of magnesia, 
supported on a platina needle. The intense 
light is dispersed by a parabolic reflector, 
whose focus is at the globule. Ten litres of 
oxygen will supply ten lights for an hour-^ 
They are applicable to vessels of different 
kinds, railcars, &c., and might prevent many 

M. Serre proposes to cure stammering by- 
the practice of ''equisyllatton," or a careful 
distinct and equal pronunciation of syllables. 
He insists, however, that nothing can be done 
without the resolution and perseverance of 
the patient. 


Is this a fast — to keep 

The larder lean. 

And clean. 
From fat of veals and sheep I 

Is it to quit the dish 

Of flesh, yet still 

To fill 
The platter high with fish ? 

Is it to fast an hour, 

Or ragged go. 

Or show 
A downcast look and sour ? 

No : 'tis a fast to dole 

Thv sheaf of wheat. 

Ana mt*at 
Unto the hungry soul. 

It is to fast from strife. 

From old debate 

And hate ; 
To circumcise thy life ; 

To show a heart ^rief-rent ; 

To starve thy sm, 

Not bin ; 
And that's to keep thy Lent. 









How 18 it, o'er the strongest mind 

That trifles hold such sway ? 
A word — nay, e'en a look unkind, 

May darken all life's day. 
Oh. in this world of daily care, 

The thousands that have erred 
Can any hardship belter bear 

Than they can bear a word. 

The man who with heroic heart 

Can stem misfortunes meet. 
Unflinchingly perform his part, 

And struggle 'gainst defeat. 
Wiih faith unaltered — yet can lose 

His temper e'en for au^^ht 
Which falls not at his will would choose, 

Or proves not what he Bought. 

And woman can forgive a wrong 

Which casts her on the world, 
Far better than forgive the tongue 

That may some sneer have hurled ; 
A thousand times prefer a lot 

As hard as want deplores. 
Than feet or think herself forgot 

By one her heart adores ! 

Alas, the human mould's at fault * 

And still by turns it claims 
A nobleness that can exalt 

A littleness that shames ! 
Of strength and meanuens still combined. 

Compound of mean and grand. 
And trifles thus would shake the mind 

That would a tempest stand. 

Give me that soul-superior power, 

That conquest over fate, 
Which sways the weakness of the hour. 

Rules little things as great ; 
That lulls the human waves of strife 

With words and feelings kind. 
And makes the trials of our life 

The triumphs of our mind. 




At this season of the year there seems 
to be a sort of instinct aroused in man to 
g<k forth and work Mpon the soil — a natural 
fondness to observe the beauties of nature, 
and a dci^ire to assist her. 

Cowper, we think it is, has finely ex- 
pressed this desire in the following lines, 
and in a brief space suggested various 
means of its gratification : 

*'The most unfurnished With the means of 

And they that never pass their brick-wall 

To range the fields and treat their lungs with 



Yet feel the instinct: overhead 
Suspend their craggy boxes, planted thick. 
Ana watered duly. There the pitcher siands, 
A fragment, and the spoutless tea-pot there,— 
And witness how close-pent man regrets 
The countr}' ; with what ardor he contrives 
A peep at nature, when he can do more." 

Boston Paper. 

From " Old BMmphrey's R§oeipts:* 

For a Fit of Extratagance or Folly, — Gk) 
to the workhouse, or speak with the ragged 
and wretched inmates of a jail, and you will 
be convinced, 

<* Who makes his bed of briars and thorns. 
Must be content to lie forlorn." 

'* Wherefore do ye spend your money for 
that which is not bread ? and your labor for 
that which satisfieth not ?" Isa. xlv. 20. 


Lemon Creamy or Floating Island, — Beat 
the yolks of twelve e;;gs to the juice of four 
lemons ; make it sweet, and set it over a fur- 
nace or chafing dish of coals ; stir it till it be- 
comes thick ; then pour it into a dish ; whip 
the whites of the eggs to a high froth, and 
serve it on the cream. 

Some of our subscribers have given us no 
notice of their wish to receive the second vo- 
lume, or to stop their subscriptions, so that we 
are in doubt. Not wishing to burthen any with 
our magazine or the postage, we shall cease 
sending it to some of those whose terms ex- 
pired with the first volume, but shall be hap- 
py to commence again if it be their wish. — 
We can always supply back numbers, as the 
work is stereotyped. 



With numerous £ngraving8. 
Edited by Theodore Dwlght» Jr» 

Is pul>hsh6<) weekly, nt the office of the New Toik 
ExpreM, No. 112 Broadway; at 3 centra number,^(19 
pages Inrge octavo,) or, to BU^scribeis recoiviag it by 
mail, aud paying in advance, $1 a year. 

6 setB (or 96. 

Back niuiibers can betepplied. 

Poetmaatcra are aothoriziMl to remit money. 

Enclo9e a One Dollar Bit', without payment of po»> 
tage, and the work will be sent for the year. 

** The information rontained in this woik is woift 
more than ailvec" — N. Y. Obsermr, 

** it should be in every family in the oouolry.*'— 
N. y. Baptist Bseordsr, 

The New York Metho<H8t Advocate speaks of it in 
similar terms. Also iniiny other papers. 

Editors of newspapers publishing this ad- 
vertisement foi 3 months, will be furnished 
with the work for one year. 




5 Eii»nnBTTHK»D(.mBDwiOHt.J«., I f pRtoiSOi 


J Vol. II. New Yori, Sathbdat, May 9, 184B. 

No. 14. 


T/ie Natice Town, of the Wcslei/!. 

/ Wlioever can rcj^.ird ilie WesleySjOr the 

> VVesleyans, wiiho'.it a feeling of rcspcci and 

', bvc, must liav- lived oiil of ilic sphere of 

;. ihi'lr g Micl jiiinciplea and their good works. 

\ He must have been unacquainted "'iih Me- 

( thodis!s, or have knoivn only tho^e ivho 

! either oljs<;urcd ihc grcnl doLtriuts cf iht-ir 

/ E-uuders, or \iolattO them in proclice. If 

} there he nmcng our rojilcra wiio can look 

I with indilTercnce on the simiile hahita'.lon of 

J llie Wesleys, wc ivi:i vir.laic to say, that 

j they cannot have yet tile by side nilh men 

I of their sociv'lv in nn Union S.bhaih-schoul, 

\ at eiigngrd iiiih ihnn in any of the othnr 

^ philantSiropic eiitci prizi'S ut our dtiy. 
) The only go:'d and proper way, perhaps, 

j ia cases in which it is possihlo, lo form a 
decided opinion of ihe mrri's tf any Chrii 

I lian denomination, is not to slop a 
)Ctrines, or U 
' principles, but to me^t 

of ihtir plni 

Ihein in Ihe open field of Christinn labor; 
and, after iiyiiin our Blrengih wiih ihcirs 
for a suffi'^ienL limc, and bringing our zeal 
st!f denial and peisererance into compari- 
son will) llii irs, sii down nnd deliterale hy 
oiirscUta. whether, and in which of our 
firmer li.iva we have become confirmed by 
thul rs[xi:L:;ce, and what correction, hint i 
or new v' wc may derive from their ex- 
ample. IJap[y it is for this country, that 
niany ef i:s UpsI inhahtlanta have been for 
years tngiiged in such cooperation. The 
gucd eflVcIs we may discover on every band, 
evtn if ne are not so happy as (o feel and 
cnjny ihein viihin our own breasts, or lo 
exhibit iheni in our lives. 

Ijnion, Chvistiun union, must be the in. 
scription on the banner of America ; and 
well may wc pray for ihe suceess of those ■ 
who arc endeavoring already to raise that 
banner for the world.— 5«< Vol. I. p. 17. 


« - 1 i 






Molokai is a little island near the centre 
of the Hawaiian group. Twenty years ago 
the inhabitants were all heathen ; and some- 
times murdered their infant children. They 
lived like the brutes. Much of their con. 
duct was too shameful to be described. It 
is only twelve years since a missionary, 
(Mr. Hitchcock,) selted on the island. Be- 
fore that time they had only heard a ser- 
mon occasionally from a passing missionary, 
or on their visits at Maui, a neigboring 
island. Now there are over six hundred 
church members, many of whom appear to 
be truly pious. They have built a strong 
and neat stone meeting-house ; one hundred 
feet by forty-five, with a gallery that will 
contain two hundred persons. The floor is 
the earth made smooth and hard, and is 
covered with strong clean mats. And the 
house is nearly filled with comfortable set- 
tees, which the people have made for them, 
selves. On the Sabbath it is usually filled. 

Some months ago, there was an examina- 
tion of most of the schools on (he island. — 
The day afler the examination, according to 
a notice previously given, the children as- 
sembled, and many of their parents with 
them, to organize a juvenile temperance so- 
ciety. The church was crowded. We 
had seven short addresses, (five of them from 
natives,) and four temperance songs, in 
which many of the children united ; and I 
have seldom heard sweeter music than some 
of these children made. 

The parents know how to make strong 
drink out of the juice of sweet potatoes, 
sugar-cane and various kinds of roots. — 
And although this is now forbidden by 
their laws, yet as many of them were once 
drunkards, perhaps some of them make it 
still secretly, and offer it to their children. 
Moreover, many of them go oflfto Lahaina, 
where many ships come, (sometimes forty 
at once,) chiefly American ; and some of 
thera brings these deadly poisons and try to 
sell thera to the natives. There too they 
find many beer shops. Since the meeting, 
there has been another held in a diflerent 
part of the island ; and now nearly all the 
children and youth from four years old to 
eighteen,— about one thousand, — have joined 
the society. 

More than two hundred of them belong 
to the station school, near our residence, 
which I daily superintend. In the morning 
after reading a portion of the New Testa- 
ment and prayer, those who can read, recite • 
a verse of Scripture. In the afternoon the 

School is opened by singing a hymn, And 
prayer ; and many little ones who cannot 
read, join in singing. And their voices are 
so sweet, and they sing so well, that I am 
often delighted by heanng them, and remind- 
ed of those beautiful words, ** The desert 
shall rejoice," «' even with joy and singing." 
There are also more than four hundred of 
this army who belong to a Sabbath school 
which I superintend. In the morning they 
assemble an hour before public worship ; 
and, afier prayer and singing, they recite 
the verses and hymns learned through the 
week, and hearr the Scripture, which they 
have recited, explained to them ; then, after 
a short recess, they go to church, where 
they again unite in singing the songs of 
Z\on,-'LeUer from P. J. Gulick in the 
Day spring, 

" Most of those who attend the school," 
says Mr. Hitchcock, *< have during the past 
year, been in the habit of contributing, for 
benevolent pursoses, one stick of wood each 
fer month. And I can assu/e you it is no 
uninteresting sight to see men, women, and 
sometimes children, bringing their humble 
ofl^efings on their shoulders from the dis- 
tance of one, two or more miles. The 
men go into the mountains, and get the 
sticks, both for themselves and their wives; 
but the latter bring and present their own. 
Though the people are superlatively poor, 
yet their contributions for one year in this 
way will amount to not far from twenty 
dollars." ^ 

Th£ Circumvlar.^This is the name of a 
new machine tor cuttinp^ down trees, &c. It 
caa be fixed, it is said, m a minute and a hal^ 
and will cut through a tree at the rate of 
three inches per minute, without causing the 
waste the woodman makes with his axe, 
leaving a groove of only one and a half inches 
around the tree. It is applicable for other 
purposes, such as the cutting of stone or iron, 
for cutting iron piping any size, or in any po- 
sition, likewise lor turning the mouldings of 

A boy about twelve years of age, met with 
a singular, and probably fatal accident, on Bos- 
ton Common on Wednesday last. He was 
playing with a bow and arrows, and having 
shot an arrow, with a heavy steel barb, per- 

Eendicularly in the air, it descended and hit 
im upon the head with such force that it 
penetrated his cap and sunk deeply into his 
scull. The arrow was drawn out by the 
force da lever, and the little fellow is so 
badly injured that he is not expected to re- 
cover. — Boston paper* 








From th« Ciftcinnati DcUly Gazdld 

What could be more sirange, than thai in 
a little jauQt into the interior of our Slate, I 
should have encountered a person who, twen- 
ty-nine years ago, threaded the same tho- 
roughfare, then luile more than a dim waggon 
track, on horsebaclc, bound for Mississippi, 
where he has lived ever since, ihis bcins: the 
first time he has re-traced his steps to Penn- 
sylvania — the Stale frdm which, the same 
year and the same season of ihe year, I my- 
self came to Ohio, though by a different chan- 

In 1816, tlie person to whom I allude, 
passed directly through the southern part of 
the State, on horseback, from VVheelrn^ 
—threading intermediate forests, laboring 
through extensive morasses, and meeting 
only here and there, at such spots as Zanes- 
ville and Chiliicothe, with anything beyond 
the wilderness and its natural inhabitants, the 
prairies and their wild rovers — with occa- 
sional farms in a ruile* state ot cultivation, 
*« deadenings^' here and there that diversified 
the landscape, in the midst or on their edges 
smoke curlmg aloft from the cabin of ihe 
settler, or the wagon-camp of the emigrant. 
Only twenty-nine years had passed, but^the 
heavy forests had disappeared, the waj^on- 
track had been changed to a Macadamized 
road, huts and hamlets had given place to 
flourishing towns, the little villages of that 
day were ihe enterprising young cities of this, 
and what was then the naked prairie and the 
dense wilderness, were now some of the gar- 
den spots of a great Slate. - The feelings of 
my new acquaintance were quite overwhelm- 
ing, and he would remain for half an hour at 
a time, gazing out of the CL*ach upon the 
highly cultivated region through which we 
were passing, without uttering a word. 

Hillsborough is a beautiful place — beauti- 
fully located, and elegantly built up, number- 
ing at this time only about 1,000 inhabitants. 
It is, however, the seat of elegance and 
refinement, and is destined to be that of 
learning. It has a fine Female Academy in 
it, pupils being sent from Cincinnati and 
places still more distant ; and a handsome 
large brick building for a Male Ili^h School, 
which numbers nearly one hundred students. 

The ride from Hillsborough to ChiU'cothe, 
is in great part over the bottom lands of Paint 
creek, famous for their great corn, and mem- 
orable for their Indian IVfounds and other ves- 
tiges of a long-lost race. 

The Old Metropolis impresses me most 
favorably. It has a population of about 6,000 
persons, and has some marks of taste beyond 
any, but one or two interior towns, in the 
State. The building used for the sittings of 
the Courts is the old State House, in which 
oar State Constitution was adopted, and our 
earlier laws enacted. It is a very substantial 
building, as was the race by whom it was put 

up, — that of the Pioneers, — and if lei alone 
will^nuch outstand the last survivor of them. 

Several of the principal towns on the Mia- 
mi canal are rejoicing in their "hydraulie 
works.*' — Chill icoihe can also boast of hers. 
Not far from these is, perhaps, the largest 
and best slaughter-house in the United States, 
not even excepting those of Porkopolis; and 
**a murderous bloody business'* is to be car- , 
ried on within its walls the coming: season, 
among the swinish multitudes of the Scioto 

Chiliicothe is very beautifully situated, 
within an amphitheatre of hills hardly second 
to (hose of the Queen City, ^nd there is so 
fine a rural taste among its inhabitants, that, 
standing on one of These eminences, the 
houses of the town can barely be seen 
through the tops of the numerous trees thai 
rise from the streets and the yards. Entire 
squares, and a good many of them, are paved 
with admirable sandstone from the s>urround- 
ing hills, quarried in large blocks and squared. 
But when I asked for her library, it had fail- 
ed, and the books been suffered to go to auc- 
tion ; — her historical society, it had died of 
syncope ;— her literary associations, her read- 
ing room, her higher inslituiions of learning, 
they were not to be found. 

The extent of fine farms, however, — 500, 
800, and 1000 acres in a single one, — is the 
greatest check to the growth of the town that 
oould be imposed upon it. 

I find this region rich, even beyond expec- 
tation, in remains of the lost race of Abori- 
gines. Within a circle extending not more 
than six miles around Chiliicothe, these re- 
mains can be counted by hundreds. Some 
of the ** fortifications " or " walled towns " 
are of great extent, containing as many as ten 
to fifteen large mounds within a single enclo- 
sure. A number have recently been surveyed 
and plotted by two or three public-spirited 
gentlemen here, whose names will be honor- 
ably mentioned hereafter in connection with 
the Antiquities of the West. The same gen- 
tlemen have also opened some of the most re- 
markable of the mounds, and been rewarded 
for their labor by procuring large numbers of 
antiquities, several of them rarer than any I 
have heretofore seen. The most singular of 
them are made of a very hard and heary 
stone, such as is not found anywhere in this 
region, nor in the Mississippi valley, so far as 
I am informed, and wroughi into mathemati- 
cal forms ot exquisite finish, with an art now 
lost. Some of these have been found at the 
bottoms of the mounds, on the line of the sur- 
face of the adjacent plain, encased in copper^ 
mingled in with skeletons, some of which 
bear upon their sculls the marks of sanguin* 
ary conflict. 

I have little doubt, from the recent discove- 
ries, that this immediate region is richer in 
Indian Antiquities than any that has yet been 
explored. Some of the remains to which I 
have referred, are beautifully carved, and 
others have doubtless been used as imple- 






menis of manufacture. The indications are 
Mrong, lUut tlie present inhabitants of this 
cenual part of the b'ciolo Vajley. 

*' Are but a hand/ul lo the tribes that sleep 
Beneath its surface/' 



The Arum THrsE, No. 20. Symplocarpus 
fcBi'idus — Skunk Cabhage. Place, America. 
Qucliiy. FcBiid. Power. Nervine, acrid. 
Use, Drowsy, spasms, rheumatism. 

Botanical Analysis. — Natural Order, — 
Aracese. Aroidea!. — J. Piperitae. — L. — 
Cla$s IV. Telrandria. Order — Monogynia. 

Natural History of the Skunk Cabbage, 

SyaiPLocAKPUs Fcetcdus is a common plant, 
^owioj^ in swamps, meadows and ditches, 
renowned for its odor, which is scarcely less 
offensive than that of the animal whose name 
it bears. It is remarkably volatile, and cannot 
be retained by any menstruum. The plant is 
exclusively a native of Norili America, and 
delights in shade. It seldom appears sporad- 
ically, and where found at all, it is generally 
in abundance. An extremely humid and rich 
soil appears necessary to its luxuriant growth. 

The plant is subaquatie, flowering and 
leafing from the roji, which consists of a 
vast number of rerticillate cylindrical thick 
fibres, many of which are near a fourth of 
an inch in diameter. They diverge from 
their point of cincture, and penetrate the 
earth or mire to the de()th of two feel, and 
someiiiues more. The fibres are whitish, co- 
lored with brownish-red rings. 

The flowers appear hefure the leaves, or at 
least when these make their appearance they 
are closely convoluted. The. leaves are pre- 
ceded by colored sheathing stipules, and' about 
the end of April, or beginning of May, are 
fully developed, when they are very large. 
They are commonly twelve, fifteen and eigh- 
teen inches long, and nine or ten broad ; they 
are tomeiimes seen in favorable situations, 
more than two feet long, and twelve inches 
broad. They are oblong, ovate, heart-shaped, 
at the base smooth, strongly veined, and 
have a large succulent middle rib projecting 

The flowers are concealed in a singular, 
spongy, ovoid spa^e, acuminated and depress- 
ed, ooliquely at the apex, and auriculaied at 
the base. These spaibes have the appear- 
ance, and are not unaptly compared to some 
kinds of shells. Upon opening them the 
flowers are found situated upon a globose pe- 
di^culated spadix. They are destitute of 
petals, have a four-parted calyx divided at the 
base. Segments hooded, flattened and notch- 
ed at the apex. There are four stamens situ- 
ated opposite to the divisions of the calyx, 
having flat, awl-shaped filaments, with short 
oblong anthers. The style is thick, and four- 
^ kided, stigma shorter than the stamens. The 

seeds are numerous, large, naked, irregularly 
roundish, and speckled with purple and yel- 
low ; they are immersed in a large spongy 
receptacle near to the surface. 

Chemical and Medical Properties. 

Every part of this curious plant, even the 
seeds, is strongly imbued with the peculiar 
alliaceous odor, which has given rise to the 
vulgar name expressive of the obnoxiousness 
of the plant. The odor emanating from the 
broken spaihe and the bruised seeds re- 
sembles the smell of asafcetida. The leaves 
have, perhaps, a more disagreeable smell 
than any other part of the plant. Their 
odor has been compared to that thrown off 
by tne skunk, or pole-cat, and like that, it 
may be perceived at a considerable distance. 

The smell from the spathe and flowers is 
punsrent and very subtle. The pungency is 
probably concentrated and increased by being 
shut up and confined in a close room ; but in 
the open air has certainly no pernicious effect, 
and the ridiculous tales of its deadly inflaence 
have no foundation. 

Various experiments seem to show that 
this plant contains a volatile acid principle, 
readily dissipated by heat, a resinous sub- 
stance, and a gummy or mucous principle.— 
The seeds contain a considerable quantity of 
fixed oil. The root as well as every part of 
the plant possesses very powerful antispas- 
modic powers, similar to those of asafoetida, 
and other foetid gums. It has been highly 
recommended as a palliative in spasmodic 
asthma, and it is reputed to have effected 
very considerable relief, when other means 
had failed. Thirty or forty grains of the 
cried pulverized roots are recommended to be 
given during the paroxysm, and repeated as 
often as circumstances may require. After 
the fit has gone off it is necessary to perse- 
vere in the use of the medicine ; its continu- 
ance is recommended till the patient is entire- 
ly cured. The practice is said to be imitated 
from that of some of the Indians (who call 
this plant shoka) in their treatment of this 

Two tea-spoonfuls of the powdered root of 
this plant, given in spirits and water, have 
procured immediate relief in cases of violent 
hysteria, alter the ordinary remedies for such 
affections, musk, and other antispasmodics 
had been inetlectually tried. On repeating 
the use of the medicine, it afforded more last- 
ing relief than any other remedy had giren. 
It has also afforded very considerale benefit in 
chronic rheumatism, in wandering spasmodic 
pains, and in hooping-cough, in chronic 
coughs of patients having a cold and phleg- 
matic habit. 

The bruised leaves are frequently applied 
to ulcers and recent wounds, with very good 
effect. They are also used as an external ap- 
plication in cutaneous affections, and the ex- 
pressed juice of the leaves is successfully ap- 
plied to different species of herpes. Among 
the people in the country the leaves are com* 









mooly used to dress blisters, with the view 
of promoting their discharge ; for this purpose 
they are slightly bruised, by being laid on a 
Dal board, and having a rolling-pin passed a 
lew times over them to reduce the projecting 
middle rib, nerves and vems, so as to enable 
every part of the leaf to come in contact with 
the surface of the blister. This plant is also 
strongly recommended in scurvey, as well as 
in all other diseases of the skin, m which the 
officinal wake-rubin has been very highly ex- 
tolled, and found useful. 

As the active proporiies depend on a vola* 
tile principle, it is better to preserve it in well 
stopped bottles, cut up in slices, ready to pul* 
venze when wanted. It is given in pills, or 
mixed with syrup, in doses of ten to forty 
grains, two or three times a day. Heat 
greatly impairs its virtues. — Selected, 


Extracts from the Report of Mr, Schoolcraft 
to the Legislature of Meu> York, Oct, 31, 


A tropical climate, ample means of sub- 
sistence, and their consequence, a concentrated 
and flxed population, raised the ancient in- 
habitants of Mexico, and some other leading 
nations on the continent, to a state of ease 
and semi-civilization, which have commanded 
the surprise and admiration of historians. — 
But it may be said, in truth, that, in their fine 
physical type, and in their energy of charac- 
ter, and love of independence, no people, 
among the aboriginal race, has ever exceeded, 
any has ever equalled, the Iroquois. 

Notes and sketches were taken down from 
the lips of both white and red men, wherever 
the matter itself and the trustworthiness of 
the individual appeared to justify them. Many 
of the ancient forts, barrows and general pla- 
ces of ancient sepulchre were visited, and of 
some of them, accurate plans, diagrams or 
sketches made on the spot, or obtained 
from other hands. A general interest was 
manifested in the subject by the citizens of 
western New- York, wherever it was intro- 
duced, and a most ready and obliging dispo- 
sition evinced, on all hands, to promote the 

The present being the first time that a for- 
mal and full census of a nation or tribe of 
Indians has been called for, the measure pre- 
sented a novel question to the Iroquois, and 
led to extended discussions. 

They regarded it as the introduction of a 
Saxon feature into their institutions, which 
like a lever, by some process not apparent to 
them, was designed, in its ultimate efiects, to 
uplift and overturn them. And no small de- 
l^ree of pith and irony was put forth against 
It by the eloquent respondents who st(x>d in 
the official attitude of their ancient orators. — 
Everywhere the tribes exalted the question 
into one of national moment. Grave and 
dignified sachems assembled in formal coun- 

oils, and indulged in long and fluent harangues 
to their people. 

" Why," said the Tonewanda chief, Deooe- 
hogawa, (called John Blacksmith,) ** why is 
this census asked for, when we are in a 
straitened position with respect to our reser- 
vation ? Or ii it is important to you or us, 
why was it not called for before ? If you do 
not wish HO obtain facts about our lands and 
cattle, to tax us, what is the object of the 
census ? What is to be done with the infor- 
mation after you take it to Governor Wright, 
at Skenectati ?" 

Kaweaka, a Tuscarora chief of intelligence, 
speaking the English language very well, in 
which he, is called William Mount-Pleasant, 
gave a proof in yielding promptly that he had 
not failed to profit by the use of letters. — 
«* We know our own rights. Should the 
legislature attempt to tax us, our protection 
is in the Constitution of the United States, 
which forbids it.*' This is the first appeal, it 
is thought, ever made by an Iroquois to this 

It cannot be said that the Iroquois cantons 
of New- York have, as yet, any productive 
commerce, arts or manufactures. But it is 
gratifying to know that they are at least able 
to live upon their own means; and their 
condition and improvement is (certainly within 
the era of the temperance movement among 
them,) decidedly progressive and encouraging. 
They have reached the point in industrial 
progress, where it is onl]^ necessary to go 
forward. Numbers of families are eminently 
entitled to the epithet of |;ood practical far- 
mers, and are living, year in and year out, in 
the midst of agricultural afliuence. There 
would appear to be no inaptitude for mechan- 
ical ingenuity, hitherto: the proportion of 
their actual number who have embraced the 
arts, is comparatively, very limited, not ex- 
ceeding, at most, two or three to a tribe, and 
the efibrt has hitherto been confined to silver- 
smiths, blacksmiths, carpenters and coopers. 
A single instance of a wheelwright and fancy 
wagon maker occurs. 

In cases where the cultivation of English 
ffrains and the raising of stock have thorough- 
ly enlisted attention, the chase has long ceas- 
ed to attract its ancient votaries, and in these 
instances, which embrace some entire bands, 
or chieftaincies, it has become precisely what 
it is in civilized communities, where game 
yet exists, an amusement, and not a means of 

That delusive means of Indian subsistence 
which is based on the receipt of money an- 
nuities from the government, still calls togetli- 
er annuallv, and sometimes oftvner, the col- 
lective male population of these tribes, at an 
expense of time, and means, which is wholly 
dispro portioned, both to the amount actually 
received, and the not unimportant incidenul 
risks, moral and physical, incurred by the 
assemblage. Estimated at the highest rate 
which can be taken, the sum, per capita, of . 
these annuities, will not on an average of s 




crops and prices, for a series of years, equal 
the eadh value of seven bushels of wheat — a 
product, which, as a meanif of subsistence to 
the Indian family, would be ot double or tre- 
ble value. But this is far Jrom bein;^ the 
worst effect of both the general and per capi- 
ta cash distribution. Time and health are not 
oaly sacrificed to obtain the pittance, but he 
is fortunate who does not expend the amount 
in the outward or return journey from the 
council house, or in the purchase of some 
showy but valueless articles while attending 

A still further evil. Hewing from these an- 
nual gatherings for the payment of Indian an- 
noities, is the stimulus which it produces in 
assembling at such places traders and specu- 
lating dealers of various kinds, who are 
versed in this species of tmffic, and who well 
know the weak points of the native character, 
and how best to profit by them. In eifect, 
lew of the annuitants reach their homes with 
a dime. Most of them have expended all, 
and lost their time in addition. Health is not 
ttofregoently sacriliced by living on articles, 
or in a manner not customary at home. The 
iateroperate are confirmed in intemperance; 
and the' idle, foppish an I gay, are only 
more enamoured of idleness, foppishness and 
pleasure. Perhaps nothing would better 
serve to advance and exalt them, as a people, 
than the application of these annuities to 
constitute a confederate school fund, under 
some compact or arrangement with the State, 
by which the latter should stipulate to extend 
the frame-work of the common school system 
over their reservations. 

The condition of herdsmen is deemed by 
theorists and historians to be the Hrst step in 
the progress from the hunter state. But we 
are m want of a/1 evidence to show that there 
ever was, in America, a pastoral state. In 
the first place, the tribes had tamed no quad- 
ruped, even in the tropics, but the lama. — 
The bison was never under any subjection, 
nor a fleece ever gathered, as iar as history 
tells us, from the Big-horn or Rocky Moun- 
tain theep. The horse, the domestic cow, 
the hog and ihe common sheep, were brought 
over after the discovery ; and the Iroquois, 
like most of their western brethren, have 
been very slow, all advantages considered, in 
raising them. They have, in fact, had no 
pastoral state, and they have only become 
herdsmen at the time that they took hold of 
the plough. The number of domestic ani- 
mals now on their reservations, as shown by 
the tablet, bears a full proportion to their 
other industrial fields of labor. It will be 
seen, that while horses, neat cattle and hogs 
are generally raised, sheep come in, at more 
mature periods of advance, and are found 
only on the largest and best cultivated farms. 
Sheep, trees, and cereales, become a test of 
their advance. With this stage, we general- 
ly find, too, the field esculents, as turnips, 
peas, &C., and also buckwheat. I have indi- 
cated, as a further proof of their advance as 
herdsmen and graziers, the number of acres 

of meadow cut. The Iroquois cultivate no 
flax. They probably raise no rye, from the 
fact that their lands are better adapted to 
wheat and corn. 

The potato was certainly indigenous. Sir 
^ alter Raleigh, in his efforts at colonization, 
had it brought from Virginia, under the ori- 
ginal name of openawg. But none of the 
North American tribes are known to have 
cultivated it. They dug it up, like other in- 
genous edible roots from the forest. But it 
has lon§ been introduced into their villages 
and spread over the nortliem latitudes, far 
be* ond the present limit of the zea maize.— 
lis cultivation is so easy and so similar to 
that of their favorite corn, and its yield so 
j^reat, that it is remarkable it should not 
have received more general attention from all 
the tribes. In most cases, it is a mere item 
of horticulture, most families not planting 
over half an acre, often not more than a quar- 
ter of an acre, and yet more frequently none 
at ail. 

The apple is the Iroquois banana. From 
the earliest introduction ot this fruit into 
New York and New France, from the genial 
plains of Holland and Normandy, these tribes 
appear to have been captivated by its taste, 
and they lost no lime m transferring it, by 
sowing the seed, to the sites of their ancient 

The first effort of the Iroquois to advance 
from their original corn-field and garden of 
beans and vines, is connected with the letting 
out of their spare lands to white men who 
were cast on their frontiers, to cultivate, re- 
ceiving for it some low remuneration in kind 
or otherwise, bv way of rent. These receipts, 
1 was informed, low as they are in amount, 
are generally paid in kind, or in such manner 
as often to diminish their value and effect, in 
contributing to the proper sustenance of the 

Not a few persons amongst the Onondagas 
and Turcaroras, and the Tonewandas and 
other bands of Senecas, living in or contigu- 
ous to the principal wheat-growing counties, 
labor during the harvest season as reapers and 
cradlers, with skill and ability in those occu- 
pations, and receive good wages in cash. — 
There are a few engaged some parts of the 
year, as mariners on the lakes. 

To be continued. 

CoNESTooA Steam Mill. — The Lancaster, 
(Pa.) Examiner says, the efforts which have 
for some time been making for the formation 
of a company to erect a large Steam Cottoa 
Factory in that city have succeeded, and ope- 
rations will be immediately commenced. 
Over 9100,000 have already been subscribed, 
and there is no doubt that as jnuch more as 
may be found requisite can readily be obtain- 
ed. It is proposed »o erect a building 200 by 
60 feet, of sufficient capacity for 8000 spin- 
dles and 200 looms, and to afford employment 
for about 300 operatives. 



We namralljr feel a peculiar interest in 
English scenery, all of us ; and it is propcT 
tliat we should : for England is the native 
couniry of ihe anceaiors ul mtist of u$, and 
the land which lias produced many of ihe 
best books and men in the world. England 
has also long been engaged in susialDing 
iome of ihe principles nioai valuolile In man; 
and is still more sirnngly connected wiih us 
by ideniiiy or interests, ihnn by identity of 
Innguage and of blood. 

Wiih Eaglisli liicraiuie many of ui are 
belter acquainted than most Engishmen ; aiid 
we feel, (those of us at leasi who are the 
deepest read in the beat religious authors,) 
ihat we owe them much ol wliai we enjoy. 
The rural poets of Great Uriiaiii have had 
much to do in culiivaiing our taste; and the 
peculiar features of ibe scenery in which 
they deligbted are stamped on our Imagina- 
tion, in company wiib many agreeable asso- 
ciations. The castles end Gothic style, ol 
which, in certain connections, we have more once spoken iu a mure disparaging iiian- 
ner than fashion may approve, form indis- 
pensable pans in English landscape;, and 
there have a proper and a valuable character. 
We have disapproved of tlie false views of 
past and present limes to which many lo- 
mance-wriiers have made tbcm sabservieni; 


and we seriously bvlieve, that the Golbic { 

style of arcliilccliirc is not only inconsisienl ) 

with our habiia, convenience and ioierest, i 

but founded on false ]'rinciples o( taste. ( 

opposed to ihe ground-work of our religious ^ 

Among the many allusions to the remains 
of feudal edifices made l.y B>iti»li poeta^nooe 
lias introduced the subject in a pas»ing maa. 
Iter, with more pleasing efTect than Miliou, \ 
in L'Allegro," or the Cheerful Man. 

"Siraitniine.eye has caught new pleasure*. 
As the landscape round it measures ; 
BusscI lawns nnd fallows gray. 
Where l!ic nibbling flocks do stray ; 
Mounia'ns, on whose barren breasl 
The Inb'ring clouds do oHen rest. 
Meadows trim with daisies pied, 
Shallow brooss and rivers wide. 
Towers and balilemeniB it seea, 
BoEom'd higli iti lufled trees. 
Where perhaps some beauty lies. 
The cynosure of neighborins eyes. 

Hard by a cottnge chimney smokes, 
F'ora bcnenlU two aged oaks. 
Where Corydf^n and Thyrsis met 
Are at iheir sav'ry dinner Ret, 
Of herbs and other country messr*, 
Which the neal-banded Phyllis dresses." 



Such there are, and ihey are capable of 
' being ^reat nuisances : but there are all 
' grades of i^orance, and all de^ees of 
. koowledge too, except ihe highest. None 
) of OS know everything ; indeed, few of ua 
( knov much — very few of us — very few in- 
i de«d. We have had much to do with 
/ schools and school teachers, and would by 
) DO means wish to see poor ones. But the 
( intellectual part may be greatly over-rated, 
/ and both the physical and the moral part 
'• of education are often placed far below 
( their proper rank. Manners, as welb as 
( much knowledge, are important in a teach- 
( er: bat good morals and good principles 
j ire incomparably more so — in our opin- 

' One of iho most important acquisitions to 

> millions of parents in our country to-day is, 

> to be able to distinguish between good and 
J bad tenchera. Shall we ever attain that 
! ability ? It would bo more valuable to 

(h<ac who have the opportunity lo sccute i 
their services for tlieir children, than the u 
of the. divinitig rod, even if that could liis. J 
cover a mine of gold every week. Th 
is nothing earthly so highly to bo pri: 
as our children : but how often do we lind i 
their best interests injured by the neglrct, 
incompftency, evil instructions or bad ex- 
amples of those to whoso care we have 
committed them ! But how can we judge 
of all the qualifications of a teacher, until ' 
we become learned ourselves? And how i 
can we, if possessed of much knowlrdgc, 
so far undervalue it as not to feel the impor- 
tance, duty and pleasure of becoming lo a [ 
degree, at least, the instructors of our chil- \ 

The above caricature represents one of . 
the poorest kind of school-masters ever pro- ' 
duced in our country, at least in intellec- | 
tual qualifications and reljoement of man- ' 
ners. Want of polish is written on his i 





countenance as well as in his atiitude ; while 
a low standard of discipliney and state of 
society are indic:;tcd by the rod under his 
right arm, which he seems to cherish as his 
main dependance in enforcing discipline. — 
A single glance is sufficient to convince us, 
that such a man has been accustomed to a 
state of society of a very rude kind, and 
has most erroneous views of the nature and 
means of education. Yet we may rest as- 
sured of one thing, if he be an American 
school-master, however deficient or erro- 
neous his views or practices in other re- 
spects, he has not a doubt of the truth of 
the Word of God, its paramount authority 
over the consciences of men, that its grand 
dictates are intelligible by every mind, that 
its instructions and its directions are, by 
unalienable right, the property of every 
person on earth, man, woman and child. — 
He has no doubt of the value of knowledge ; 
and what little he possesses he estimates 
highly, and is willing to communicate. — 
Indeed one great difficulty with him is, 
that he over-estimates it, and makes him- 
self sometimes ridiculous by displaying it 
too much or too often. 

But, if we may judge from his counte- 
nance, he is neither a fool nor a knave. 
On the contrary, we should expect to find 
him honest and kind-hearted ; and if we 
could follow him home, and look at him 
in domestic life, we might be almost sure to 
find evidences of a character to be respect- 
ed, and perhaps admired* We speak from 
some observation, and knowledge of school- 
masters and mistresses too, and we can as- 
sure our readers that experience has taught 
us that it is a duty to look with much in- 
terest upon all who assume that important 

<< All is not gold that glitters" 

is not more true than the proverb which 
applies to characters of an opposite descrip- 
tion : 

*» Sweetest nut has sourest rind." 

We have many ** poor school-masters,'' 
that is incompetent ones : but yet they are 
better than most other countries can boast 

of. If France had been as well supplied, 
M. Guizot would not have been forced to 
abandon his grand system of popular educa-